Time signal

A time signal is a visible, mechanical, or electronic signal used as a reference to determine the time of day. Church bells or voices announcing hours of prayer gave way to automatically operated chimes on public clocks. Busy seaports used a visual signal, the dropping of a ball, to allow mariners to check the chronometers used for navigation; the advent of electrical telegraphs allowed widespread and precise distribution of time signals from central observatories. Railways were among the first customers for time signals, which allowed synchronization of their operations over wide geographic areas. Dedicated radio time signal stations transmit a signal that allows automatic synchronization of clocks, commercial broadcasters still include time signals in their programming. Today, GPS navigation radio signals are used to distribute time signals over much of the world. There are many commercially available radio controlled clocks available to indicate the local time, both for business and residential use.

Computers set their time from an Internet atomic clock source. Where this is not available, a locally connected GPS receiver can set the time using one of several software applications. One sort of public time signal is a striking clock; these clocks are only as good as the clockwork that activates them, but they have improved since the first clocks from the 14th century. Until modern times, a public clock such as Big Ben was the only time standard the general public needed. Accurate knowledge of time of day is essential for navigation, ships carried the most accurate marine chronometers available, although they did not keep perfect time. A number of accurate audible or visible time signals were established in many seaport cities to enable navigators to set their chronometers. In Vancouver, British Columbia, a "9 O'Clock Gun" is still shot every night at 9 pm; the 9:00 pm firing was established as a time signal for the general population. Until a time gun was installed, the nearby Brockton Point lighthouse keeper detonated a stick of dynamite.

Elsewhere in Canada, a "Noon Gun" is fired daily from the citadels in Halifax and Quebec City and from Signal Hill in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador. In the same manner, a noon gun has been fired in Cape Town, South Africa, since 1806; the gun is fired daily from the Lion Battery at Signal Hill. A cannon was fired at one o'clock every weekday at Liverpool, England, at the Castle in Edinburgh, at Perth in Australia to establish the time; the Edinburgh "One O'Clock Gun" is still in operation. A cannon located at the top of Santa Lucia Hill, in Santiago, Chile, is shot every noon. In Rome, on the Janiculum, a hill west of the Tiber since 1904 a cannon is fired daily at noon towards the river as a time signal; this was introduced in 1847 by Pope Pius IX to synchronise all the church bells of Rome. It was situated in Castel Sant'Angelo until 1903 when it was moved to Monte Mario for a few months until it was placed in its current position; the cannon was silenced from the start of WWII for about twenty years until 21 April 1959, the 2712th anniversary of Rome's founding, has been in use since then.

For many years an old cannon was fired "about noon" from a mountain near Afghanistan. In many Midwestern US cities where tornadoes are a common hazard, the emergency sirens are tested at a specified time. In many non-seafaring communities, loud factory whistles served as public time signals before radio made them obsolete. Sometimes, the tradition of a factory whistle becomes so entrenched in a community that the whistle is maintained long after its original function as a time keeper became obsolete. For example, the University of Iowa's power plant whistle has been reinstated several times by popular demand after numerous attempts to silence it. In 1861 and 1862, the Edinburgh Post Office Directory published time gun maps relating the number of seconds required for the report of the time gun to reach various locations in the city; because light travels much faster than sound, visible signals enabled greater precision than audible ones, although audible signals could operate better under conditions of reduced visibility.

The first time ball was erected at Portsmouth, England in 1829 by its inventor Robert Wauchope. One was installed in 1833 on the roof of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich and the time ball has dropped at 1:00 pm every day since then; the first American time ball went into service in 1845. In New York City, the ceremonial Times Square Ball drop on New Year's Eve in Times Square is a vestige of a visual time signal; the first telegraph distribution of time signal in the United Kingdom, indeed, in the world, was initiated in 1852 by the Electric Telegraph Company in collaboration with the Astronomer Royal. Greenwich Mean Time was distributed by telegraph from the Greenwich Observatory; this included a system for synchronising the drop of the time ball at Greenwich with other time balls around the country, one of, on top of the Electric's offices in the Strand. Other synchronised time balls were on top of the Nelson Monument, Edinburgh. Telegraph signals were used for time coordination by the United States Naval Observatory starting in 1865.

By the late 1800s many U. S. observatories were selling accurate time by offering a regional time signal ser

Porozumienie ponad podziaƂami

Porozumienie ponad podziałami is the second studio album by Polish rapcore band Kazik Na Żywo. It was released on September 24, 1995 in Poland through S. P. Records; the cover art was created by Jan Staszewski. Porozumienie ponad podziałami is considered the best album in whole Kazik Na Żywo carrier. Porozumienie ponad podziałami is considered to be one of the most important albums in the history of Polish rock. 8. - music: Tomasz "Titus" Pukacki 10. - music: Kazimierz Staszewski i Jacek Kufirski 12. and 13. - first release only on CC Kazik Staszewski - vocal, lyrics Adam Burzyński - guitar Robert Friedrich - guitar, vocal Tomasz Goehs - drums, vocal Michał Kwiatkowski - bass, guitar

Rafah, Egypt

Rafah is an important city in North Sinai and Egypt's eastern border with the Gaza Strip. It is the capital of Rafah center in North Sinai Governorate, is situated on the eastern Mediterranean coast of Egypt. Rafah is the site of the Rafah Border Crossing, the sole crossing point between Egypt and the Gaza Strip; the Egyptian government announced in early 2015 that it would raze the entire city and build a new settlement for its residents, in order to expand a security buffer between Egypt and Gaza Strip. The Egyptian military began bulldozing sections of Rafah in late 2014. In the Egyptian language of Ancient Egypt, the city was known as Rapia; the city has for significant periods been a part of the Egyptian Empire since the Pharaonic period. It was a major location on the battle route towards Egyptian settlements in Anatolia and Levant; when Israel withdrew from the Sinai in 1982, Rafah was split into a Gazan part and an Egyptian part, dividing families, separated by barbed-wire barriers. The core of the city was destroyed by Egypt to create a large buffer zone.

During the 2011 Egyptian protests, anti-government rioters attacked and killed three police officers in the town. In October 2014, the Egyptian government announced plans to relocate the population and demolish the city in order to enlarge the buffer zone between Egypt and Gaza. Between July 2013 and August 2015, Egyptian authorities demolished at least 3,255 residential, commercial and community buildings along the border, forcibly evicting thousands of people. In June 2015 Egypt completed the digging of a ditch at the Rafah Crossing Point, 20 meters wide by 10 meters deep, it is located two kilometers from the border with Gaza outside of Rafah City and part of the enlarged buffer zone. Expansion of the trench along with watchtowers was planned. Rafah is in a Mediterranean climate agriculture thrives. Due to rain and sleet. Mediterranean fruits and crops are dominant, such as: peaches, apples, citrus fruits, grapes, vegetables and peppers. Smuggling to the Gaza Strip has been a major source of income for Bedouin tribesmen, using over 1,200 smuggling tunnels to smuggle food and other goods into Gaza.

Like east Mediterranean cities and Egypt's north coast but wetter, it is characterised by hot dry summers and mild rainy winters. The temperature during summer can be around 30 °C during daytime, exceeds 35 °C due to the influence of the sea. Winters range from mild to cool during the day and chilly during the night and temperatures dip below 6 °C often. Rainfall is average with sometimes hail and snow takes place. Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as hot semi-arid. Rafah, Abu Qir, Baltim, Kafr el-Dawwar and Mersa Matruh are the wettest places in Egypt. List of cities and towns in Egypt Rafah Rafah Border Crossing Gaza Strip smuggling tunnels