Sierra Nevada National Park (Spain)
The Parque Nacional de Sierra Nevada is a national park located in the provinces of Granada, Almería, Málaga in Andalusia, Spain. It was declared a national park on 14 January 1999, it stretches from the Alpujarra to El Marquesado and the Lecrin Valley, covering a total area of 85,883 hectares, making it the largest national park in Spain. It incorporates the municipalities of Abla, Alboloduy, Bayárcal, Canjáyar, Fiñana, Fondón, Laujar de Andarax, Ohanes, Paterna del Río, Rágol, Las Tres Villas, Alpujarra de La Sierra, Bérchules, Bubión, Busquístar, Cáñar, Capileira, Dílar, Dólar, Dúrcal, Ferreira, Güéjar Sierra, Huéneja, Jerez del Marquesado, Lanjarón, Lecrín, Monachil, Nigüelas, Pampaneira, Pórtugos, Soportújar, La Taha, Trevélez, Valor and La Zubia. There are more than 20 peaks over 3,000 meters, with the highest being Mulhacén, Veleta and Alcazaba; the rivers that rise on the north face of the range feed the Guadalquivir basin, the most important ones being the Fardes and Genil. Meanwhile, the rivers that rise on the west and south faces run down into the Mediterranean.
These include the Dúrcal, Ízbor, Trevélez and Poqueira, which are all tributaries of the Guadalfeo, which itself rises in the Sierra Nevada, the Adra and Andarax, with their tributaries. The south and west faces are where you will find the majority of the 50 high-mountain lakes that exist in the Sierra Nevada, many of which are the sources of streams and rivers. Much of the landscape above 2,400 metres was shaped by the action of glaciers, resulting in characteristic U-shaped valleys. Due to its isolated location in the far south of Europe, the flora and fauna of the Sierra Nevada are unique. During the last ice age, species moved south to escape the colder climate in the north, as the climate grew warmer again, these species survived by taking refuge in the mountains. 2,100 plant species have been catalogued in the park, 116 of which are classified as threatened, over 60 of which are unique to the area. Threatened species include the Artemisia granatensis, a sub-species of the Marsh Gentian endemic to the Sierra Nevada and the Alpine Meadow-rue.
One of the most emblematic plants of the Sierra Nevada is the Plantago nivalis known as the Snow Star. The park is home to a thriving Spanish ibex population, along with other species such as wild boar, martens and wildcats. Native bird species include the Golden Eagle, Bonelli’s Eagle, Common Kestrel, Little Owl, Eurasian Eagle-owl, European Goldfinch, Ortolan, Dartford Warbler, Red-legged Partridge and Common Quail. On the edge of the park lies the Botanic Garden of Cortijuela, where the endemic species of the Sierra are investigated and preserved. Skiing:The Sierra Nevada Ski Station, which hosted the Alpine World Ski Championships in 1996, is Europe's southernmost ski resort. Thanks to its high altitude, the skiing season can last from late November until the start of May. Hiking:Popular bases for hiking in the Sierra Nevada include Capileira, Trevélez, Monachil, Güéjar Sierra and Bubión, it is easy to reach the summits of Mulhacén and Veleta, whereas Alcazaba is harder to reach. Dotted around the Sierra Nevada there are a number of mountain cabins designed for the use of hikers.
The three staffed cabins charge a small amount. There are a further six unstaffed cabins in a reasonable state of repair. Paragliding Bird-watching Sierra Nevada Sierra Nevada Natural Park
Steam is water in the gas phase, formed when water boils or evaporates. Steam is invisible. At lower pressures, such as in the upper atmosphere or at the top of high mountains, water boils at a lower temperature than the nominal 100 °C at standard pressure. If heated further it becomes superheated steam; the enthalpy of vaporization is the energy required to turn water into the gaseous form when it increases in volume by 1,700 times at standard temperature and pressure. Piston type steam engines played a central role to the Industrial Revolution and modern steam turbines are used to generate more than 80% of the world's electricity. If liquid water comes in contact with a hot surface or depressurizes below its vapor pressure, it can create a steam explosion. Steam is traditionally created by heating a boiler via burning coal and other fuels, but it is possible to create steam with solar energy. Water vapor that includes water droplets is described as wet steam; as wet steam is heated further, the droplets evaporate, at a high enough temperature all of the water evaporates and the system is in vapor–liquid equilibrium.
Superheated steam is steam at a temperature higher than its boiling point for the pressure, which only occurs where all liquid water has evaporated or has been removed from the system. Steam tables contain thermodynamic data for water/steam and are used by engineers and scientists in design and operation of equipment where thermodynamic cycles involving steam are used. Additionally, thermodynamic phase diagrams for water/steam, such as a temperature-entropy diagram or a Mollier diagram shown in this article, may be useful. Steam charts are used for analysing thermodynamic cycles. In agriculture, steam is used for soil sterilization to avoid the use of harmful chemical agents and increase soil health. Steam's capacity to transfer heat is used in the home: for cooking vegetables, steam cleaning of fabric and flooring, for heating buildings. In each case, water is heated in a boiler, the steam carries the energy to a target object. Steam is used in ironing clothes to add enough humidity with the heat to take wrinkles out and put intentional creases into the clothing.
As of 2000 around 90% of all electricity was generated using steam as the working fluid, nearly all by steam turbines. In electric generation, steam is condensed at the end of its expansion cycle, returned to the boiler for re-use. However, in cogeneration, steam is piped into buildings through a district heating system to provide heat energy after its use in the electric generation cycle; the world's biggest steam generation system is the New York City steam system, which pumps steam into 100,000 buildings in Manhattan from seven cogeneration plants. In other industrial applications steam is used for energy storage, introduced and extracted by heat transfer through pipes. Steam is a capacious reservoir for thermal energy because of water's high heat of vaporization. Fireless steam locomotives were steam locomotives that operated from a supply of steam stored on board in a large tank resembling a conventional locomotive's boiler; this tank was filled by process steam, as is available in many sorts of large factory, such as paper mills.
The locomotive's propulsion used connecting rods, as for a typical steam locomotive. These locomotives were used in places where there was a risk of fire from a boiler's firebox, but were used in factories that had a plentiful supply of steam to spare. Owing to its low molecular mass, steam is an effective lifting gas, providing 60% as much lift as helium and twice as much as hot air, it is not flammable, unlike hydrogen, is cheap and abundant, unlike helium. The required heat, leads to condensation problems and requires an insulated envelope; these factors have limited its use thus far to demonstration projects. Steam engines and steam turbines use the expansion of steam to drive a piston or turbine to perform mechanical work; the ability to return condensed steam as water-liquid to the boiler at high pressure with little expenditure of pumping power is important. Condensation of steam to water occurs at the low-pressure end of a steam turbine, since this maximizes the energy efficiency, but such wet-steam conditions must be limited to avoid excessive turbine blade erosion.
Engineers use an idealised thermodynamic cycle, the Rankine cycle, to model the behavior of steam engines. Steam turbines are used in the production of electricity. An autoclave, which uses steam under pressure, is used in microbiology laboratories and similar environments for sterilization. Steam dry steam, may be used for antimicrobial cleaning to the levels of sterilization. Steam is a non-toxic antimicrobial agent. Steam is used in piping for utility lines, it is used in jacketing and tracing of piping to maintain the uniform temperature in pipelines and vessels. Steam is used in the process of wood killing insects and increasing plasticity. Steam is used to accentuate drying in prefabricates. Care should be taken since concrete produces heat during hydration and additional heat from the steam could be detrimental to hardening reaction processes of the concrete. Used in cleaning of fibers and other materials, sometimes in preparation for painting. Steam is useful in melting hardened grease and oil resid
César Manrique was a Spanish artist, sculptor and activist from Lanzarote. Manrique was born in Arrecife, one of the Canary Islands, he fought in the Spanish Civil War as a volunteer in the artillery unit on Franco's side. He attended the University of La Laguna to study architecture, but after two years he quit his studies, he moved to Madrid in 1945 and received a scholarship for the Art School of San Fernando, where he graduated as a teacher of art and painting. Between 1964 and 1966 he lived in New York City, where a grant from Nelson Rockefeller allowed him to rent his own studio, he painted many works in New York, which were exhibited in the prestigious "Catherine Viviano" gallery. Manrique returned to Lanzarote in 1966, his legacy on the island includes his Volcano House, Taro de Tahiche, the restaurant at the restored Castillo de San José at Arrecife, his Palm Grove House at Haria, the art and tourism centre at Jameos del Agua, the Mirador del Rio and the Jardin de Cactus at Guatiza. He had a major influence on the planning regulations on Lanzarote following his recognition of its potential for tourism and lobbied to encourage the sustainable development of the industry.
One aspect of this is the lack of high rise hotels on the island. Those that are there are in keeping with the use of traditional colours in their exterior decoration. Manrique died in a car accident at Tahíche, Teguise near the Fundación, his Lanzarote home, in 1992, he was aged 73. The César Manrique foundation was set up in 1982 by César Manrique and a group of friends but wasn't opened until 1992 after Manrique died; the foundation, based at Manrique's home, following his move to a townhouse in the North of the Island, is a private, non-profit organisation set-up to allow tourists access to Manrique's home. The foundation is an art-gallery featuring art created by Manrique himself as well as Art that he acquired during his life; the gallery includes original sketches by Pablo Picasso and Joan Miró. The money the foundation takes from ticket sales goes toward raising awareness about the art of Lanzarote, as well as being used to fund the foundation's "artistic and environmental activities".
Manrique's home itself is built within a 3,000 m2 lot, on the site of the Lanzarote eruptions in the 18th century, was created upon Manrique's return from New York City in 1966. The rooms on the first floor, including the artist studios, were created with the intention of keeping with Lanzarote traditions, yet making them more modern with open spaces and large windows; the "ground floor", more appropriately titled the "basement", contains five areas situated within volcanic bubbles, the rooms bored into volcanic basalt. There is a central cave which houses a recreational area, including a swimming pool, a barbecue and a small dance floor. Once outside the main house, the visitor comes to the outside area, where there is a small square with a fountain in the middle before approaching a small café area and the visitor shop; this area was once César Manrique's garage. One of the foundation's fundamental missions is to oppose the spread of high-rise concrete across the Spanish coastline and her island.
The foundation brought attention to 24 illegally erected hotels in Lanzarote.. 1978 Weltpreis für Ökologie und Tourismus, Germany 1986 Europa Nostra Prize European parliament 1989 Art Prize, Canarian government 1989 Fritz Schumacher Prize at the University of Hanover, Germany In Lanzarote: Casa / Museo César Manrique. Mirador del Rio. Jameos del Agua. Jardín de Cactus. Taro de Tahíche. International Museum of Contemporary Arts in the Castillo de San José, Arrecife. Garden and swimming pools of the five-star hotel Las Salinas in Costa Teguise. El triunfador. Juguetes del viento. El Diablo, symbol of the Timanfaya National Park. El Diablo Restaurant. Outside Lanzarote: Lago Martiánez. Playa Jardin. La Peña. Mirador del Palmarejo. Canarian Pavilion. Parque Marítimo César Manrique, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Tenerife César, Manrique Arquitectura inédita Lancelot Internacional, Especial: César Manrique, Lanzarote, 3. Revisada 1996, Lanzarote. Idiomas: Español, Inglés y Alemán. Http://www.cesarmanrique.com http://www.fcmanrique.org Opening Timings 360° Panoramic vtour of the Lago Martiánez and pools
Cabañeros National Park
Cabañeros National Park is a national park in the Montes de Toledo, Spain. It falls within the northwest of Ciudad Real and the southwest of Toledo; the Park has an area of 390 square kilometres. It lies between the Estena and Bullaque rivers, extending into the Chorito and Miraflores mountain ranges, it is the best and largest surviving area of Iberian Mediterranean forest, with an enormous variety of plant species. It includes sites of geological interest; the antipodes of the park are located in Tongariro National Park in New Zealand. The fauna of the park is notable, both for its variety and for the high percentage of endangered species. Mammals include the otter in the Estena river and four species of ungulates: wild boar, red deer, roe deer and fallow deer; the park is a habitat for the Iberian lynx, a critically endangered feline. However, lynx have been sighted only intermittently in the area in recent years because of a shortage of rabbits, the main prey species; the Toledo Mountains have been used as a site for the reintroduction of the lynx as part of a LIFE project.
The Park is a Special Protection Area for birdlife, provides a home for the following notable species: Black stork Eurasian black vulture, second largest breeding population Spanish imperial eagle In theory there is a ban on hunting at Cabañeros, as at other Spanish national parks. However, some hunting is allowed for purposes of "population control". Official Page National Park
The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for a
Tinajo is a municipality in the western part of the island of Lanzarote in the Province of Las Palmas in the Canary Islands, Spain. The population is 5,783, the area is 135.28 km². It is located near the north coast, northwest of the island capital Arrecife; the main town in the municipality is Tinajo. El Cuchillo Mancha Blanca La Santa Tinajo La Vegueta The Timanfaya National Park covers the southwestern part of the municipality and is where most of its mountains are located; the park features rugged lands. The rest of the park is in Yaiza municipality. In Mancha Blanca is the chapel of the Our Lady of Dolours, the patron saint of the island of Lanzarote. List of municipalities in Las Palmas
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia