Chelyabinsk Airport is an airport in Russia located 18 km north of Chelyabinsk. It can park up to 51 aircraft, it serves as a secondary hub for Ural Airlines and Yamal Airlines. Passenger flights to Chelyabinsk were served by Chelyabinsk Shagol Airport from 1938 and until it was repurposed for military only use; the current Chelyabinsk airport called Balandino Airport, was opened in late 1953 with a passenger terminal and a dirt runway. The runway was paved in December 1962. A year the first jet plane arrived to the airport. A new terminal was built in 1974 which remains in service to this day as one of the terminal buildings. In 1994, the government-owned airport was started its first international flights. Passenger traffic reached 1.1 million and declined during the 1990s. In 2013, the airport handled 1.2 million passengers. The new, longer runway was built in 1999; the airport is accepting heavy aircraft including Boeing 747 and An-225. The construction of the new passenger terminal is planned at Chelyabinsk Airport, this is done for BRICS summit in 2020.
The project includes the construction of the new terminal, where it will commence in summer 2018 and finish by December 2019. The complex will be able to handle 2,5 million passengers per annum; the next plans for the airport is to take the third category of ICAO. This category in Russia is owned only by Moscow's Domodedovo and Sheremetyevo Airports and Pulkovo Airport in Saint Petersburg. On January 26, 2008, an S7 Airlines Airbus A319 landed on the taxiway by mistake. There were damage. On May 26, 2008 an Antonov An-12 operated by Moskovia Airlines crashed shortly after takeoff when trying an emergency landing. All nine crew members on board died. On 17 July 2015, a An-12BK of the Russian Air Force registered RF-94291 diverted to Chelyabinsk Airport after flying into severe thunderstorm and hail. Three out of four engines failed; the aircraft sustained substantial damage. There were no injuries. An NDB beacon transmits on 412 kHz. Chelyabinsk Shagol Airport List of the busiest airports in Russia List of the busiest airports in the former USSR Official website with photos Airport information for USCC at World Aero Data.
Data current as of October 2006
Vnukovo International Airport
Vnukovo International Airport, is a dual-runway international airport located 28 kilometres southwest of the centre of Moscow, Russia. It is one of the four major airports that serve Moscow, along with Moscow Domodedovo Airport, Sheremetyevo International Airport, Zhukovsky International Airport. In 2015, the airport handled 15.82 million passengers, representing an increase of 24% compared to the previous year. It is the third-busiest airport in Russia. Vnukovo is Moscow's oldest operating airport, it was opened and used for military operations during the Second World War, but became a civilian facility after the war. Its construction was approved by the Soviet government in 1937, because the older Khodynka Aerodrome was becoming overloaded. Vnukovo was opened on 1 July 1941. During the Great Patriotic War, it was used as a military airbase. On 15 September 1956, the Tupolev Tu-104 jetliner made its first passenger flight from Moscow Vnukovo to Irkutsk via Omsk. On 4 November 1957, a plane carrying Romanian Workers' Party officials, including the most prominent politicians of Communist Romania, was involved in an accident at Vnukovo Airport.
Preoteasa, Minister of Foreign Affairs at the time, was killed, as was the aircraft's crew. Several others were injured; the first passenger flights of the IL-18 and Tu-114 were made from Vnukovo Airport. In 1980, Vnukovo was expanded because of the 22nd Summer Olympic Games. In 1993, Vnukovo Airport became a joint-stock company. A massive reconstruction and strategic development programme commenced at Vnukovo International in late 2003, following the transfer by the Federal Government of the controlling stake in the airport to the Government of Moscow; as part of the Airport Strategic Development Plan, the following projects were completed between 2003 and 2005: April 2004: New Terminal B was opened. The terminal handles international passengers, but in the future, it will be converted to handle domestic flights or to fulfill any other dedicated functions to be determined at a date. The terminal's total floor space offering stands at 80,000 square meters, allowing for an annual passenger throughput capacity of four million.
August 2005: Vnukovo's Aeroexpress rail link to Kiyevsky Rail Terminal was opened. December 2010: New Terminal A was opened. Summer 2016: all flights served by Terminal B transferred into Terminal A, Terminal B is closed. Vnukovo is Europe's busiest airport for international flights by larger private planes. Of the three Moscow airports, Vnukovo is the highest. Hence, in case of fog, it has served as an alternative airport; the airfield has 3,060 metres in length. Each runway is 60 metres wide, with 10 metres wide safety shoulders on each side; the joint runway capacity is 60 aircraft movements per hour. Runway 24 is used for departures, while Runway 01 for landings; the airport has two passenger terminals, one general aviation terminal, one cargo terminal, 60 aircraft stands. The airport can handle a maximum of 10,100 passengers per hour, 4,000 people are employed there. In 2013, the airport handled 11.18 million passengers, representing a 15.3% increase compared to 2012. In February 2014 the airport handled 722,500 passengers, an increase of 23.8% compared to February 2013 attributed to expansion by Utair.
Vnukovo Airport is equipped with a VIP hall, used by many political leaders and important people visiting Russia. The Russian President uses Vnukovo's VIP facility; the Tupolev airliner rework facility is located at the edge of the airport, major overhaul and modification programmes are carried out in several large aircraft hangars. On the northern perimeter of the airport, the government VIP transport wing is located, operating head-of-state flights for high-ranking government officials. Thus, the airport is closed for regular flights when VIP flights arrive or depart; the prospective development programme is intended to last until the year 2015, is aimed at transforming Vnukovo International into a competitive air transportation hub of international significance – one that would offer a comprehensive range of quality services to both its passengers and its tenant carriers. A new international passenger Terminal A will have a total floor space of 250,000 square metres and passenger throughput capacity of 7,800 passengers per hour, making a total capacity of 18–20 million passengers annually.
This will open up a plethora of opportunities for the tenant airlines to expand and radically improve the quality of their customer service at the airport, ensure the introduction of international-quality service and comfort overall. The sprawling terminal building will be located on the site of the existing domestic passenger terminal, will serve as a springboard for the subsequent development of the entire adjacent landside area both next to the terminal and further out towards Vnukovo Settlement; the oldest of the Vnukovo passenger terminals, dating back to 1941, will be demolished by the time construction of the new one goes ahead. The existing Domestic Terminal 2, built in the late 1970s, will continue in operation until its eventual dem
The Antonov An-72 is a Soviet/Ukrainian transport aircraft, developed by Antonov. It was designed as an STOL transport and intended as a replacement for the Antonov An-26, but variants have found success as commercial freighters; the An-72 and the related An-74 get their nickname, from the large engine intake ducts, which resemble the oversized ears of the popular Soviet animated character of the same name. The An-72 first flew in December 1977. Produced in tandem with the An-72, the An-74 variant adds the ability to operate in harsh weather conditions in polar regions, because it can be fitted with wheel-skis landing gear, de-icing equipment and a number of other upgrades, allowing the aircraft to support operations in Arctic or Antarctic environments. Other An-72 versions include the An-72S VIP An-72P maritime patrol aircraft. An unusual design feature of the An-72 is the use of the Coandă effect to improve STOL performance, utilizing engine exhaust gases blown over the wing's upper surface to boost lift.
The first flight was made on 31 August 1977. The powerplant used is the Lotarev D-36 turbofan engine; the An-72 bears a resemblance to the Boeing YC-14, a prototype design from the early 1970s which had used overwing engines and the Coandă effect. The rear fuselage of the aircraft has a hinged loading ramp with a rear fairing that slides backwards and up to clear the opening. Up to 7.5 tons can be airdropped. Russian Aerospace Forces and Navy are upgrading six An-72 aircraft for Arctic operations; the An-72 has STOL capabilities: its takeoff roll is 620 metres and its landing run is 420 metres. This aircraft was designed to be used on unprepared surfaces: its robust undercarriage and high-flotation tyres allow operations on sand, grass, or other unpaved surfaces. In January 1997 and 1998, the Paris-Dakar rally was assisted by two An-72 aircraft. In 1999, a total of four aircraft of this type joined the rally. An-72 "Coaler-A": Preproduction aircraft. Two flying prototypes, one static test airframe and eight preproduction machines.
An-72A "Coaler-C": Initial production STOL transport with a longer fuselage and increased wingspan. An-72AT – "Coaler-C": Freight version of the An-72A compatible with standard international shipping containers. An-72S – "Coaler-C": Executive VIP transport fitted with a galley in a front cabin and rest areas in a central cabin, 24 armchairs in a rear cabin, can be reconfigured for transporting freight or 38 passengers or as an air ambulance carrying eight stretchers. An-72P: Patrol aircraft. Armed with one 23 rockets. An-74: Arctic/Antarctic support model with room for five crew, increased fuel capacity, larger radar in bulged nose radome, improved navigation equipment, better de-icing equipment, can be fitted with wheel-skis landing gear. In August 2006, a total of 51 An-72 and Antonov An-74 aircraft were in airline service. Major operators include Badr Airlines, Shar Ink; some 17 other airlines operate smaller numbers of the type. SudanBadr Airlines Green Flag Airlines UkraineMotor Sich Airlines Antonov Airlines Equatorial GuineaMilitary of Equatorial Guinea: Two RussiaRussian Air Force: 39 UkraineUkrainian Air Force: 26 National Guard of Ukraine: Two AngolaNational Air Force of Angola ArmeniaArmenian Air Force GeorgiaGeorgian Air Force KazakhstanMilitary of Kazakhstan - one LibyaLibyan Air Force MoldovaMoldovan Air Force: Two PeruPeruvian Air Force – two Soviet UnionSoviet Air Force On 22 December 1997, ER-ACF, an Antonov An-72 disappeared on a cargo flight from Port Bouet Airport, Côte d'Ivoire to Rundu Airport, Namibia.
The aircraft and its five crew members disappeared without a trace over the South Atlantic. The cause of the incident remains undetermined. On 25 December 2012, an An-72 carrying Kazakhstani border patrol officials crashed in Shymkent, killing all 27 people on board. Data from The Osprey Encyclopaedia of Russian Aircraft 1875–1995General characteristics Crew: five Capacity: up to 52 passengers or 10 tonnes of cargo Length: 28.07 m Wingspan: 31.89 m Height: 8.65 m Wing area: 98.62 m2 Empty weight: 19,050 kg Gross weight: 34,500 kg Performance Maximum speed: 700 km/h Range: 4,325 km Related development Antonov An-71 Antonov An-74Aircraft of comparable role and era Boeing YC-14 McDonnell-Douglas YC-15 Related lists List of military aircraft of the Soviet Union and the CIS List of STOL aircraft List of aircraft An-72/An-74 Family An-74 Pictures AN-74TK-300 modification at Antonov's site AN-74T modification at Antonov's site AN-74T-200A INFO AN-74TK-300D INFO http://www.ctrl-c.liu.se/misc/RAM/an-71.html An-71 Article, Images Specs at globalsecurity.org
Concrete Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement that hardens over time—most a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement. It is distinguished from other, non-cementitious types of concrete all binding some form of aggregate together, including asphalt concrete with a bitumen binder, used for road surfaces, polymer concretes that use polymers as a binder; when aggregate is mixed together with dry Portland cement and water, the mixture forms a fluid slurry, poured and molded into shape. The cement reacts chemically with the water and other ingredients to form a hard matrix that binds the materials together into a durable stone-like material that has many uses. Additives are included in the mixture to improve the physical properties of the wet mix or the finished material. Most concrete is poured with reinforcing materials embedded to provide tensile strength, yielding reinforced concrete.
Famous concrete structures include the Panama Canal and the Roman Pantheon. The earliest large-scale users of concrete technology were the ancient Romans, concrete was used in the Roman Empire; the Colosseum in Rome was built of concrete, the concrete dome of the Pantheon is the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. Today, large concrete structures are made with reinforced concrete. After the Roman Empire collapsed, use of concrete became rare until the technology was redeveloped in the mid-18th century. Worldwide, concrete has overtaken steel in tonnage of material used; the word concrete comes from the Latin word "concretus", the perfect passive participle of "concrescere", from "con-" and "crescere". Small-scale production of concrete-like materials was pioneered by the Nabatean traders who occupied and controlled a series of oases and developed a small empire in the regions of southern Syria and northern Jordan from the 4th century BC, they discovered the advantages of hydraulic lime, with some self-cementing properties, by 700 BC.
They built kilns to supply mortar for the construction of rubble-wall houses, concrete floors, underground waterproof cisterns. They kept the cisterns secret; some of these structures survive to this day. In the Ancient Egyptian and Roman eras, builders discovered that adding volcanic ash to the mix allowed it to set underwater. German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann found concrete floors, which were made of lime and pebbles, in the royal palace of Tiryns, which dates to 1400–1200 BC. Lime mortars were used in Greece and Cyprus in 800 BC; the Assyrian Jerwan Aqueduct made use of waterproof concrete. Concrete was used for construction in many ancient structures; the Romans used concrete extensively from 300 BC to a span of more than seven hundred years. During the Roman Empire, Roman concrete was made from quicklime, pozzolana and an aggregate of pumice, its widespread use in many Roman structures, a key event in the history of architecture termed the Roman Architectural Revolution, freed Roman construction from the restrictions of stone and brick materials.
It enabled revolutionary new designs in terms of both structural dimension. Concrete, as the Romans knew it, was a revolutionary material. Laid in the shape of arches and domes, it hardened into a rigid mass, free from many of the internal thrusts and strains that troubled the builders of similar structures in stone or brick. Modern tests show that opus caementicium had as much compressive strength as modern Portland-cement concrete. However, due to the absence of reinforcement, its tensile strength was far lower than modern reinforced concrete, its mode of application was different: Modern structural concrete differs from Roman concrete in two important details. First, its mix consistency is fluid and homogeneous, allowing it to be poured into forms rather than requiring hand-layering together with the placement of aggregate, which, in Roman practice consisted of rubble. Second, integral reinforcing steel gives modern concrete assemblies great strength in tension, whereas Roman concrete could depend only upon the strength of the concrete bonding to resist tension.
The long-term durability of Roman concrete structures has been found to be due to its use of pyroclastic rock and ash, whereby crystallization of strätlingite and the coalescence of calcium–aluminum-silicate–hydrate cementing binder helped give the concrete a greater degree of fracture resistance in seismically active environments. Roman concrete is more resistant to erosion by seawater than modern concrete; the widespread use of concrete in many Roman structures ensured that many survive to the present day. The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are just one example. Many Roman aqueducts and bridges, such as the magnificent Pont du Gard in southern France, have masonry cladding on a concrete core, as does the dome of the Pantheon. After the Roman Empire, the use of burned lime and pozzolana was reduced until the technique was all but forgotten between 500 and the 14th century. From the 14th century to the mid-18th century, the use of cement returned; the Canal du Midi was built using concrete in 1670.
The greatest step forward in the modern use
Yakutsk Airport is an airport in Yakutsk, Russia. It has a capacity of 700 passengers per hour; the airport is the hub including Yakutia Airlines and Polar Airlines. Construction of the airport started in 1931 and was used as a stopover on the ALSIB Alaska-Siberia air route for American planes flying to Europe during World War II; the present international terminal was built in 1996. The airport serves as a diversion airport on Polar route 4. Yakutsk has another, smaller airport at Magan, used by Boeing to test cold weather starting of its aircraft. Before 1992, Aeroflot had monopoly on Soviet domestic flights, had a lot of accidents. At least a dozen deadly accidents happened near Yakutsk. See Aeroflot accidents and incidents. On 4 February 2010, Yakutia Airlines Flight 425, operated by Antonov An-24 RA-47360 suffered an engine failure on take-off for Olyokminsk Airport. During the subsequent landing, the nose and port main undercarriage were retracted, causing substantial damage to the aircraft.
On 10 October 2018, Flight 414, operated by a Sukhoi Superjet 100 RA-89011, rode out from a runway on landing at Yakutsk Airport from Ulan-Ude. During the subsequent landing, the behind chassis of the aircraft were broken. No one was killed in the crash. Article on Yakutsk Airport Airport information for UEEE at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006. Airport Yakutsk Aviateka. Handbook
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo
Tiksi West Airfield
Tiksi West was a large air base in Sakha Republic, located about 7 km west of Tiksi. It appeared on Department of Defense navigation charts during the Cold War, was listed as having a 13,500 ft runway with jet capabilities; the airfield was a large unimproved airstrip operated in the 1970s. It was intended for arctic staging by Tupolev Tu-95 strategic bombers based at southerly locations such as Belaya, it served as a diversion airfield for Tiksi. The airfield was only operational during the wintertime, when the packed snow provided a much larger runway and tarmac area than that available at nearby Tiksi Airport, allowing the airfield to receive many more airplanes; this was critical as the Soviet Union only had a small number of staging bases to reach North America. It was monitored by US intelligence as a possible Tupolev Tu-22M staging base as late as 1980. Tiksi West was abandoned at the end of the Cold War; however several POL farms fed by pipelines from the port facilities remain plainly visible on satellite imagery.
Chekurovka, abandoned Arctic staging base Aspidnoye, abandoned Arctic staging base Ostrov Bolshevik, abandoned Arctic staging base Tiksi North, abandoned Arctic staging base