Joel Coen and Ethan Coen, collectively referred to as the Coen brothers, are American filmmakers. Their films span many genres and styles, which they subvert or parody, their most acclaimed works include Miller's Crossing, Barton Fink, The Big Lebowski, No Country for Old Men, True Grit, Inside Llewyn Davis. The brothers write and produce their films jointly, although until The Ladykillers Joel received sole credit for directing and Ethan for producing, they alternate top billing for their screenplays while sharing editing credits under the alias Roderick Jaynes. They have been nominated for 13 Academy Awards together, individually for one award each, winning Best Original Screenplay for Fargo and Best Picture, Best Director and Best Adapted Screenplay for No Country for Old Men; the duo won the Palme d'Or for Barton Fink. The Coens have written a number of films they did not direct, including the biographical war drama Unbroken, the historical legal thriller Bridge of Spies, lesser-known, commercially unsuccessful comedies such as Crimewave, The Naked Man and Gambit.
Ethan is a writer of short stories and poetry. Known for many distinctive stylistic trademarks including genre hybridity, the brothers' films No Country for Old Men, A Serious Man and Inside Llewyn Davis have been ranked in the BBC's 2016 poll of the greatest motion pictures since 2000. Joel and Ethan Coen were raised in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis, their mother, was an art historian at St. Cloud State University, their father, Edward Coen, was an economist at the University of Minnesota, their family is Jewish. When they were children, Joel saved money from mowing lawns to buy a Vivitar Super 8 camera. Together, the brothers remade movies they saw on television, with their neighborhood friend Mark Zimering as the star, their first attempt was a romp entitled Man on the Go. Cornel Wilde's The Naked Prey became their Zeimers in Zambia, which featured Ethan as a native with a spear. Joel Coen has said: "In regards to whether our background influences our film making... who knows?
We don't think about it... There's no doubt that our Jewish heritage affects how we see things." Joel and Ethan graduated from St. Louis Park High School in 1973 and 1976 and from Bard College at Simon's Rock in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. Joel spent four years in the undergraduate film program at New York University, where he made a 30-minute thesis film called Soundings. Ethan went on to Princeton University and earned an undergraduate degree in philosophy in 1979, his senior thesis was a 41-page essay, "Two Views of Wittgenstein's Later Philosophy". Joel has been married to actress Frances McDormand since 1984, they adopted a son from Paraguay named Pedro McDormand Coen. McDormand has acted in several Coen Brothers films, including a minor appearance in Miller's Crossing, a supporting role in Raising Arizona, lead roles in Blood Simple and The Man Who Wasn't There, her Academy Award-winning role in Fargo, her starring role in Burn After Reading, she did a voice-over in Barton Fink. Ethan married film editor Tricia Cooke in 1990.
They have two children: son Buster Jacob, who goes to Vassar College. Both couples live in New York. After graduating from New York University, Joel worked as a production assistant on a variety of industrial films and music videos, he developed a talent for film editing and met Sam Raimi while assisting Edna Ruth Paul in editing Raimi's first feature film, The Evil Dead. In 1984 the brothers wrote and directed Blood Simple, their first commercial film together. Set in Texas, the film tells the tale of a shifty, sleazy bar owner who hires a private detective to kill his wife and her lover; the film contains elements that point to their future direction: distinctive homages to genre movies, plot twists layered over a simple story, dark humor, mise-en-scène. The film starred Frances McDormand. Upon release the film received much praise and won awards for Joel's direction at both the Sundance and Independent Spirit awards, their next project was Crimewave, written by the Coens and Raimi. Joel and Raimi made cameo appearances in Spies Like Us.
The brothers' next film was Raising Arizona, the story of an unlikely married couple: ex-convict H. I. and police officer Ed, who long for a baby but are unable to conceive. When a local furniture tycoon appears on television with his newly born quintuplets and jokes that they "are more than we can handle", H. I. steals one of the quintuplets to bring up as their own. The film featured Frances McDormand, John Goodman, William Forsythe, Sam McMurray, Randall "Tex" Cobb. Miller's Crossing, released in 1990, starred Albert Finney, Gabriel Byrne, John Turturro; the film is about feuding gangsters in the Prohibition era, inspired by Dashiell Hammett's novels Red Harvest and The Glass Key. The following year, they released Barton Fink, he settles down in his hotel room to commence writing but suffers writer's block until he is invaded by the man next door. Barton Fink was a critical success, earning Oscar nominations and winning three major awards at the 1991 Cannes Film Festival, including the Palme d'Or.
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The Grey Zone
The Grey Zone is a 2001 American war film directed by Tim Blake Nelson and starring David Arquette, Steve Buscemi, Harvey Keitel, Mira Sorvino, Daniel Benzali. It is based on the book Auschwitz: A Doctor's Eyewitness Account written by Dr. Miklós Nyiszli; the title comes from a chapter in the book The Drowned and the Saved by Holocaust survivor Primo Levi. The film tells the story of the Jewish Sonderkommando XII in the Auschwitz death camp in October 1944; these prisoners were made to assist the camp's guards in shepherding their victims to the gas chambers and disposing of their bodies in the ovens. The film opens in the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp. A small group of Sonderkommandos, prisoners assigned to dispose of the bodies of other dead prisoners, are plotting an insurrection that, they hope, will destroy at least one of the camp's four crematoria and gas chambers, they are receiving firearms from Polish citizens in the nearby village and gunpowder from the UNIO munitions factory.
When the women's activity is discovered by the Germans they are savagely tortured, but they don't reveal the plot. Meanwhile, a Hungarian-Jewish doctor, Miklós Nyiszli, who works for the Nazi scientist Josef Mengele in an experimental medical lab, has received permission from Mengele himself to visit his wife and daughter in the women’s labor camp. Nyiszli is concerned about the safety of his family and believes that Mengele’s orders will keep them from the gas chambers. A new trainload of Hungarian Jewish prisoners arrives, all are sent to the gas chambers; as the group is given instructions about "delousing", a fearful, angry man in the group begins shouting questions at one of the Sonderkommandos, issuing the instructions. Hoffman beats him to death in an outburst of frustration, in an attempt to make the man stop talking. After the gassing of this same group, a badly shaken Hoffman finds a young girl alive beneath a pile of bodies, he removes her from the chamber, after informing the leader of the insurgency, takes her to a storage room and summons Nyiszli, who revives her.
The group decides to hide her in the children’s camp. While the prisoners hide her in a dressing room, SS-Oberscharführer Eric Muhsfeldt walks in. Noticing that one of the prisoners present, Abramowics, is there illegally, he shoots him, prompting the girl to scream and to be discovered. Nyiszli takes Muhsfeldt outside and tells him about the uprising, but cannot tell him where or when it will begin. Muhsfeldt agrees to protect the young girl; the insurrection begins, Crematorium IV is destroyed with the smuggled explosives. All the Sonderkommandos who survive the explosions and gunfights with the SS are captured, they are held. Hoffmann and a fellow prisoner, conclude that the girl will not be set free after she is forced to watch the executions. After all captives are shot, the girl is allowed to flee toward the main gate of the camp. Before she can run far, Muhsfeldt draws his handgun and shoots her; the film closes with a voice-over recitation by the dead girl. David Arquette as Hoffman Steve Buscemi as "Hesch" Abramowics David Chandler as Max Rosenthal Allan Corduner as Dr. Miklós Nyiszli Daniel Benzali as Simon Schlermer Mira Sorvino as Dina Natasha Lyonne as Rosa Michael Stuhlbarg as Cohen Harvey Keitel as Eric Muhsfeldt Kamelia Grigorova as the Girl Velizar Binev as Otto Moll Henry Stram as Josef Mengele Lee Wilkof as Morris Jessica Hecht as Morris's Wife Hristo Shopov as Halivni Brian F. O'Byrne as SS Untersturmführer Valentin Ganev as Torturer The film was based upon Nelson's play, adapted from Nyiszli's book.
A 90 percent scale "model" of the Birkenau camp was built near Sofia, Bulgaria for the production of the film using the original architectural plans. The film was first released on DVD on March 18, 2003, it was released on DVD in the UK, in 2008. The film holds 68%'fresh' rating on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 82 reviews, with the consensus "A grim and devastating tale of the Holocaust." In 2009, Roger Ebert included it in his "Great Movies" series. The film received the 2002 National Board of Review Freedom of Expression Award. Escape from Sobibor film about that camp's prisoners' revolt and escape Son of Saul, a Hungarian film with a similar plot List of Holocaust films The Grey Zone at Box Office Mojo The Grey Zone on IMDb The Grey Zone at Rotten Tomatoes
American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, whether by religion, ethnicity or nationality. The current Jewish community in the United States consists of Ashkenazi Jews, who descend from diaspora Jewish populations of Central and Eastern Europe and comprise about 90-95% of the American Jewish population. Most American Ashkenazim are US-born, with a dwindling number of now elderly earlier immigrants, as well as some more recent foreign-born immigrants. During the colonial era, prior to the mass immigration of Ashkenazim and Portuguese Jews represented the bulk of America's small Jewish population, while their descendants are a minority today, they along with an array of other Jewish communities represented the remainder of American Jews, including other more recent Sephardic Jews, Mizrahi Jews, various other ethnically Jewish communities, as well as a smaller number of converts to Judaism; the American Jewish community manifests a wide range of Jewish cultural traditions, encompassing the full spectrum of Jewish religious observance.
Depending on religious definitions and varying population data, the United States has the largest or second largest Jewish community in the world, after Israel. In 2012, the American Jewish population was estimated at between 5.5 and 8 million, depending on the definition of the term, which constitutes between 1.7% and 2.6% of the total U. S. population. Jews have been present in the Thirteen Colonies since the mid-17th century. However, they were small in number, with at most 200 to 300 having arrived by 1700; those early arrivers were Sephardic Jewish immigrants, of Western Sephardic ancestry, but by 1720 Ashkenazi Jews from Central and Eastern Europe predominated. The English Plantation Act 1740 for the first time permitted Jews to become British citizens and emigrate to the colonies. Despite some being denied the ability to vote or hold office in local jurisdictions, Sephardic Jews became active in community affairs in the 1790s, after achieving political equality in the five states where they were most numerous.
Until about 1830, South Carolina had more Jews than anywhere else in North America. Large-scale Jewish immigration commenced in the 19th century, when, by mid-century, many German Jews had arrived, migrating to the United States in large numbers due to antisemitic laws and restrictions in their countries of birth, they became merchants and shop-owners. There were 250,000 Jews in the United States by 1880, many of them being the educated, secular, German Jews, although a minority population of the older Sephardic Jewish families remained influential. Jewish migration to the United States increased in the early 1880s, as a result of persecution and economic difficulties in parts of Eastern Europe. Most of these new immigrants were Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazi Jews, most of whom arrived from the poor diaspora communities of the Russian Empire and the Pale of Settlement, located in modern-day Poland, Belarus and Moldova. During the same period, great numbers of Ashkenazi Jews arrived from Galicia, at that time the most impoverished region of the Austro-Hungarian empire with a heavy Jewish urban population, driven out by economic reasons.
Many Jews emigrated from Romania. Over 2,000,000 Jews landed between the late 19th century and 1924, when the Immigration Act of 1924 restricted immigration. Most settled in the New York metropolitan area, establishing the world's major concentrations of Jewish population. In 1915 the circulation of the daily Yiddish newspapers was half a million in New York City alone, 600,000 nationally. In addition thousands more subscribed to the numerous weekly papers and the many magazines. At the beginning of the 20th century, these newly arrived Jews built support networks consisting of many small synagogues and Landsmanshaften for Jews from the same town or village. American Jewish writers of the time urged assimilation and integration into the wider American culture, Jews became part of American life. 500,000 American Jews fought in World War II, after the war younger families joined the new trend of suburbanization. There, Jews became assimilated and demonstrated rising intermarriage; the suburbs facilitated the formation of new centers, as Jewish school enrollment more than doubled between the end of World War II and the mid-1950s, while synagogue affiliation jumped from 20% in 1930 to 60% in 1960.
More recent waves of Jewish emigration from Russia and other regions have joined the mainstream American Jewish community. Americans of Jewish descent have been disproportionately successful in many fields and aspects over the years; the Jewish community in America has gone from a lower class minority, with most studies putting upwards of 80% as manual factory laborers prior to World War I and with the majority of fields barred to them, to the consistent richest or second richest ethnicity in America for the past 40 years in terms of average annual salary, with high concentrations in academia and other fields, today have the highest per capita income of any ethnic group in the United States, at around double the average income of non-Jewish Americans. In 2016, Modern Orthodox Jews had a median household income of $158,000, while Open Orthodox Jews had a median household income at $185,000. Scholars debate whether the favorable historical experience for Jews in the United States has been such a unique experience as to validate American exceptionalism.
MCC Theater is an Off-Broadway theater company located in New York City, founded in 1986 by artistic directors Robert LuPone and Bernard Telsey along with six graduates of the New York University drama department, including Jana Herzen, now president of Harlem-based Motema Music. MCC Theater was founded in 1986 as Manhattan Class Company a collective of young actors and directors eager to take a leadership role in their own artistic development. Initial peer-based “classes” led to showcases and to the kinds of full-scale productions that have made MCC Theater one of New York’s leading off-Broadway theater companies. MCC Theater carries out its mission through a four-play mainstage season, its literary development programs, education and outreach initiatives that include the MCC Theater Youth Company, a free program for high school students, several in-school partnerships. Past productions include Neil LaBute's reasons to be pretty, In A Dark Dark House, Some Girl and Fat Pig. MCC Theater plans to move into a larger 25,000-square-foot theater space designed by architect Andrew Berman at 52nd Street and 10th Avenue in November 2018.
Robert LuPone – Artistic Director Bernard Telsey – Artistic Director William Cantler – Artistic Director Blake West – Executive Director MCC has engaged a collection of notable directors and artists that have included: Lynn Redgrave, Michael Greif, Jo Bonney, Doug Hughes, Philip Seymour Hoffman, Julianna Margulies, Liev Schreiber, Jim Simpson, Benjamin Bratt, Swoosie Kurtz, Kathleen Chalfant, Allison Janney, Anna Paquin, Judith Light, Marisa Tomei, Lili Taylor, Sigourney Weaver, Jeremy Piven, Keri Russell, Calista Flockhart, Bridget Fonda, Eric McCormack, Fran Drescher, Peter Hedges, Jane Alexander, Ron Livingston, Ben Shenkman, Maura Tierney, Kyra Sedgwick, Joanna Gleason, Lisa Gay Hamilton, Gil Bellows, Polly Draper, Thomas Gibson, Michael C. Hall, Lisa Harrow,Derek Anson Jones, John Spencer, Kathleen Turner, Charles Busch, Stephin Merritt, David Greenspan, Piper Perabo, Frederick Weller, Sarah Paulson, Dominic Chianese, Hugh Dancy, Ben Whishaw, Charles Busch. 2017-2018 Charm by Philip Dawkins School Girls.
Grayling reasons to be pretty by Neil LaBute2006–2007 In A Dark Dark House by Neil LaBute A Very Common Procedure by Courtney Baron Nixon's Nixon by Russell Lees2005–2006 Some Girl by Neil LaBute The Wooden Breeks by Glen Berger Colder Than Here by Laura Wade2004–2005 Last Easter by Bryony Lavery Fat Pig by Neil LaBute What of the Night based on the writings of Djuna Barnes2003–2004 Bright Ideas by Eric Coble Frozen by Bryony Lavery The Distance From Here by Neil LaBute2002–2003 Mercy Seat by Neil LaBute Scattergood by Anto Howard Intrigue With Faye by Kate Robin2001–2002 The Glory of Living by Rebecca Gilman Runt of the Litter by Bo Eason A Letter From Ethel Kennedy by Christopher Gorman2000–2001 A Place At the Table by Simon Block High Dive by Leslie Ayvazian The Dead Eye Boy by Angus MacLachlan1999–2000 Trudy Blue by Marsha Norman Sueño by Jose Rivera Yard Gal by Rebecca Prichard1998–1999 Wit by Margaret Edson The English Teachers by Ed Napier Angelique by Lorena Gale1997–1998 Anadarko by Tim Blake Nelson1996–1997 The Gravity of Means by John Kolvenbach Good As New by Peter Hedges1995–1996 Nixon's Nixon by Russell Lees The Grey Zone by Tim Blake Nelson Three in the Back, Two in the Head by Jason Sherman1994–1995 Girl Gone by Jacquelyn Reingold1993–1994 The Able Bodied Seaman by Alan Bowne Liar, Liar by Dael Orlandersmith1992–1993 Five Women Wearing the Same Dress by Alan Ball D Train by James Bosley and Fay Simpson1991–1992 A Snake in the Vein by Alan Bowne1987–1988 Beirut by Alan Bowne MCC Theater Official Website
Martha Craven Nussbaum is an American philosopher and the current Ernst Freund Distinguished Service Professor of Law and Ethics at the University of Chicago, where she is jointly appointed in the law school and the philosophy department. She has a particular interest in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, political philosophy and ethics, including animal rights, she holds associate appointments in classics and political science, is a member of the Committee on Southern Asian Studies, a board member of the Human Rights Program. She taught at Harvard and Brown. Nussbaum is the author of a number of books, including The Fragility of Goodness, Cultivating Humanity: A Classical Defense of Reform in Liberal Education and Social Justice, Hiding from Humanity: Disgust and the Law, Frontiers of Justice: Disability, Species Membership, From Disgust to Humanity: Sexual Orientation and Constitutional Law, she received the 2016 Kyoto Prize in the 2018 Berggruen Prize. Nussbaum was born on May 6, 1947, in New York City, the daughter of George Craven, a Philadelphia lawyer, Betty Warren, an interior designer and homemaker.
She described her upbringing as "East Coast WASP elite... sterile preoccupied with money and status". She would credit her impatience with "mandarin philosophers" and dedication to public service as the "repudiation of my own aristocratic upbringing. I don't like anything that sets itself up as an in-group or an elite, whether it is the Bloomsbury group or Derrida", she studied theatre and classics at New York University, getting a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1969, moved to philosophy while at Harvard University, where she received a Master of Arts degree in 1972 and a Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1975, studying under G. E. L. Owen; this period saw her marriage to Alan Nussbaum, her conversion to Judaism, the birth of her daughter Rachel. Nussbaum's interest in Judaism has continued and deepened: on August 16, 2008, she became a bat mitzvah in a service at Temple K. A. M. Isaiah Israel in Chicago's Hyde Park, chanting from the Parashah Va-etchanan and the Haftarah Nahamu, delivering a D'var Torah about the connection between genuine, non-narcissistic consolation and the pursuit of global justice.
When she became the first woman to hold the Junior Fellowship at Harvard, Nussbaum received a congratulatory note from a "prestigious classicist" who suggested that since "female fellowess" was an awkward name, she should be called hetaira, for in Greece these educated courtesans were the only women who participated in philosophical symposia. In the 1970s and early 1980 she taught philosophy and classics at Harvard, where she was denied tenure by the Classics Department in 1982. Nussbaum moved to Brown University, where she taught until 1994 when she joined the University of Chicago Law School faculty, her 1986 book The Fragility of Goodness, on ancient Greek ethics and Greek tragedy, made her a well-known figure throughout the humanities. More recent work establishes Nussbaum as a theorist of global justice. Nussbaum's work on capabilities has focused on the unequal freedoms and opportunities of women, she has developed a distinctive type of feminism, drawing inspiration from the liberal tradition, but emphasizing that liberalism, at its best, entails radical rethinking of gender relations and relations within the family.
Nussbaum's other major area of philosophical work is the emotions. She has defended a neo-Stoic account of emotions that holds that they are appraisals that ascribe to things and persons, outside the agent's own control, great significance for the person's own flourishing. On this basis she has proposed analyses of grief and love, and, in a book, of disgust and shame. Nussbaum has engaged in many spirited debates with other intellectuals, in her academic writings as well as in the pages of semi-popular magazines and book reviews and, in one instance, when testifying as an expert witness in court, she testified in the Colorado bench trial for Romer v. Evans, arguing against the claim that the history of philosophy provides the state with a "compelling interest" in favor of a law denying gays and lesbians the right to seek passage of local non-discrimination laws. A portion of this testimony, dealing with the potential meanings of the term tolmêma in Plato's work, was the subject of controversy, was called misleading and perjurious by critics.
She responded to these charges in a lengthy article called "Platonic Love and Colorado Law". Nussbaum used multiple references from Plato's Symposium and his interactions with Socrates as evidence for her argument; the debate continued with a reply by one of Robert P. George. Nussbaum has criticized Noam Chomsky as being among the leftist intellectuals who hold the belief that "one should not criticize one's friends, that solidarity is more important than ethical correctness", she suggests that one can "trace this line to an old Marxist contempt for bourgeois ethics, but it is loathsome whatever its provenance". Among the people whose books she has reviewed critically are Allan Bloom, Harvey Mansfield, Judith Butler, her more serious and academic debates have been with figures such as John Rawls, Richard Posner, Susan Moller Okin. Nussbaum is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Philosophical Society. In 2008 she was elected a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy.
She is a Founding President and Past President of the Human Development and Capability Association and a Past Presi
Ahna O'Reilly is an American actress. She is best known for her supporting role as Elizabeth Leefolt in the 2011 award-winning drama film The Help. O'Reilly began her acting career in 2003 in Bill the Intern, she has appeared in several other movies like Dinocroc, Nancy Drew, Just Add Water and Forgetting Sarah Marshall. She acted in television series like CSI:NY, The Vampire Diaries and Prime Suspect. In 2011, she appeared in the movie The Help based on Kathryn Stockett's best-selling novel of the same name, a period piece set in Jackson, Mississippi, in the 1960s; the film opened to positive reviews and became a box-office success with a worldwide gross of $211,608,112. It won several ensemble awards including National Board of Review Award, Screen Actors Guild Award and Satellite Award. O'Reilly co-starred in the 2013 film Jobs, alongside Ashton Kutcher and Josh Gad, about the life of technology pioneer Steve Jobs. In 2016, she appeared in the Roundabout Theatre Company off-Broadway production of The Robber Bridegroom.
A cast recording featuring O'Reilly in her role as Rosamund was released on September 9, 2016. O'Reilly graduated from Menlo School in 2003 and attended the University of Southern California for one year before dropping out, she dated actor James Franco for a time before the two broke up in 2011. Ahna O'Reilly on IMDb
Richard Schell was an American politician who represented New York in the United States House of Representatives from 1874 to 1875. Schell was born in Rhinebeck, New York on May 15, 1810, he was the son of Christian Schell, a merchant, Elizabeth Schell. He was the brother of Augustus Schell, Robert Schell, Edward Schell, who were well-known business men of New York City, his paternal grandparents were Anna Schell. He completed preparatory studies and engaged in mercantile pursuits before he moved to New York City in 1830 and became a wholesale dry-goods merchant. Schell was an agent and lobbyist for Cornelius Vanderbilt, he was a member of the New York State Senate in 1858 and 1859. Schell was elected as a Democrat to the Forty-third Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of David B. Mellish and served from December 7, 1874, to March 3, 1875. After leaving Congress, he resumed mercantile pursuits. Schell was married to the daughter of Aurora Murray and Isaac Jerome, she was the sister of Leonard Jerome, the prominent financier, the aunt of Jennie Jerome, an American who became Lady Randolph Churchill when she married Lord Randolph Churchill, the parents of U.
K. Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Schell died in New York City in 1879, was buried in the Old Dutch Cemetery in Rhinebeck. In the 2012 film Lincoln, the character of Richard Schell was portrayed by actor Tim Blake Nelson, he was shown lobbying for votes from Democratic House members to obtain passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. United States Congress. "Richard Schell". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Richard Schell at Find a Grave