Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
2000 United States presidential election in Oklahoma
The 2000 United States presidential election in Oklahoma took place on November 7, 2000, was part of the 2000 United States presidential election. Voters chose 8 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Oklahoma was won by the Republican Party candidate, Texas Governor George W. Bush with a 21.88% margin of victory. Despite Vice President Al Gore's loss in the state, he is the most recent Democrat to win any of its counties in a presidential election, namely Ottawa, Muskogee, Okmulgee, McIntosh, Haskell and Choctaw; this was the last election until 2016 that any third-party candidates were granted ballot access in Oklahoma. The electors of each state and the District of Columbia met on December 18, 2000 to cast their votes for president and vice president; the Electoral College itself never meets as one body. Instead the electors from each state and the District of Columbia met in their respective capitols; the following were the members of the Electoral College from the state.
All were pledged to and voted for George Bush and Dick Cheney: Steve Byas James Cruson Paul Hollrah Kristal Markowitz Bob McDowell Donald O'Nesky Tom Prince George W. Wiland
Medicine Lodge Treaty
The Medicine Lodge Treaty is the overall name for three treaties signed between the Federal government of the United States and southern Plains Indian tribes in October 1867, intended to bring peace to the area by relocating the Native Americans to reservations in Indian Territory and away from European-American settlement. The treaty was negotiated after investigation by the Indian Peace Commission, which in its final report in 1868 concluded that the wars had been preventable, they determined that the United States government and its representatives, including the United States Congress, had contributed to the warfare on the Great Plains by failing to fulfill their legal obligations and to treat the Native Americans with honesty. The U. S. government and tribal chiefs met at a place traditional for Native American ceremonies, at their request. The first treaty was signed October 1867, with the Kiowa and Comanche tribes; the second, with the Kiowa-Apache, was signed the same day. The third treaty was signed with the Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho on October 28.
Under the Medicine Lodge Treaty, the tribes were assigned reservations of diminished size compared to territories defined in an 1865 treaty. The treaty tribes never ratified the treaty by vote of adult males. In addition, by changing allotment policy under the Dawes Act and authorizing sales under the Agreement with the Cheyenne and Arapaho and the Agreement with the Comanche and Apache signed with the Cherokee Commission, the Congress further reduced their reservation territory; the Kiowa chief Lone Wolf filed suit against the government for fraud on behalf of the tribes in Lone Wolf v. Hitchcock. In 1903 the U. S. Supreme Court ruled against the tribes, determining that the Congress had "plenary power" and the political right to make such decisions. In the aftermath of that case, Congress acted unilaterally on land decisions related to other reservations as well; because of the outstanding issues with the treaty and subsequent government actions, in the mid-20th century, the Kiowa and Comanche filed several suits for claims against the U.
S. government. Over decades, they won substantial settlements of monetary compensation in the amount of tens of millions of dollars, although it took years for the cases to be resolved. On July 20, 1867, Congress established the Indian Peace Commission to negotiate peace with Plains Indian tribes who were warring with the United States; the Peace Commission met in St. Louis, Missouri, on August 6, 1867, where it elected Nathaniel G. Taylor, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, as its president. Commissioners agreed that lasting peace was contingent upon separating Indians regarded as "hostile" from those regarded as friendly, removing all Indian tribes onto reservations away from the routes of U. S. westward expansion, making provision for their maintenance. The official report of the Commission to the President of the United States, dated January 7, 1868, describes detailed histories of the causes of the Indian Wars including: numerous social and legal injustices to Indians, repeated violations of numerous treaties, acts of corruption by many of the local agents, culpability of Congress in failing to fulfill certain legal obligations.
The report asserts that the Indian Wars were preventable had the United States government and its representatives acted with legal and moral honesty in dealing with the Indians. Other members of the peace commission were Lieutenant General William T. Sherman, commander of the Military Division of the Missouri. S. Army's investigation of the Sand Creek massacre. Sanborn commander of the Upper Arkansas District, who had helped to negotiate the Little Arkansas Treaty of 1865. Sherman, having made public remarks indicating his disagreement with the peace policy, was called to Washington, D. C. and could not be present at the councils on the southern plains, including the council at Medicine Lodge Creek. Major General Christopher C. Augur, commander of the Military Department of the Platte, replaced him as a temporary appointment. After an abortive meeting with northern Plains Indians in September, the commission gathered at Fort Leavenworth in early October and traveled from there by rail to Fort Harker.
There it was joined by an escort of five hundred troops of the 7th U. S. Cavalry Regiment and Battery B of the 4th artillery, armed with two Gatling guns, they were under the command of Maj. Joel H. Elliott, excused from attending the court martial proceedings for Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer underway at Fort Leavenworth; the commission was accompanied by numerous newspaper reporters, who provided detailed coverage of the people and events related to the commission's work. The commission arrived at Fort Larned on October 11, where some chiefs were present, including Black Kettle of the Cheyenne, Little Raven of the Arapaho, Satanta of the Kiowa. At the insistence of the tribes, the meetings were moved from Larned to Medicine Lodge River, a traditional Indian ceremonial site. Preliminary discussions beginning on October 15 concluded that the Hancock expedition led earlier in 1867 by Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott Hancock, during which a large Cheyenne and Sioux village
2016 United States presidential election in Oklahoma
The 2016 United States presidential election in Oklahoma was held on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 general election in which all 50 states and The District of Columbia participated. Oklahoma voters chose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote pitting the Republican Party's nominee, businessman Donald Trump, running mate Indiana Governor Mike Pence against Democratic Party nominee, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and her running mate, Virginia Senator Tim Kaine. On March 1, 2016, in the presidential primaries, Oklahoma voters expressed their preferences for the Democratic and Republican parties' respective nominees for president. Registered members of each party could only vote in their party's primary, while independent voters could only vote in the Democratic primary. Donald Trump won the election in Oklahoma with 65.3% of the vote. Hillary Clinton received 28.9% of the vote. Considered a safe Republican state, Oklahoma has voted Republican in fifteen of the last sixteen elections.
It was one of two states where Donald Trump won every county, the other being West Virginia. This marked the fourth consecutive election in which the Republican candidate carried every county in the state. Gary Johnson, the Libertarian Party candidate, became the first third-party candidate to achieve ballot access in Oklahoma since 2000, he received 5.75% of the vote, the highest percentage for a third party in the state since Ross Perot in 1996. He was the only third-party candidate to file for ballot access in Oklahoma. Results Twelve candidates appeared on the Republican presidential primary ballot: The following are final 2016 predictions from various organizations for Oklahoma as of Election Day. Los Angeles Times: Strongly Trump CNN: Solid Trump Sabato's Crystal Ball: Safe Trump NBC: Likely Trump RealClearPolitics: Solid Trump Fox News: Solid Republican ABC: Solid Trump The Republican Party candidate, Donald Trump, carried Oklahoma with a victory margin of 36.39%. While Trump improved over Mitt Romney's 2012 vote total and victory margin, his vote percentage of 65.3% was down from Romney's 66.8%, making 2016 the first time since 1992 the Republican's vote percentage decreased from the previous election.
Hillary Clinton's vote percentage of 28.9% is the worst for a Democratic candidate in Oklahoma since George McGovern's 24% in the 1972 election. Clinton however, did make gains in populated Oklahoma County, its surrounding suburban counties, Tulsa County. In Oklahoma County, Clinton turned a 16.66% advantage for Romney into a 10.5% advantage for Trump, while Trump was held below the 60% mark in Tulsa. Gary Johnson's total was more than twice what was needed to preserve recognized status for the Libertarian Party in the state, meaning that in 2018 the LP will be the first alternative party on the ballot for a gubernatorial election since the Reform Party in 1998. With 65.32% of the popular vote, Oklahoma would prove to be Trump's third strongest state in the 2016 election after Wyoming and West Virginia. The state would prove to be Gary Johnson's fourth strongest state with 5.75% of the popular vote after New Mexico, North Dakota and Alaska. Final results by county from the Oklahoma State Election Board.
Trump won all the counties in Oklahoma. Trump won all five congressional districts. Democratic Party presidential debates, 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2016 Republican Party presidential debates, 2016 Republican Party presidential primaries, 2016
Frederick is a city and county seat of Tillman County, United States. The population was 3,940 at the 2010 census, it is an agriculture-based community that produces wheat and cattle. Frederick is home to three dairies, a 1400-acre industrial park, Frederick Regional Airport, which includes restored World War II hangars which house the World War II Airborne Demonstration Team. Frederick was visited in April 1905 by U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt. Established in 1901, the Frederick area was among the last of the Oklahoma Territory land to be opened to settlement. What is now Frederick used to be two towns: Hazel. Both towns were established in 1901, when the Kiowa-Comanche-Apache reservation was opened to settlement. In 1902 the towns combined in order to take advantage of the Blackwell and Southern Railroad; the new town was named Frederick, after the son of a railroad executive. Gosnell received the depot, the residents of Hazel moved north to the new town of Frederick; the post office moved from Gosnell to Frederick, for which it was renamed in 1902.
Most of the business district was destroyed by fires in 1904 and 1905. The buildings had been made of wood, were replaced with brick. In the spring of 1905, President Teddy Roosevelt visited Frederick to meet with Jack "Catch-'em-alive" Abernathy, the famed barehanded wolf hunter, introduced the area to tourism and its recreational value. In 1907 the City of Frederick was incorporated, Oklahoma became a state, Frederick was named the seat of Tillman County, the Katy Railroad came to Frederick. By 1915, Frederick had 15 miles of sidewalks and crossings, 75 miles of wide, rolled streets; the first paved streets were laid in 1918. Frederick was a major stop on the Wichita Falls and Northwestern Railway, one of the Frank Kell and Joseph A. Kemp properties which operated from 1906 to 1923 from Wichita Falls to Forgan in the Oklahoma Panhandle; the line was sold to the Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad. The link to Frederick was abandoned in 1973, when Altus, Oklahoma became the northern terminus of the successor railroad.
The Frederick Army Air Field opened in 1941, training pilots to fly UC-78 light transport aircraft and B-25 bombers. In 1953, the base was turned over to the City of Frederick, is now the Frederick Municipal Airport and Industrial Park. In 1962 a flagpole was erected in Pioneer Park, fulfilling the agreement between Gosnell and the railroad. Frederick is located at 34°23′25″N 99°0′58″W, it is at the junction of U. S. Highway 183 and State Highway 5. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.0 square miles, of which, 5.0 square miles of it is land and 0.20% is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,637 people, 1,797 households, 1,211 families residing in the city; the population density was 935.3 people per square mile. There were 2,145 housing units at an average density of 432.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 68.04% White, 11.32% African American, 2.80% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 13.85% from other races, 3.52% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 22.02% of the population. There were 1,797 households out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.9% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.6% were non-families. 29.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.12. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.1% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 23.3% from 25 to 44, 21.3% from 45 to 64, 20.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $22,190, the median income for a family was $28,724. Males had a median income of $22,324 versus $18,033 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,575. About 19.0% of families and 23.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.9% of those under age 18 and 15.8% of those age 65 or over.
Frederick has a City Manager/Council type of government. There are one from each of the wards and one at large position; the current City Manager is Robert Johnston and the Mayor is Eddie Whitworth. Great Plains Technology Center is located in Frederick. Frederick is served by Frederick Public Schools, which include a high school, middle school, elementary school; the public school team name is the Bombers. The Frederick High School 1956 football team won the first state championship with an inter-racial team, in 2007 became the only team inducted into the Oklahoma Sports Hall of Fame. Template:Dead link= November 2016 The teams were combined of the two high schools in Frederick, Frederick High School and Boyd High School; the Frederick Bombers returned to the state championship 40 years and won the state championships in 1993, 1994. 1995 and 1996. School colors: In the 1950s the school colors were maroon and gray; this was changed in the late 1960s to white. In the late 1980s, the color black was added to the white.
Frederick hosts the annual Oklahoma Cotton Festival in September. The Frederick Public Library funded in 1915 by the Carnegie Foundation, is still in service; the Tillman County Historical Society in the Pioneer Heritage Townsite Center features the old railroad depot and other historic buildings. A life-size statue of Louis and Temple Abernath
1972 United States presidential election in Oklahoma
The 1972 United States presidential election in Oklahoma was held on November 7, 1972. Voters chose eight electors, or representatives to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Oklahoma voted in a landslide for incumbent Republican President Richard Nixon over his Democratic challenger George McGovern. Nixon’s winning margin of 49.70 percentage points made Oklahoma his third-strongest state behind Mississippi and Georgia, was in a huge landslide 26.55 percentage points more Republican than the nation at-large. Although in the twenty-first century Oklahoma has rivalled Wyoming, Utah and West Virginia as the most Republican state in the nation, no presidential candidate in Oklahoma has equalled Nixon’s margin of victory. Indeed, in the eleven presidential elections since this one, only twice has any state been carried by a larger percentage margin – both by Ronald Reagan in Utah, as part of the 1980 and 1984 elections. Nixon carried with over sixty percent of the vote all seventy-seven counties in the state, four years after he had won the Sooner State despite finishing behind both Democrat Hubert Humphrey and American Independent George Wallace in Love, McCurtain and Pushmataha Counties.
American Independent John G. Schmitz was the only other candidate on the ballot, he received 2.30 percent of the vote, although managing over eleven percent in the Panhandle county of Cimmaron. Nixon's feat of winning every county in Oklahoma would not be achieved by a Republican again until George W. Bush in 2004. Since that election, the Republicans have carried every county by wide margins. In archconservative Oklahoma, McGovern was uniformly viewed as a left-wing extremist because of his support for busing and civil rights, plus his opposition to the Vietnam War, support for granting amnesty to draft dodgers and support for a thousand-dollar giveaway to each American as a solution to poverty. Many Republican campaigners believed McGovern would legalise abortion and illicit drugs if he were elected – despite the fact that his running mate Sargent Shriver was pro-life; the most loyal Southern Democrats from the southeastern part of the state completely deserted their traditional party for Nixon: Bryan, Coal and the above-mention Love and McCurtain Counties deserted their traditional Democratic Party for the first time ever.
Nixon almost captured the twenty percent of Oklahoman voters who had supported Wallace in 1968: exit polls suggested he won them over McGovern by a ratio of ten to one, in the two Wallace counties of Pushmataha and Atoka Nixon totalled over seventy percent of the vote vis-à-vis less than thirty in 1968
1996 United States presidential election in Oklahoma
The 1996 United States presidential election in Oklahoma took place on November 5, 1996. All fifty states and the District of Columbia, were part of the 1996 United States presidential election. Oklahoma voters chose eight electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president. Oklahoma was won by Kansas Senator Bob Dole, running against incumbent United States President Bill Clinton of Arkansas. Clinton ran a second time with former Tennessee Senator Al Gore as Vice President, Dole ran with former New York Congressman Jack Kemp. Oklahoma weighed in for this election as 4% more third-party than the national average; the presidential election of 1996 was a multi-partisan election for Oklahoma, with more than eleven percent of the electorate voting for third-party candidates. This is one of the last presidential elections in Oklahoma in which the Southeastern portion of the state turned out in large numbers for the Democratic Party; this may be somewhat attributed to the influence of the bordering, politically volatile, state of Texas, which can be seen changing political orientation throughout the 1980s and 1990s from a Democratic area to a Republican one, the bordering state of Arkansas, Clinton’s home state.
In his second bid for the presidency, Ross Perot led the newly reformed Reform Party to gain over 10% of the votes in Oklahoma, to pull in support nationally as the most popular third-party candidate to run for United States Presidency in recent times. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Sequoyah County, Nowata County, Caddo County, Craig County, Kiowa County, Mayes County, Osage County, Tillman County, Seminole County, Pontotoc County, Garvin County, Cotton County, Carter County, Greer County, Le Flore County, Murray County, Harmon County, Bryan County, McCurtain County, Coal County, Pittsburg County, Johnston County, Marshall County, Jefferson County, Love County, Atoka County, Okfuskee County, Pawnee County, Pushmataha County voted for a Democratic presidential candidate, it is the last time a Democratic presidential candidate carried any of Oklahoma’s congressional districts. Yugoslav Wars Presidency of Bill Clinton