Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid. The game is played by millions of people worldwide. Chess is believed to be derived from the Indian game chaturanga some time before the 7th century. Chaturanga is the ancestor of the Eastern strategy games xiangqi and shogi. Chess reached Europe by the 9th century, due to the Umayyad conquest of Hispania; the pieces assumed their current powers in Spain in the late 15th century with the introduction of "Mad Queen Chess". Play does not involve hidden information; each player begins with 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, eight pawns. Each of the six piece types moves differently, with the most powerful being the queen and the least powerful the pawn; the objective is to checkmate the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. To this end, a player's pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces, while supporting each other.
During the game, play involves making exchanges of one piece for an opponent's similar piece, but finding and engineering opportunities to trade advantageously, or to get a better position. In addition to checkmate, a player wins the game if the opponent runs out of time. There are several ways that a game can end in a draw; the first recognized World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886. Since 1948, the World Championship has been regulated by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs, the game's international governing body. FIDE awards life-time master titles to skilled players, the highest of, grandmaster. Many national chess organizations have a title system of their own. FIDE organizes the Women's World Championship, the World Junior Championship, the World Senior Championship, the Blitz and Rapid World Championships, the Chess Olympiad, a popular competition among international teams. FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee, which can be considered as a recognition of chess as a sport.
Several national sporting bodies recognize chess as a sport. Chess was included in 2010 Asian Games. There is a Correspondence Chess World Championship and a World Computer Chess Championship. Online chess has opened professional competition to a wide and varied group of players. Since the second half of the 20th century, chess engines have been programmed to play chess with increasing success, to the point where the strongest personal computers play at a higher level than the best human players. Since the 1990s, computer analysis has contributed to chess theory in the endgame; the IBM computer Deep Blue was the first machine to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion in a match when it defeated Garry Kasparov in 1997. The rise of strong chess engines runnable on hand-held devices has led to increasing concerns about cheating during tournaments. There are many variants of chess that utilize pieces, or boards. One of these, Chess960, incorporates standard rules but employs 960 different possible starting positions, thus negating any advantage in opening preparation.
Chess960 has gained widespread popularity as well as some FIDE recognition. The rules of chess are published by chess's international governing body, in its Handbook. Rules published by national governing bodies, or by unaffiliated chess organizations, commercial publishers, etc. may differ. FIDE's rules were most revised in 2017. Chess is played on a square board of eight columns; the 64 squares are referred to as light and dark squares. The chessboard is placed with a light square at the right-hand end of the rank nearest to each player. By convention, the game pieces are divided into white and black sets, the players are referred to as White and Black, respectively; each player begins the game with 16 pieces of the specified color, consisting of one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights, eight pawns. The pieces are set out as shown in the diagram and photo, with each queen on a square of its own color. In competitive games, the colors are allocated by the organizers; the player with the white pieces moves first.
After the first move, players alternate turns. Pieces are moved to either an unoccupied square or one occupied by an opponent's piece, captured and removed from play. With the sole exception of en passant, all pieces capture by moving to the square that the opponent's piece occupies. A player may not make any move that would leave the player's own king under attack. A player cannot "pass" a turn. If the player to move has no legal move, the game is over; each piece has its own way of moving. In the diagrams, the dots mark the squares to which the piece can move if there are no intervening piece of either color; the king moves one square in any direction. The king has
The game of chess is divided into three phases: the opening and endgame. There is a large body of theory regarding how the game should be played in each of these phases the opening and endgame; those who write about chess theory, who are also eminent players, are referred to as "theorists" or "theoreticians". "Opening theory" refers to consensus, broadly represented by current literature on the openings. "Endgame theory" consists of statements regarding specific positions, or positions of a similar type, though there are few universally applicable principles. "Middlegame theory" refers to maxims or principles applicable to the middlegame. The modern trend, however, is to assign paramount importance to analysis of the specific position at hand rather than to general principles; the development of theory in all of these areas has been assisted by the vast literature on the game. In 1913, preeminent chess historian H. J. R. Murray wrote in his 900-page magnum opus A History of Chess that, "The game possesses a literature which in contents exceeds that of all other games combined."
He estimated that at that time the "total number of books on chess, chess magazines, newspapers devoting space to the game exceeds 5,000". In 1949, B. H. Wood estimated that the number had increased to about 20,000. David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld wrote in 1992 that, "Since there has been a steady increase year by year of the number of new chess publications. No one knows how many have been printed..." The world's largest chess library, the John G. White Collection at the Cleveland Public Library, contains over 32,000 chess books and serials, including over 6,000 bound volumes of chess periodicals. Chess players today avail themselves of computer-based sources of information; the earliest printed work on chess theory, whose date can be established with some exactitude, is Repeticion de Amores y Arte de Ajedrez by the Spaniard Luis Ramirez de Lucena, published c. 1497, which included among other things analysis of eleven chess openings. Some of them are known today as the Giuoco Piano, Ruy Lopez, Petroff's Defense, Bishop's Opening, Damiano's Defense, Scandinavian Defense, though Lucena did not use those terms.
The authorship and date of the Göttingen manuscript are not established, its publication date is estimated as being somewhere between 1471 and 1505. It is not known whether Lucena's book was published first; the manuscript includes examples of games with the openings now known as Damiano's Defence, Philidor's Defense, the Giuoco Piano, Petroff's Defense, the Bishop's Opening, the Ruy Lopez, the Ponziani Opening, the Queen's Gambit Accepted, 1.d4 d5 2. Bf4 Bf5, Bird's Opening, the English Opening. Murray observes that it "is no haphazard collection of commencements of games, but is an attempt to deal with the Openings in a systematic way."Fifteen years after Lucena's book, Portuguese apothecary Pedro Damiano published the book Questo libro e da imparare giocare a scachi et de la partiti in Rome. It includes analysis of the Queen's Gambit Accepted, showing what happens when Black tries to keep the gambit pawn with...b5. Damiano's book "was, in contemporary terms, the first bestseller of the modern game."
Harry Golombek writes that it "ran through eight editions in the sixteenth century and continued on into the next century with unflagging popularity." Modern players know Damiano because his name is attached to the weak opening Damiano's Defense, although he condemned rather than endorsed it. These books and ones discuss games played with various openings, opening traps, the best way for both sides to play. Certain sequences of opening moves began to be given names, some of the earliest being Damiano's Defense, the King's Gambit, the Queen's Gambit, the Sicilian Defense. Damiano's book was followed by general treatises on chess play by Ruy López de Segura, Giulio Cesare Polerio, Gioachino Greco, Joseph Bertin, François-André Danican Philidor; the first author to attempt a comprehensive survey of the openings known was Aaron Alexandre in his 1837 work Encyclopedie des echecs. According to Hooper and Whyld, " Jaenisch produced the first openings analysis on modern lines in his Analyse nouvelle des ouvertures."
In 1843, Paul Rudolf von Bilguer published the German Handbuch des Schachspiels, which combined the virtues of Alexandre and Jaenisch's works. The Handbuch, which went through several editions, last being published in several parts in 1912–16, was one of the most important opening references for many decades; the last edition of the Handbuch was edited by Carl Schlechter, who had drawn a match for the World Championship with Emanuel Lasker in 1910. International Master William Hartston called it "a superb work the last to encase the whole of chess knowledge within a single volume."The English master Howard Staunton the world's strongest player from 1843 to 1851, included over 300 pages of analysis of the openings in his 1847 treatise The Chess Player's Handbook. That work became the standard reference work in English-speaking countries, was reprinted 21 times by 1935. However, "as time passed a demand arose for more up-to-date works in English". Wilhelm Steinitz, the first World Champion considered the "father of modern chess," extensively analyzed various double king-pawn openings in his book The Modern Chess Instructor, published in 1889 and 1895.
In 1889, E. Freeborough and the Reverend C. E. Ranken published the first edition of Chess Openings Modern. In 1911, R. C. Griffi
An hourglass is a device used to measure the passage of time. It comprises two glass bulbs connected vertically by a narrow neck that allows a regulated trickle of material from the upper bulb to the lower one. Factors affecting the time it measured include sand quantity, sand coarseness, bulb size, neck width. Hourglasses may be reused indefinitely by inverting the bulbs. Depictions of hourglasses in art survive in large numbers from antiquity to the present day, as a symbol for the passage of time; these were common sculpted as epitaphs on tombstones or other monuments in the form of the winged hourglass, a literal depiction of the well-known Latin epitaph tempus fugit. The origin of the hourglass is unclear, its predecessor the clepsydra, or water clock, is known to have existed in Babylon and Egypt as early as the 16th century BCE. There are no records of the hourglass existing in Europe prior to the Early Middle Ages, such as invention by the Ancient Greeks, but it was not until the 14th century that the hourglass was seen the earliest firm evidence being a depiction in the 1338 fresco Allegory of Good Government by Ambrogio Lorenzetti.
Use of the marine sandglass has been recorded since the 14th century. The written records about it were from logbooks of European ships. In the same period it appears in other lists of ships stores; the earliest recorded reference that can be said with certainty to refer to a marine sandglass dates from c. 1345, in a receipt of Thomas de Stetesham, clerk of the King's ship La George, in the reign of Edward III of England. Item, For four horologes of the same sort, bought there, price of each five gross', making in sterling 3s. 4d." Marine sandglasses were popular on board ships, as they were the most dependable measurement of time while at sea. Unlike the clepsydra, the motion of the ship while sailing did not affect the hourglass; the fact that the hourglass used granular materials instead of liquids gave it more accurate measurements, as the clepsydra was prone to get condensation inside it during temperature changes. Seamen found that the hourglass was able to help them determine longitude, distance east or west from a certain point, with reasonable accuracy.
The hourglass found popularity on land. As the use of mechanical clocks to indicate the times of events like church services became more common, creating a "need to keep track of time", the demand for time-measuring devices increased. Hourglasses were inexpensive, as they required no rare technology to make and their contents were not hard to come by, as the manufacturing of these instruments became more common, their uses became more practical. Hourglasses were seen in use in churches and work places to measure sermons, cooking time, time spent on breaks from labor; because they were being used for more everyday tasks, the model of the hourglass began to shrink. The smaller models were more practical and popular as they made timing more discreet. After 1500, the hourglass was not as widespread; this was due to the development of the mechanical clock, which became more accurate and cheaper, made keeping time easier. The hourglass, did not disappear entirely. Although they became less useful as clock technology advanced, hourglasses remained desirable in their design.
The oldest known surviving hourglass resides in the British Museum in London. Not until the 18th century did John Harrison come up with a marine chronometer that improved on the stability of the hourglass at sea. Taking elements from the design logic behind the hourglass, he made a marine chronometer in 1761, able to measure the journey from England to Jamaica accurate within five seconds. Little written evidence exists to explain; the glass bulbs used, have changed in style and design over time. While the main designs have always been ampoule in shape, the bulbs were not always connected; the first hourglasses were two separate bulbs with a cord wrapped at their union, coated in wax to hold the piece together and let sand flow in between. It was not until 1760 that both bulbs were blown together to keep moisture out of the bulbs and regulate the pressure within the bulb that varied the flow. While some early hourglasses did use sand as the granular mixture to measure time, many did not use sand at all.
The material used in most bulbs was a combination of "powdered marble, tin/lead oxides, pulverized, burnt eggshell". Over time, different textures of granule matter were tested to see which gave the most constant flow within the bulbs, it was discovered that for the perfect flow to be achieved the ratio of granule bead to the width of the bulb neck needed to be 1/12 or more but not greater than 1/2 the neck of the bulb. Hourglasses were an early accurate measure of time; the rate of flow of the sand is independent of the depth in the upper reservoir, the instrument will not freeze in cold weather. From the 15th century onwards, hourglasses were being used in a range of applications at sea, in the church, in industry, in cookery. During the voyage of Ferdinand Magellan around the globe, 18 hourglasses from Barcelona were in the ship's in
A game is a structured form of play undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool. Games are distinct from work, carried out for remuneration, from art, more an expression of aesthetic or ideological elements. However, the distinction is not clear-cut, many games are considered to be work or art. Games are sometimes played purely sometimes for achievement or reward as well, they can be played alone, in online. The players may have an audience of non-players, such as when people are entertained by watching a chess championship. On the other hand, players in a game may constitute their own audience as they take their turn to play. Part of the entertainment for children playing a game is deciding, part of their audience and, a player. Key components of games are goals, rules and interaction. Games involve mental or physical stimulation, both. Many games help develop practical skills, serve as a form of exercise, or otherwise perform an educational, simulational, or psychological role.
Attested as early as 2600 BC, games are a universal part of human experience and present in all cultures. The Royal Game of Ur, Mancala are some of the oldest known games. Ludwig Wittgenstein was the first academic philosopher to address the definition of the word game. In his Philosophical Investigations, Wittgenstein argued that the elements of games, such as play and competition, all fail to adequately define what games are. From this, Wittgenstein concluded that people apply the term game to a range of disparate human activities that bear to one another only what one might call family resemblances; as the following game definitions show, this conclusion was not a final one and today many philosophers, like Thomas Hurka, think that Wittgenstein was wrong and that Bernard Suits' definition is a good answer to the problem. French sociologist Roger Caillois, in his book Les jeux et les hommes, defined a game as an activity that must have the following characteristics: fun: the activity is chosen for its light-hearted character separate: it is circumscribed in time and place uncertain: the outcome of the activity is unforeseeable non-productive: participation does not accomplish anything useful governed by rules: the activity has rules that are different from everyday life fictitious: it is accompanied by the awareness of a different reality Computer game designer Chris Crawford, founder of The Journal of Computer Game Design, has attempted to define the term game using a series of dichotomies: Creative expression is art if made for its own beauty, entertainment if made for money.
A piece of entertainment is a plaything. Movies and books are cited as examples of non-interactive entertainment. If no goals are associated with a plaything, it is a toy. If it has goals, a plaything is a challenge. If a challenge has no "active agent against whom you compete", it is a puzzle. If the player can only outperform the opponent, but not attack them to interfere with their performance, the conflict is a competition. However, if attacks are allowed the conflict qualifies as a game. Crawford's definition may thus be rendered as: an interactive, goal-oriented activity made for money, with active agents to play against, in which players can interfere with each other. "A game is a system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome." "A game is a form of art in which participants, termed players, make decisions in order to manage resources through game tokens in the pursuit of a goal." According to this definition, some "games" that do not involve choices, such as Chutes and Ladders, Candy Land, War are not technically games any more than a slot machine is.
"A game is an activity among two or more independent decision-makers seeking to achieve their objectives in some limiting context." "At its most elementary level we can define game as an exercise of voluntary control systems in which there is an opposition between forces, confined by a procedure and rules in order to produce a disequilibrial outcome." "A game is a form of play with goals and structure." "to play a game is to engage in activity directed toward bringing about a specific state of affairs, using only means permitted by specific rules, where the means permitted by the rules are more limited in scope than they would be in the absence of the rules, where the sole reason for accepting such limitation is to make possible such activity." "When you strip away the genre differences and the technological complexities, all games share four defining traits: a goal, rules, a feedback system, voluntary participation." Games can be characterized by "what the player does". This is referred to as gameplay.
Major key elements identified in this context are tools and rules that define the overall context of game. Games are classified by the com
History of chess
The history of chess can be traced back nearly 1500 years, although the earliest origins are uncertain. The earliest predecessor of the game originated in India, before the 6th century AD. From India, the game spread to Persia; when the Arabs conquered Persia, chess was taken up by the Muslim world and subsequently spread to Southern Europe. In Europe, chess evolved into its current form in the 15th century. "Romantic Chess" was the predominant chess playing style from the late 15th century to the 1880s. Chess games of this period emphasised more on quick, tactical maneuvers rather than long-term strategic planning; the Romantic era of play was followed by the Scientific and New Dynamism eras. In the second half of the 19th century, modern chess tournament play began, the first World Chess Championship was held in 1886; the 20th century saw great leaps forward in chess theory and the establishment of the World Chess Federation. Developments in the 21st century include use of computers for analysis, which originated in the 1970s with the first programmed chess games on the market.
Online gaming appeared in the mid-1990s. Chess remains a popular pastime among the general populace to this day. A 2012 survey found that "chess players now make up one of the largest communities in the world: 605 million adults play chess regularly". Chess is played at least once a year by 12% of British people, 15% of Americans, 23% of Germans, 43% of Russians, 70% of Indian people. Precursors to chess originated in India during the Gupta Empire. There, its early form in the 6th century was known as chaturaṅga, which translates as "four divisions": infantry, cavalry and chariotry; these forms are represented by the pieces that would evolve into the modern pawn, knight and rook, respectively. Chess was introduced to Persia from India and became a part of the princely or courtly education of Persian nobility. In Sassanid Persia around 600 the name became chatrang, which subsequently evolved to shatranj, due to Arab Muslims' lack of ch and ng native sounds, the rules were developed further. Players started calling "Shāh!" when attacking the opponent's king, "Shāh Māt!" when the king was attacked and could not escape from attack.
These exclamations persisted in chess. The game was taken up by the Muslim world after the Islamic conquest of Persia, with the pieces keeping their Persian names; the Moors of North Africa rendered Persian "shatranj" as shaṭerej, which gave rise to the Spanish acedrex and ajedrez. Thus, the game came to be called ludus scacchorum or scacci in Latin, scacchi in Italian, escacs in Catalan, échecs in French. From the first chessmen known of in Western Europe being ornamental chess kings brought in as curios by Muslim traders; the Mongols call the game shatar, in Ethiopia it is called senterej, both evidently derived from shatranj. Chess spread directly from the Middle East to Russia, where chess became known as шахматы; the game reached Western Europe and Russia by at least three routes, the earliest being in the 9th century. By the year 1000 it had spread throughout Europe. Introduced into the Iberian Peninsula by the Moors in the 10th century, it was described in a famous 13th-century manuscript covering shatranj and dice named the Libro de los juegos.
Chess spread throughout the world and many variants of the game soon began taking shape. Buddhist pilgrims, Silk Road traders and others carried it to the Far East where it was transformed and assimilated into a game played on the intersection of the lines of the board rather than within the squares. Chaturanga reached Europe through the Byzantine empire and the expanding Arabian empire. Muslims carried chess to North Africa and Iberia by the 10th century; the game was developed extensively in Europe. By the late 15th century, it had survived a series of prohibitions and Christian Church sanctions to take the shape of the modern game. Modern history saw reliable reference works, competitive chess tournaments, exciting new variants; these factors added to the game's popularity, further bolstered by reliable timing mechanisms, effective rules, charismatic players. The earliest precursor of modern chess is a game called chaturanga, which flourished in India by the 6th century, is the earliest known game to have two essential features found in all chess variations—different pieces having different powers, victory depending on the fate of one piece, the king of modern chess.
The original chess board was mathematically revolutionary, as reported by the infamous Wheat and chessboard problem. A common theory is that India’s development of the board, chess, was due to India’s mathematical enlightenment involving the creation of the number zero. Other game pieces uncovered in archaeological findings are considered as coming from other, distantly related board games, which may have had boards o
Shogi known as Japanese chess or the Game of Generals, is a two-player strategy board game native to Japan in the same family as chess, shatranj and xiangqi, is the most popular chess variant in Japan. Shōgi means general's board game. Shogi was the earliest chess variant to allow captured pieces to be returned to the board by the capturing player; this drop rule is speculated to have been invented in the 15th century and connected to the practice of 15th century mercenaries switching loyalties when captured instead of being killed. The earliest predecessor of the game, originated in India in the 6th century. Shogi in its present form was played as early as the 16th century, while a direct ancestor without the drop rule was recorded from 1210 in a historical document Nichūreki, an edited copy of Shōchūreki and Kaichūreki from the late Heian period. Two players face each other across a board composed of rectangles in a grid of 9 ranks by 9 files yielding a 81 square board. In Japanese they are called Sente 先手 and Gote 後手, but in English are conventionally referred to as Black and White, with Black the first player.
The board is nearly always rectangular, the rectangles are undifferentiated by marking or color. Pairs of dots mark the players' promotion zones; each player has a set of 20 flat wedge-shaped pentagonal pieces of different sizes. Except for the kings, opposing pieces are undifferentiated by color. Pieces face forward by having the pointed side of each piece oriented toward the opponent's side – this shows who controls the piece during play; the pieces from largest to smallest are: 1 king 1 rook 1 bishop 2 gold generals 2 silver generals 2 knights 2 lances 9 pawnsSeveral of these names were chosen to correspond to their rough equivalents in international chess, not as literal translations of the Japanese names. Each piece has its name written on its surface in the form of two kanji in black ink. On the reverse side of each piece, other than the king and gold general, are one or two other characters, in amateur sets in a different color. Following is a table of the pieces with English equivalents.
The abbreviations are used for game notation and when referring to the pieces in speech in Japanese. English speakers sometimes refer to promoted bishops as horses and promoted rooks as dragons, after their Japanese names, use the Japanese term tokin for promoted pawns. Silver generals and gold generals are referred to as silvers and golds; the characters inscribed on the reverse sides of the pieces to indicate promotion may be in red ink, are cursive. The characters on the backs of the pieces that promote to gold generals are cursive variants of 金'gold', becoming more cursive as the value of the original piece decreases; these cursive forms have these equivalents in print: 全 for promoted silver, 今 for promoted knight, 仝 for promoted lance, 个 for promoted pawn. Another typographic convention has abbreviated versions of the original values, with a reduced number of strokes: 圭 for a promoted knight, 杏 for a promoted lance, the 全 as above for a promoted silver, but と for tokin; the suggestion that the Japanese characters have deterred Western players from learning shogi has led to "Westernized" or "international" pieces which use iconic symbols instead of characters.
Most players soon learn to recognize the characters, however because the traditional pieces are iconic by size, with more powerful pieces being larger. As a result, Westernized pieces have never become popular. Bilingual pieces with both Japanese characters and English captions have been developed as have pieces with animal cartoons; each player sets up friendly pieces facing forward. In the rank nearest the player: the king is placed in the center file; that is, the first rank isorIn the second rank, each player places: the bishop in the same file as the left knight. In the third rank, the nine pawns are placed one per file. Traditionally, the order of placing the pieces on the board is determined. There are two used orders, the Ōhashi order 大橋流 and the Itō order 伊藤流. Placement sets pieces with multiples from left to right in all cases, follows the order: king gold generals silver generals knightsIn ito, the player now places: 5. Pawns 6. Lances 7. Bishop 8. Rook In ohashi, the player now places: 5.
Lances 6. Bishop 7. Rook 8. Pawns A furigoma 振り駒 ` piece toss' is used to decide. One of the players tosses five pawns. If the number of tokins facing up is higher than unpromoted pawns the player who tossed the pawns plays gote 後手'white'. Among amateur tournaments, the higher-ranked player or defending champion performs the piece toss. In professional games, the furigoma is done on the behalf of the higher-ranked player/champion by the timekeeper who kneels by the side of the higher-ranked player and tosses the pa
Fast chess is a type of chess in which each player is given less time to consider their moves than normal tournament time controls allow. The rules specify a cumulative total time for moves for each side. In a fast chess game, each player will have less than the usual 60 minutes at their disposal, based on a 60-move game, sometimes less time. Fast chess is further subdivided, by decreasing time controls, into rapid chess, blitz chess, bullet chess. Armageddon chess is a particular variation in which different rules apply for each of the two players; the 2018 world rapid chess champion is Daniil Dubov from Russia, the 2018 world blitz chess champion is Magnus Carlsen. Ju Wenjun from China is the 2018 women's world rapid champion, Kateryna Lagno from Russia is the 2018 women's world blitz champion; the World Chess Federation divides time controls for chess into "classical" time controls, the fast chess time controls. As of July 2014, for master-level players the regulations state that at least 120 minutes per player must be allocated for a game to be rated on the "classical" list.
Games played faster than these time controls can be rated for rapid and blitz if they comply with the time controls for those categories. A fast chess game can be further divided into several categories, which are distinguished by the selection of time controls. Games may be played without time increments per move. Time controls for each player in a game of rapid chess are, according to FIDE, more than 10 minutes, but less than 60 minutes. Rapid chess can be played without time increments for each move. In a game where time increments are used, a player can automatically gain, for instance, ten more seconds on the clock after each move. In a case where time increments are used, the total time per player for a 60-move game must be more than 10 minutes, but less than 60 minutes. For the FIDE World Rapid Championship, each player will have 15 minutes, plus 10 seconds additional time per move starting from move 1; the United States Chess Federation quick chess rating for players is based on games with time controls per player greater than 10 minutes, up to a maximum of 65 minutes.
Games between 30 and 65 minutes per player are dual rated for both regular ratings. Time controls for each player in a game of blitz chess are, according to FIDE, 10 minutes or less per player; this can be sudden death, with no time increment per move, but it may be played with a small increment per move—a more recent development due to the influx of digital clocks. Three minutes with a two-second increment is preferred. In the case of time increments, the total time per player for a 60-move game must be 10 minutes or less. For the FIDE World Blitz Championship, each player has 3 minutes, plus 2 seconds additional time per move starting from move 1; the USCF define blitz chess as time controls between 10 minutes per player. The terms blitz or blitzkrieg in chess sometimes means a quick attack on the f7- or f2-square early in the game, putting the king in check; this term is not limited to fast chess. A variant of blitz chess, bullet chess games have less than three minutes per player, based on a 40-move game, this extends down to one-minute-per-player games.
Other time control options for bullet games include 2 minutes with one-second increment or 1 minute with a two-second increment. The term lightning can be applied to this variant. Online bullet chess avoids practical problems associated with live bullet chess players accidentally knocking over the pieces. Under USCF rules, bullet games are not ratable. A game guaranteed to produce a decisive result. To compensate, White has more time on the clock. Common times are six minutes for White and five for Black, or five minutes for White and four for Black; this can be played with a small increment. This is known as "time odds" and it is used in various tie breaks for quick tournaments. An example of Armageddon was played by Ian Nepomniachtchi versus Hikaru Nakamura at the 2015 FIDE World Cup. Lightning A general term for fast chess, it can refer to games with a fixed time for each move. This can be used for one-minute games. Active chess Used from 1987 to 1989, to refer to rapid chess. Before the advent of digital clocks, five minutes per side was the standard for blitz or speed chess.
Before the introduction of chess clocks in the mid-1950s chess club "rapid transit" tournaments had a referee who every ten seconds called out. The Washington Divan had regular weekly games and used a special clock that beeped every ten seconds to indicate the time to move. Players had to move on the bell. In 1988 Walter Browne formed the World Blitz Chess Association and its magazine Blitz Chess, which folded in 2003. In some chess tournaments and matches, the final standings of the contestants are decided by a series of games with shortening control times as tie breaks. In this case, two games may be played with each time control, as playing with black or white pieces is not liked among players; the short time controls in fast chess reduce the amount of time available to consider each move, may result in a frantic game as time runs out. A player whose time runs out automatically loses, unless the oppo