Jujuy is a province of Argentina, located in the extreme northwest of the country, at the borders with Chile and Bolivia. The only neighboring Argentine province is Salta to the east and south, pre-Columbian inhabitants known as the Omaguacas and Ocloyas, who were conquered by the Incas during their expansion period, practiced agriculture and domesticated the guanaco. They had huts made of mud, and erected stone fortresses to protect their villages, an example of such fortresses is Pucará de Tilcara, Pucará meaning fortress. In 1593, a settlement was erected in the Jujuy valley by the effort of Francisco de Argañaraz y Murguía. In spite of the attacks of the Calchaquíes and Omaguacas aborigines, at the end of the 17th century, the customs to the Viceroyalty of Peru was transferred from Córdoba to Jujuy. With the separation from Peru and the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, Jujuy lost its importance and its population started to diminish. During the May Revolution and the battles for the independence of the United provinces of the South, the people of Jujuy had to endure the Jujuy Exodus, a massive evacuation with a scorched earth policy, led by General Manuel Belgrano.
Finally the Spanish surrendered, but the war affected the economy of the area. After a series of conflicts, the province declared its autonomy from Tucumán. Jujuy started a process of economic and social improvement, and at the end of the 19th century. At the beginning of the century, the railway already connected the province with Buenos Aires. Heavy industry first arrived in Jujuy at the hand of General Manuel Savio, in 1969, Jujuy joined oil-rich neighboring Salta Province with the discovery of petroleum by the state-owned YPF. There are 3 main areas in Jujuy, the Altiplano, a 3,500 meters high plateau with peaks of 5,000 meters, covers most of the province. The Río Grande of Jujuy cuts through the Quebrada de Humahuaca canyon, to the Southeast, the sierras descends to the Gran Chaco region. The vast difference in height and climate produces desert areas such as the Salinas Grandes salt mines, in spite of the different areas, the terrain of the province is mainly arid and semi-desertic, except for the El Ramal valley of the San Francisco River.
Temperature difference between day and night is wider in higher lands, and precipitations are scarce outside the area of the San Francisco River. The Grande River and the San Francisco River flow to the Bermejo River, the San Juan, La Quiaca and Sansana flow to the Pilcomayo River. Jujuys economy is underdeveloped, yet very diversified
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population, the term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses, other common censuses include agriculture and traffic censuses. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions, the word is of Latin origin, during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the level of detail but raise concerns about privacy. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population, typically main population estimates are updated by such intercensal estimates. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, and planning. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling, stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations.
In some countries, the census provides the official used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions. In many cases, a carefully chosen random sample can provide accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is often construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a frame to count the population. This is the way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known, the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is already known. However, a census is used to collect data on the individuals in the nation. This process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, which was a house to house process or the product of a decree. The sampling frame used by census is almost always an address register, thus it is not known if there is anyone resident or how many people there are in each household.
Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, a particular problem is what are termed communal establishments which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a federal republic in the southern half of South America. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the second largest in Latin America, and the largest Spanish-speaking one. The country is subdivided into provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system, Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The earliest recorded presence in the area of modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century, Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural.
The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world by the early 20th century, Argentina retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs, and is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America and is a member of the G-15 and it is the country with the second highest Human Development Index in Latin America with a rating of very high. Because of its stability, market size and growing high-tech sector, the description of the country by the word Argentina has to be found on a Venice map in 1536. In English the name Argentina probably comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, Argentina means in Italian of silver, silver coloured, probably borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine of silver > silver coloured already mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the form of argentin and derives of argent silver with the suffix -in.
The Italian naming Argentina for the country implies Argentina Terra land of silver or Argentina costa coast of silver, in Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said lArgentina. The name Argentina was probably first given by the Venitian and Genoese navigators, in Spanish and Portuguese, the words for silver are respectively plata and prata and of silver is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin. The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region, the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name Argentine Republic in legal documents. The name Argentine Confederation was used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the name as Argentine Republic
National Agricultural Technology Institute
The INTA researches and produces information and technologies applied to processes and products, that are forwarded to the producers. Another important field is the sanity of the products, plagues control, weeds and it studies and researches the harvest, packing and commercialisation of fruit and vegetables, as well as the handling and processing of meats and dairy products. The institute observes market behaviours of internal and external consume, the INTA has a directive board composed of members of both the official and the private sector, they define the politics at national level. The national direction executes the planning of the board, assisted by the organization and administration technical areas and producers capacitation takes place in 44 experimental agricultural stations and 240 extension units around the country
National Route 9 (Argentina)
The road is a limited access motorway from Buenos Aires to Rosario. Between the cities of San Nicolás de los Arroyos and Rosario, the section between Buenos Aires and the south of what it is today Cordoba Province, was shared with the Camino Real del Oeste which branched towards San Luis and Santiago. The road had a system of inns and establishments every 30–50 km where travellers could rest. After the coming of the railroad, in the half of the 19th Century. The first train from Buenos Aires arrived in the town of La Quiaca in Argentinas northern border with Bolivia on 30 December 1907, with the advent of the automobile, the Federal Government decided to build roads throughout the Republic. In 1936 the road from Buenos Aires to La Quiaca was named Ruta Nacional 9, in 1943 the road was open to traffic in its full length, even though most of it was unpaved. The road started competing against the railroad, taking passengers and cargo, the last passenger train to La Quiaca arrived on December 1993, and the last cargo train in July 1994.
The Buenos Aires to Rosario section was paved by 27 December 1936, the work reached Córdoba on 5 June 1937. In 1939 access to Buenos Aires from Pilar was completed, passing through Campo de Mayo, in those days, the Buenos Aires - General Pacheco - Campana - Zárate section was part of National Route 12. This way they shortened the distance between the two most populous cities in Argentina. You can see in the map the new layout of National Route 9 in red. After the change of layout in 1979, the route was paved except for a short piece north of Humahuaca, in Jujuy Province. Works to finalize the route started in 1997 and were extended until 30 April 2004, the section passing through Greater Buenos Aires to the Port of Campana access road is part of Acceso Norte. The section between Avenida General Paz to the start of National Route 8 is named Autopista Pascual Palazzo, in 1943 the Dirección Nacional de Vialidad presented a plan for access to the city of Buenos Aires. Based on this plan, by the end of the work was started in what is known today as Acceso Norte to Buenos Aires.
In 1971 the section Garín-Campana was opened, in 1977 the Campana-Zárate highway was opened, allowing access to the Zárate-Brazo Largo Bridge inaugurated that same year. In the year 1978 the section from San Nicolás de los Arroyos to Rosario was opened and this section is called Teniente General Pedro Eugenio Aramburu. In 1987 the last section of highway was completed, between Campana and the Tala River
San Salvador de Jujuy
San Salvador de Jujuy, commonly known as Jujuy and locally often referred to as San Salvador, is the capital city of Jujuy Province in northwest Argentina. Also, it is the seat of the Doctor Manuel Belgrano Department and it lies near the southern end of the Humahuaca Canyon where wooded hills meet the lowlands. Its population at the 2001 census was 237,751 inhabitants, if its suburbs are included, this figure rises to around 300,000. The current mayor is Raúl Jorge, the city lies on National Route 9 that connects La Quiaca 289 km with Salta 120 km, and it is 1,525 km from Buenos Aires. Tourist destinations not far from the city are Tilcara 84 km, Humahuaca 126 km, Jujuy is located near the Andes, at the junction of the Xibi Xibi River and the Río Grande de Jujuy,1,238 meters above sea level. The weather is humid during the summer and dry and cold during the winter, temperatures vary widely between day and night. The city is the government and cultural centre. The city has a city centre including the Cabildo, the Cathedral.
The Gobernador Horacio Guzmán International Airport at coordinates 24°24′00″S 65°05′00″W, is 33 km southeast of the city and has flights to Buenos Aires. After previous attempts in 1565 and 1592, the current city was founded as San Salvador de Velazco en el Valle de Jujuy on April 19,1593, by Francisco de Argañarás y Murguía. The settlement initially developed as a site on the mule trade route between San Miguel de Tucumán and the silver mines in Potosí, Bolivia. Reaching its peak importance during the period, San Salvador de Jujuy declined to the status of a remote provincial capital after the Argentine Declaration of Independence in 1816. The town became the capital of Jujuy Province when the latter separated from Salta Province in 1834, the 1863 Jujuy earthquake leveled the town, and it recovered slowly in the following decades. Jujuy began to grow following the arrival of the Northern Central Railway in 1900 and its first institution of higher learning, the Economic Sciences Institute, was established in 1959, and was incorporated into the new National University of Jujuy in 1973.
The city was the location of a number of Argentine films, including Veronico Cruz, the citys impoverished Lower Azopardo neighborhood would give rise to Milagro Salas Indigenist Tupac Amaru Neighborhood Association. Jujuy has a very pleasant humid subtropical climate, mainly because of the altitude, summers bring warm days at 28 °C and nights at 16 °C with frequent thunderstorms. During heat waves, temperatures can sometimes reach 35 °C but these are not frequent and nights always bring significant cooling, during the winter, temperatures can reach −7 °C and snow, although rare, may fall on occasion. Precipitation is about 800 mm, which falls in the form of thunderstorms during the warmest months, the highest temperature recorded was 42.0 °C on December 11,2010 while the lowest temperature recorded was −6.9 °C on August 14,1978
The Andes or Andean Mountains are the longest continental mountain range in the world. They are a range of highlands along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km long, about 200 to 700 km wide, the Andes extend from north to south through seven South American countries, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia and Chile. Along their length, the Andes are split into several ranges, the Andes are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities, such as Quito, Bogotá, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz. The Altiplano plateau is the worlds second-highest after the Tibetan plateau and these ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate, the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, and the Wet Andes. The Andes are the worlds highest mountain range outside of Asia, the highest mountain outside Asia, Mount Aconcagua, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m above sea level. The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorean Andes is farther from the Earths center than any other location on the Earths surface, the worlds highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado on the Chile-Argentina border, which rises to 6,893 m.
The etymology of the word Andes has been debated, the majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means east as in Antisuyu, one of the four regions of the Inca Empire. In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is considered to be part of the Andes. The term cordillera comes from the Spanish word cordel, meaning rope, the Andes range is about 200 km wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 kilometres wide. The Andes are the result of plate tectonics processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American plate. The main cause of the rise of the Andes is the compression of the rim of the South American Plate due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate. In the south, the Andes share a boundary with the former Patagonia Terrane. To the west, the Andes end at the Pacific Ocean, from a geographical approach, the Andes are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography.
The Andes Mountains contain large quantities of iron ore located in mountains within the range. The Andean orogen has a series of bends or oroclines, the Bolivian Orocline is a seaward concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes Mountains at about 18° S. At this point the orientation of the Andes turns from Northwest in Peru to South in Chile, the Andean segment north and south of the orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° counter clockwise and clockwise respectively. The Bolivian Orocline area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano Plateau, the specific point at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the Arica Elbow
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, graupel, Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and precipitates. Thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated, Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called showers, moisture that is lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain is occurring. A stationary front is often present near the area of freezing rain, provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus.
Eventually, the droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy, thundersnow is possible within a cyclones comma head and within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation, on the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. The movement of the trough, or intertropical convergence zone. Precipitation is a component of the water cycle, and is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. Approximately 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year,398,000 cubic kilometres of it over the oceans and 107,000 cubic kilometres over land. Given the Earths surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes.
Precipitation may occur on celestial bodies, e. g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most likely takes the form of frost. Precipitation is a component of the water cycle, and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. Approximately 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year,398,000 km3 of it over the oceans, given the Earths surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall, Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice