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Time-division multiplexing

Time-division multiplexing is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern. It is used when the bit rate of the transmission medium exceeds that of the signal to be transmitted; this form of signal multiplexing was developed in telecommunications for telegraphy systems in the late 19th century, but found its most common application in digital telephony in the second half of the 20th century. Time-division multiplexing was first developed for applications in telegraphy to route multiple transmissions over a single transmission line. In the 1870s, Émile Baudot developed a time-multiplexing system of multiple Hughes telegraph machines. In 1944, the British Army used the Wireless Set No. 10 to multiplex 10 telephone conversations over a microwave relay as far as 50 miles. This allowed commanders in the field to keep in contact with the staff in England across the English Channel.

In 1953 a 24-channel TDM was placed in commercial operation by RCA Communications to send audio information between RCA's facility on Broad Street, New York, their transmitting station at Rocky Point and the receiving station at Riverhead, Long Island, New York. The communication was by a microwave system throughout Long Island; the experimental TDM system was developed by RCA Laboratories between 1950 and 1953. In 1962, engineers from Bell Labs developed the first D1 channel banks, which combined 24 digitized voice calls over a four-wire copper trunk between Bell central office analogue switches. A channel bank sliced a 1.544 Mbit/s digital signal into 8,000 separate frames, each composed of 24 contiguous bytes. Each byte represented a single telephone call encoded into a constant bit rate signal of 64 kbit/s. Channel banks used the fixed position of one byte in the frame to identify the call. Time-division multiplexing is used for digital signals, but may be applied in analog multiplexing in which two or more signals or bit streams are transferred appearing as sub-channels in one communication channel, but are physically taking turns on the channel.

The time domain is divided into several recurrent time slots of fixed length, one for each sub-channel. A sample byte or data block of sub-channel 1 is transmitted during time slot 1, sub-channel 2 during time slot 2, etc. One TDM frame consists of one time slot per sub-channel plus a synchronization channel and sometimes error correction channel before the synchronization. After the last sub-channel, error correction, synchronization, the cycle starts all over again with a new frame, starting with the second sample, byte or data block from sub-channel 1, etc; the plesiochronous digital hierarchy system known as the PCM system, for digital transmission of several telephone calls over the same four-wire copper cable or fiber cable in the circuit switched digital telephone network The synchronous digital hierarchy /synchronous optical networking network transmission standards that have replaced PDH. The Basic Rate Interface and Primary Rate Interface for the Integrated Services Digital Network.

The RIFF audio standard interleaves left and right stereo signals on a per-sample basisTDM can be further extended into the time-division multiple access scheme, where several stations connected to the same physical medium, for example sharing the same frequency channel, can communicate. Application examples include: The GSM telephone system The Tactical Data Links Link 16 and Link 22 In circuit-switched networks, such as the public switched telephone network, it is desirable to transmit multiple subscriber calls over the same transmission medium to utilize the bandwidth of the medium. TDM allows transmitting and receiving telephone switches to create channels within a transmission stream. A standard DS0 voice signal has a data bit rate of 64 kbit/s. A TDM circuit runs at a much higher signal bandwidth, permitting the bandwidth to be divided into time frames for each voice signal, multiplexed onto the line by the transmitter. If the TDM frame consists of n voice frames, the line bandwidth is n.

Each voice time slot in the TDM frame is called a channel. In European systems, standard TDM frames contain 30 digital voice channels, in American systems, they contain 24 channels. Both standards contain extra bits for signaling and synchronization bits. Multiplexing more than 24 or 30 digital voice channels is called higher order multiplexing. Higher order multiplexing is accomplished by multiplexing the standard TDM frames. For example, a European 120 channel TDM frame is formed by multiplexing four standard 30 channel TDM frames. At each higher order multiplex, four TDM frames from the immediate lower order are combined, creating multiplexes with a bandwidth of n*64 kbit/s, where n = 120, 480, 1920, etc. There are three types of synchronous TDM: T1, SONET/SDH, ISDN. Plesiochronous digital hierarchy was developed as a standard for multiplexing higher order frames. PDH created larger numbers of channels by multiplexing the standard Europeans 30 channel TDM frames; this solution worked for a while.

The requirements which drove the development of SDH were these: Be synchronous – All clocks in the system must align with a reference clock. Be service-oriented – SDH must route traffi

Shaver Lake Railroad

The Shaver Lake Railroad was a standard gauge logging railroad that operated in the Sierra Nevada of Fresno County, California. The line was abandoned in 1927; the Shaver Lake Railroad traces its beginnings to October 31, 1891, when the Fresno Flume and Irrigation Company was incorporated to build 12 miles of track from the lumber mill at Shaver to the forest timber. In 1907, Southern California Edison bought the holdings of the Fresno Flume & Irrigation Co. and named the railroad the Shaver Lake Railroad. Trackage was extended 6 miles from a connection with the San Joaquin and Eastern Railroad at Dawn to Shaver. On September 8, 1908, SCE reincorporated the holdings under the name of Fresno Flume and Lumber Company. In 1919 the Shaver Lake Railroad was sold to Shaver Lake Lumber Company and the track was extended six miles south of Shaver into the forest; the railroad was abandoned in 1927. List of defunct California railroads Fickewirth, Alvin A.. California Railroads: an encyclopedia of cable car, common carrier, industrial, logging, motor road, streetcar and terminal railroads in California.

San Marino, California: Golden West Books. Pp. 45, 140. ISBN 0-87095-106-8. Walker, Mike. Steam Powered Video's Comprehensive Railroad Atlas of North America - California and Nevada - Post Merger Edition. Kent, United Kingdom: Steam Powered Publishing. P. 27. ISBN 1-874745-08-0

John Hinch (musician)

John Frederick Hinch is a British drummer. He was the original drummer of heavy metal band Judas Priest. Hinch is a jazz-rock styled drummer with a compact style. Hinch played in several Birmingham rock bands, including the Pinch, the Generation, the Bakerloo Blues Line Bakerloo. With vocalist Rob Halford he played in the band Hiroshima from 1972 to 1973. In May 1973 guitarist K. K. Downing and bassist Ian Hill, the founding members of Judas Priest, were looking for other musicians to complete the line-up for their band, vocalist Alan Atkins and various temporary drummers having left to pursue other musical projects, they approached Hinch after they saw them playing live with Hiroshima. Glenn Tipton joined as second guitarist, the first and historical official line-up of Judas Priest was established and in 1974 they recorded their first album, Rocka Rolla. Hinch was the driver and the road manager of the band. Hinch’s drumming managed tempo and style changes from swing to jazz and rock, using a single bass drum.

Hinch always used traditional jazz-rock drum kits with a snare drum, single bass drum, single tom-tom, single floor tom, in contrast to his numerous successors who used big kits and equipment. Differences and conflicts with Glenn Tipton, made Hinch leave: his place was taken by Alan "Skip" Moore. Hinch decided to pursue a career in musical management, working with Jameson Raid, Uli Jon Roth, Steel, The Bureau, Zeno. In recent years he was contacted by several musical biographers and interviewers and spoke about Judas Priest in a 1995 interview included in The Best of Judas Priest – The Insight Series. Hinch can be seen in the video of the songs "Rocka Rolla" and "Dreamer Deceiver" in the collection Metal Works 1973-1993, he is among the members of the band who separately collaborated with author Neil Daniels for the release of the biography Judas Priest Defenders of the Faith. Hinch was married from July 1987 to April 2010 to Jane Dayus, they have a son Fraser, a TV movie director

Solano, Nueva Vizcaya

Solano the Municipality of Solano, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 59,517 people, it is the main financial center of Nueva Vizcaya. It has the most number of fast food restaurants in the province, including Jollibee, Greenwich Pizza, McDonald's, KFC, Mang Inasal, Red Ribbon and more. Solano has the most number of banks among the municipalities in the entire region with 25 banks. Major banks such as Metrobank, Banco de Oro, Bank of the Philippine Islands, Philippine National Bank, Rizal Commercial Banking Corporation, China Bank as well as rural and regional banks are based here. According to the 2016 Cities and Municipalities Competitiveness Index conducted by the National Competitiveness Council, Solano took the 25th spot overall and ranked 30 among the first class and second class municipalities in the Philippines; this further solidified the status of Solano as the undisputed premier town of Cagayan Valley.

Solano, being the premier town in Nueva Vizcaya and the fastest-growing municipality in the region, is slated to become Cagayan Valley Region's 5th City after Tuguegarao, Santiago and Ilagan. Solano is politically subdivided into 22 barangays. Aggub Bagahabag Bangaan Bangar Bascaran Communal Concepcion Curifang Dadap Lactawan Osmeña Pilar D. Galima Poblacion North Poblacion South Quezon Quirino Roxas San Juan San Luis Tucal Uddiawan Wacal In 1760, the original name of the town was Bintauan, its pioneer settlers were the Gaddang tribe. The municipality was founded in 1767 by Father Alejandro Vidal, a Dominican priest who led a Spanish mission. In 1768, it was called "Lungabang"; the name was changed to "Lumabang" by the Spaniards for convenience. In 1851, Governor General Antonio Urbiztondo declared Lumabang a barrio of Bayombong for not having sufficient inhabitants and revenue to maintain itself. Governor General Ramon Solano y Llanderal authorized the separation of Lumabang as barrio from Bayombong.

In 1853, the first Ilocanos arrived brought by former Gobernadorcillo. In 1889, it was renamed Solano, in honor of Governor General Ramon Solano y Llanderal; the town was planned by Father Juan Villaverde. The poblacion, as designed, consisted of 14 parallel wide streets, each having a width of 20 meters; the streets run from north to south and east to west forming 100 square blocks with an aggregate area of one hectare per block. Solano was the largest municipality in the province until two of its barangays and Bintawan, were segregated to become the municipalities of Quezon and Villaverde respectively; the land area of Solano was correspondingly reduced to 13,980 hectares. In 1957, the barrios of Ibung and Bintawan were separated to form the town of Ibung renamed as Villaverde. Under the Spanish regime, the "Gobernadorcillo" called Municipal Mayor, Petty Governor was a native and elected annually; the election was made by the Cabezas de Barrangay - Heads of Barangay - which represented the survival of the earlier tribal organizations and were responsible for the tributes of their groups.

The Heads were hereditary, but, in time, it became elective. The electors of the Gobernadorcillo were current or former heads of the Barrangay and after 3 years of service became eligible for the office of Petty Governor; the following list shows the Gobernadorcillos, who had the honorary title "Don", during the Spanish regime from 1762-1898. The following served as capitanes del pueblo: The next three years, the town head was to be known gobernadorcillo, the use of capitan del pueblo was stopped. 1779 Gobernadorcillo Antonio Dayag 1780 Gobernadorcillo Vicente Labog 1781 Gobernadorcillo Francisco BusaThe following served as alcaldes de naturales: 1782 Alcalde De Naturales Manuel Balassu 1783 Alcalde De Naturales Pedro Arasa 1784 Alcalde De Naturales Tomas Abbacan 1785 Alcalde De Naturales Clemente Malenab 1786 Alcalde De Naturales Tomas Lauagan 1787 Alcalde De Naturales Domingo Dumelod 1788 Alcalde De Naturales Santiago AgguidOn April 19, 1789, the alcalde mayor conveyed to the people the decree issued by the King of Spain ordering the restoration of the title gobernadorcillo.

By executive order of 1851, Governor-General Antonio Urbiztondo, Marquez de la Solana, declared Lumabang to become a barrio of Bayombong resulting in the office of gobernadorcillo and teniente del barrio. It was during this time when a new province, was created, carving a portion of Nueva Vizcaya and a part of Cagayan; the new province was named in honor of Queen Isabela of Spain. The Governor of Nueva Vizcaya was Julian del Valle; the alcalde mayor of Cagayan came here for the purpose of this reorganization. 1857 Gobernadorcillo Panteleon Rivera 1857 Teniente Del Barrio Venido Loggan 1858 Gobernadorcillo Manuel Cutaran 1858 Teniente Del Barrio Domingo Esguerra 1859 Gobernadorcillo Vicente Saquing 1859 Teniente Del Barrio Miguel Dumelod 1860 Gobernadorcillo Tocuato Maddela 1860 Teniente Del Barrio Miguel LogganGeneral Ramon Solano y Llanderal authorized the separation of Lumabang as a barrio from Bayombong restoring the title of gobernadorcillo to Solano/Lumabang 1860 Gobernadorcillo Miguel Loggan 1861 Gobernadorcillo Pedro Panganiban 1862 Gobernadorcillo Enrique Balauag 1863 Gobernadorcillo Venido LogganThere was a new order at this time to increase the term of a gobernadorcillo from one year to two years.

In 1890, the establishment of the office of the justice of the peace was inaugurated in all the towns, the first to assume this office in Solano was Domingo Panganiban, in turn succeed by Juan Sobrino, a

Tony Gould

Tony Gould is an Australian jazz musician, pianist and educator. Gould's many recordings and performances reveal his harmonic view of music and his love of music from both African-American and European jazz traditions, as well as the classical works of Bach, Mahler and Messiaen. Live Again w/Rob Burke and Tony Gould Quartet JazzHead 2019 Live at Bennetts Lane w/Rob Burke and Tony Gould Quartet JazzHead 2011 Home w/Emma Gilmartin - voice. Move Records 2010 Tony Gould: The Lucky Ones. Move Records 2010 Here w/Rob Burke - sax. JazzHead 2010 Is it Spring Yet? w/Imogen Manins – cello, David Jones -perc. HUSH 2009 Under the Tall Trees w/Imogen Manins -- David Jones - perc. ABC Atmospheres, 2008 In Memoriam two pianos w/David Ward-Steinman Move Records. 2007 At the End of the Day: A Ramble on Irish Melodies - solo piano, ABC Classics, 2005 McJad Goes Organic w/Keith Hounslowtrumpet, Move Records, 2003 Tomorrow, Just You Wait and See w/Emma Gilmartin – voice, Move Records, 2003 Wide-Eyed w/Rob Burke & quartet, JazzHead, 2003 Last Will and Testament of John Sangster.

Move Records, 2003 Pianamente w/John Hoffman’s ConArtists, Griffith University, 2002 Once in a Lyall w/Graeme Lyall & quartet. Now Hear This! 2003 From Within w/Peter Petrucci – guitar, Move Records, 2002 River Story w/Peter Petrucci – guitar, Move Records, 2001 The Tony Gould Quartet. Move Records, 1998 Chronicle: Orchestral and Film Music of Tony Gould. Move Records, 1998 A Tin Roof for the Rain. w/quartet, Larrikin Records, 1998 Unanimity w/Bob Sedergreen, Move Records, 1988 Lyric w/Ben Robertson – double bass, Steve Heather, Newmarket, 1994 Horn Destinations w/Richard Runnels – horn, Brachi Tilles – piano, Move Records, 1991 Spirit of the Rainbow w/Brian Brown – flute/saxophone, Move Records, 1990 Best of Friends w/various ensembles, Move Records, 1984 Gould Plays Gould w/John Sangster and orchestra, Move Records, 1979 Introducing McJad w/Keith Hounslow – trumpet/flugel, Move Records, 1978 Tony Gould Solo piano, Larrikin Records, 1974 Essays on Music and Musicians in Australia The Art of Musical Improvisation: Thoughts and Ideas 2005 – nominated for APRA/Australian Music Centre Classical Music Award for "Outstanding Contribution to Australian Music in Education" 2006, Australia Council Music Board Fellowship 2007, Distinguished Artist residency at Arthur Boyd's artist's studios in Bundanon 2007, Order of Australia Don Banks Award 2009, won APRA/AMC Classical Music Awards – Instrumental Work of the Year "The River Meets the Sea" by Imogen Manins, Tony Gould, David Jones from Under the Tall Trees.

2011 Australian Jazz Bell Awards'Hall of Fame' Suite of compositions for Hush Crossroads for clarinet cello and piano Crossing Sonata for Solo Piano Concerto for percussion and orchestra Iluka Suite - for piano, cello & perc & strings Improvisation for piano and string orchestra The Subtlety of Time - concerto for sax. and orchestra Chronicle - for violin, piano & chamber orch. Homage to Bach - for jazz piano trio and orchestra 24 pieces for 24 Australian poems - small ens. Under Milk Wood - Duet Wind Terrace Plants in Action for small mixed ensemble Duo for tuba and piano The Oxford Companion to Australian Music The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz The Oxford Companion to Australian Jazz The Virgin Encyclopedia of Jazz The Australian Jazz Explosion Black Roots White Flowers Compositions for Improvisers Official website Profile on Move Records

The Tipping Point (The Roots album)

The Tipping Point is the sixth studio album by American hip hop band the Roots, released July 13, 2004 on Geffen Records. It is named after Malcolm Gladwell's book of the same name, it serves as the follow-up to Phrenology; the album is a musical departure from their previous work, featuring a more diverse, yet pop-oriented sound, it contains lyrics associated with rapping-prowess, political insight, social commentary. The Tipping Point has been noted by music writers for exhibiting and emphasizing soul and funk influences as well; the song "I Don't Care" was featured on the soundtrack of the game Gran Turismo 4. The album debuted at number four on the U. S. Billboard 200 chart, selling 109,000 copies in its first week. Despite mixed criticism towards its production and lyrical substance, The Tipping Point received positive reviews from most music critics, based on an aggregate score of 72 out of 100 on Metacritic. Sample credits"Star" samples "Everybody Is a Star" by Sly & The Family Stone "Stay Cool" samples "Harlem Hendoo" by Al Hirt "Web" samples "Dance Girl" by The Rimshots The RootsVocals: Tariq Trotter Bass: Adam Blackstone & Leonard Hubbard Drums: Questlove Guitars: Anthony Tidd, Kirk Douglas & Martin Luther Horns: Kevin Hanson Sound Manipulation: Si McMenamin Keyboards: Kamal Gray & Omar Edwards Percussion: Frank Knuckles WalkerProductionProducers: Questlove, Scott Storch The Tipping Point at Discogs The Tipping Point at Metacritic