Show control is the use of automation technology to link together and operate multiple entertainment control systems in a coordinated manner. It is distinguished from an entertainment control system, specific to a single theatrical department, system or effect, one which coordinates elements within a single entertainment discipline such as lighting, video, rigging or pyrotechnics. A typical entertainment control system would be lighting control. An example of show control would be linking a video segment with a number of lighting cues, or having a sound track trigger animatronic movements -- or all of these combined. Shows with or without live actors can invariably incorporate entertainment control technology and benefit from show control to operate these subsystems independently or in rapid succession. Show control networks have supplanted older show control typologies; this is due to the maturation of the larger information technology computing industry, due to its scale and dominance, has produced standards and software, less expensive than older show control equipment and methodologies and more reliable and usable in entertainment applications.
Modern systems are based upon Ethernet networking. Most manufacturers of entertainment control equipment now include Ethernet ports on their equipment. Ethernet was disqualified from consideration for show control because it was slow, non-deterministic, lacked sufficient bandwidth to handle certain show control functions; these early objections have been overcome with the use of full-duplex switched Ethernet running at 1000BASE-T speeds on a dedicated local area network. The MIDI Show Control standard is an open, industry-wide international communications protocol through which all types of show devices can communicate. MIDI is a simplex asynchronous serial data transmission standard with the circuit being an opto-isolated current loop type. MIDI, an acronym for Musical Instrument Digital Interface, was designed in the early 1980s as a means of controlling multiple keyboard synthesizers from different manufacturers. Beginning in 1989, a group of interested theatre professionals headed by Charlie Richmond of Richmond Sound Design in Vancouver British Columbia began discussions on the USITT MIDI Forum Callboard Network.
This forum included developers and designers from the theatre sound and lighting industry from around the world. They created the MSC standard between January and September, 1990, it was ratified by the MIDI Manufacturers Association in January, 1991, the Japan MIDI Standards Committee that year, as an extension of the standard MIDI specification. It became an accepted standard in August, 1991; the first show to utilize the MSC specification was the Magic Kingdom Parade at Walt Disney World's Magic Kingdom in September, 1991. USITT DMX512-A is the current de facto standard for lighting control systems, it is an asynchronous serial data transmission standard found as a control scheme between computerized lighting consoles and connected dimmers, moving light fixtures, color changers including LED fixtures, certain effects which are operated by the electrical department in theatres. DMX512 was launched by USITT in 1986, it was updated in 1990 to USITT DMX512/1990. In 1998, the maintenance of the standard was transferred to the Entertainment Services and Technology Association.
ESTA revised it, it was accepted by the American National Standards Institute in November 2004 as "Entertainment Technology—USITT DMX512-A—Asynchronous Serial Digital Data Transmission Standard for Controlling Lighting Equipment and Accessories". In 2011, ESTA merged with the Professional Lighting and Sound Association, which now manages the standard; the standard is now called "E1.11 – 2008, USITT DMX512-A". At one time, DMX was put forth as a possible show control standard by the manufacturers of lighting control consoles, but this idea was never adopted, due to the speed and network traffic limitations of DMX for show control applications. Audio systems have benefited from digital networking technology. Dante is one of the most technically advanced means of routing high quality audio over an Ethernet network, it is a proprietary audio over Ethernet scheme using layer 3 packets to distribute uncompressed, multi-channel, low-latency digital audio in professional installations. Dante was developed by Audinate of Australia in 2006, has since been licensed to a number of hardware manufacturers worldwide.
It requires a combination of software to operate. Similar layer 3 products are RAVENNA, Livewire by Axia Audio, Q-LAN by QSC Audio Products and WheatNet-IP by Wheatstone, most of them interoperable by conforming to AES67. CobraNet, although an older proprietary standard dating from 1996, still enjoys a large base of installations, it is regarded as the first commercially successful implementation of networked digital audio. It utilizes layer 2 packets to distribute uncompressed multi-channel digital audio in professional installations, its first theme park use was to distribute background music in Disney's Animal Kingdom park. It requires a combination of hardware and software to operate, has been licensed to multiple manufacturers. Interest in transferring audio over Ethernet arose about the same time the audio industry was making increasing use of digital signal processing. Sound engineers had been altering audio through various analog means for many years, but with
A timestamp is a sequence of characters or encoded information identifying when a certain event occurred giving date and time of day, sometimes accurate to a small fraction of a second. The term derives from rubber stamps used in offices to stamp the current date, sometimes time, in ink on paper documents, to record when the document was received. Common examples of this type of timestamp are a postmark on a letter or the "in" and "out" times on a time card. In modern times usage of the term has expanded to refer to digital date and time information attached to digital data. For example, computer files contain timestamps that tell when the file was last modified, digital cameras add timestamps to the pictures they take, recording the date and time the picture was taken. A timestamp is the time at which an event is recorded by a computer, not the time of the event itself. In many cases, the difference may be inconsequential: the time at which an event is recorded by a timestamp should be close to the time of the event.
This data is presented in a consistent format, allowing for easy comparison of two different records and tracking progress over time. The sequential numbering of events is sometimes called timestamping. Timestamps are used for logging events or in a sequence of events, in which case each event in the log or SOE is marked with a timestamp. All computer file systems store one or more timestamps in the per-file metadata. In particular, most modern operating systems support the POSIX stat, so each file has 3 timestamps associated with it: time of last access, time of last modification, time of last status change; some file archivers and some version control software, when they copy a file from some remote computer to the local computer, adjust the timestamps of the local file to show the date/time in the past when that file was created or modified on that remote computer, rather than the date/time when that file was copied to the local computer. Examples of timestamps: Wed 01-01-2009 6:00 2005-10-30 T 10:45 UTC 2007-11-09 T 11:20 UTC Sat Jul 23 02:16:57 2005 1256953732 – 07:38, 11 December 2012 1985-102 T 10:15 UTC 1985-W15-5 T 10:15 UTC 20180203073000 ISO 8601 standardizes the representation of dates and times.
These standard representations are used to construct timestamp values. Timestamp can refer to: A time code Unix time, the number of seconds since 00:00:00 UTC on January 1, 1970 ICMP Timestamp A digitally signed timestamp whose signer vouches for the existence of the signed document or content at the time given as part of the digital signature The modification or access time of a file or directory in a computer file system or database A proof of authenticity of a person on sites such as 4chan Bates numbering Timestamping Timestamp-based concurrency control Trusted timestamping Decentralized Trusted Timestamping on the blockchain Linked timestamping
Burnt-in timecode is a human-readable on-screen version of the timecode information for a piece of material superimposed on a video image. BITC is sometimes used in conjunction with "real" machine-readable timecode, but more used in copies of original material on to a non-broadcast format such as VHS, so that the VHS copies can be traced back to their master tape and the original time codes located. Many professional VTRs can "burn" the tape timecode onto one of their outputs; this output monitor out. The character switch or menu item turns this behaviour off; the character function is used to display the timecode on the preview monitors in linear editing suites. Videotapes that are recorded with timecode numbers overlaid on the video are referred to as window dubs, named after the "window" that displays the burnt-in timecode on-screen; when editing was done using magnetic tapes that were subject to damage from excessive wear, it was common to use a window dub as a working copy for the majority of the editing process.
Editing decisions would be made using a window dub, no specialized equipment was needed to write down an edit decision list which would be replicated from the high-quality masters. Timecode can be superimposed on video using a dedicated overlay device called a "window dub inserter"; this inputs a video signal and its separate timecode audio signal, reads the timecode, superimposes the timecode display over the video, outputs the combined display, all in real time. Stand-alone timecode generator / readers have the window dub function built-in; some consumer cameras, in particular DV cameras, can "burn" the tape timecode onto the composite output. This output is semi-transparent and may include other tape information, it is activated by turning on the'display' info in one of the camera's sub-menus. While not as'professional' as an overlay as created by a professional VCRs, it is a cheap alternative, just as accurate. Timecode is stored in the metadata areas of captured DV AVI files, some software is able to "burn" this into the video frames.
For example, DVMP Pro is able to "burn" other items of DV metadata into DV AVI files. OCR techniques can be used to read BITC in situations where other forms of timecode are not available. Linear timecode Vertical interval timecode SMPTE time code MIDI timecode CTL timecode AES-EBU embedded timecode Rewritable consumer timecode
Filmmaking is the process of making a film in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition. Filmmaking involves a number of discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through screenwriting, shooting, sound recording and reproduction and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic and political contexts, using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques, it involves a large number of people, can take from a few months to several years to complete. Film production consists of five major stages: Development: The first stage in which the ideas for the film are created, rights to books/plays are bought etc. and the screenplay is written. Financing for the project has to be obtained. Pre-production: Arrangements and preparations are made for the shoot, such as hiring cast and film crew, selecting locations and constructing sets.
Production: The raw footage and other elements for the film are recorded during the film shoot. Post-production: The images and visual effects of the recorded film are edited and combined into a finished product. Distribution: The completed film is distributed and screened in cinemas and/or released to home video. In this stage, the project producer selects a story, which may come from a book, another film, true story, video game, comic book, graphic novel, or an original idea, etc. After identifying a theme or underlying message, the producer works with writers to prepare a synopsis. Next they produce a step outline, which breaks the story down into one-paragraph scenes that concentrate on dramatic structure, they prepare a treatment, a 25-to-30-page description of the story, its mood, characters. This has little dialogue and stage direction, but contains drawings that help visualize key points. Another way is to produce a scriptment. Next, a screenwriter writes a screenplay over a period of several months.
The screenwriter may rewrite it several times to improve dramatization, structure, characters and overall style. However, producers skip the previous steps and develop submitted screenplays which investors and other interested parties assess through a process called script coverage. A film distributor may be contacted at an early stage to assess the market and potential financial success of the film. Hollywood distributors adopt a hard-headed no approach and consider factors such as the film genre, the target audience and assumed audience, the historical success of similar films, the actors who might appear in the film, potential directors. All these factors imply a certain appeal of the film to a possible audience. Not all films make a profit from the theatrical release alone, so film companies take DVD sales and worldwide distribution rights into account; the producer and screenwriter prepare a film pitch, or treatment, present it to potential financiers. They will pitch the film to actors and directors in order to "attach" them to the project.
Many projects fail to enter so-called development hell. If a pitch succeeds, a film receives a "green light", meaning someone offers financial backing: a major film studio, film council, or independent investor; the parties involved negotiate a sign contracts. Once all parties have met and the deal has been set, the film may proceed into the pre-production period. By this stage, the film should have a defined marketing strategy and target audience. Development of animated films differs in that it is the director who develops and pitches a story to an executive producer on the basis of rough storyboards, it is rare for a full-length screenplay to exist at that point in time. If the film is green-lighted for further development and pre-production a screenwriter is brought in to prepare the screenplay. Analogous to most any business venture, financing of a film project deals with the study of filmmaking as the management and procurement of investments, it includes the dynamics of assets that are required to fund the filmmaking and liabilities incurred during the filmmaking over the time period from early development through the management of profits and losses after distribution under conditions of different degrees of uncertainty and risk.
The practical aspects of filmmaking finance can be defined as the science of the money management of all phases involved in filmmaking. Film finance aims to price assets based on their risk level and their expected rate of return based upon anticipated profits and protection against losses. In pre-production, every step of creating the film is designed and planned; the production company is created and a production office established. The film is pre-visualized by the director, may be storyboarded with the help of illustrators and concept artists. A production budget is drawn up to plan expenditures for the film. For major productions, insurance is procured to protect against accidents; the nature of the film, the budget, determine the size and type of crew used during filmmaking. Many Hollywood blockbusters employ a cast and crew of hundreds, while a low-budget, independent film may be made by a skeleton crew of eight or nine; these are typical crew positions: Storyboard artist: creates visual images to help the director and production designer communicate their ideas to the production team.
Director: is primarily
Video production is the process of producing video content. It is the equivalent of filmmaking, but with images recorded digitally instead of on film stock. There are three stages of video production: pre-production and post-production. Pre-production involves all of the planning aspects of the video production process before filming begins; this includes scriptwriting, scheduling and other administrative duties. Production is the phase of video production which captures the video content and involves filming the subject of the video. Post-production is the action of selectively combining those video clips through video editing into a finished product that tells a story or communicates a message in either a live event setting, or after an event has occurred; the majority of video content is captured through electronic media like an SD card for consumer grade cameras, or on solid state storage and flash storage for professional grade cameras. Video content, distributed digitally appears in common formats such as the Moving Picture Experts Group format, QuickTime, Audio Video Interleave, Windows Media Video, DivX.
There are many different types of video production. The most common include film and TV production, television commercials, web commercials, corporate videos, product videos, customer testimonial videos, marketing videos, event videos, wedding videos; the term "Video Production" is reserved only for content creation, taken through all phases of production and created with a specific audience in mind. A person filming a concert, or their child's band recital with a smartphone or video camera for the sole purpose of capturing the memory would fall under the category of "home video" not video production. Production scale is determined by crew size and not the location of the production, or the type of content captured. Crew size in most cases will determine a projects quality and is not a limitation of what kind of content can be captured. There are feature films that have been captured by a crew of just 2 people, corporate videos that leverage teams of 10 or more; some examples of production scale include: A solo camera operator with a professional video camera in a single-camera setup.
A small crew of 2 people, one for operating the camera and one for capturing audio. A multiple-camera setup shoot with a small crew with support staff. A larger scale production with a crew of 5 or more people and a trailer or production truck The same shooting styles used in filmmaking can be used in video production. There is not a singular type of style, used for every kind of video content captured. Instead, style changes depending on the type of video being created, the desired tone and message of the video. Tripods for a stable shots Hand-held for a more energetic and jittery feel - used to depict natural movement Non-leveled camera angles see Dutch angle Whip pan and Whip zoom. Steadicam for smooth movement and tracking shots at slower speeds such as moving through rooms or following actors and action. 3-axis stabilized gimbal for smooth motion shots at any speed. The gimbal compensates for the camera operators movements much like a steadicam but through electronic motors instead of through inertia.
The gimbal allows for operators to move much more than a steadicam because of the smaller amount of weight used in a gimbal setup. Gimbals can access many places that would be impossible for a steadicam because of this added portability. Corporate video production is scripted and covers a wide range of purposes from corporate Communication and Education, videotaping conferences and conventions and services, sales; the most common type of corporate video is the "Corporate Overview Video," which introduces the company's executive team and puts a name and face to the people incharge. This video is used as a way to communicate a company's core beliefs and values as well as their overall mission statement; this video is called the "foundation" of a company's video content as it sets the tone and communication style for all of their other video content. Corporate event videos occur at conventions or trade shows and cover the multiple-day event including speakers, break-out sessions, awards ceremonies and local recreational activities in which the conventioneers participate.
An on-site editor creates a short video presentation, shown before the close of the convention. Many national or international companies take advantage of the convention venue to gather interviews of their key employees or customers to speak on the company's behalf as it is much easier to film everyone at a central location. Product videos are created with the main purpose of selling a product and offer an opportunity to communicate all of the highlights and features of a product which are written on the product page in text but with the added bonus of showcasing glamour shots of the product; the most effective product videos are between 2 to 3 minutes in duration, balancing the amount of information provided while keeping the audience engaged. Two styles of producing video are ENG and EFP. Television broadcast productions include television commercials, newscasts, entertainment shows, news magazines and reality shows, among others. Shows can be distribu
A focus puller, or 1st assistant camera, is a member of a film crew's camera department whose primary responsibility is to maintain image sharpness on whatever subject or action is being filmed. "Pulling focus" or "rack focusing" refers to the act of changing the lens's focus distance setting in correspondence to a moving subject's physical distance from the focal plane. For example, if an actor moves from 8m to 3m away from the focal plane within a shot, the focus puller will change the distance setting on the lens during the take in precise relation to the changing position of the actor. Additionally, the focus puller may shift focus from one subject to another within the frame, as dictated by the specific requirements of the shot. A good focus puller will have an intimate knowledge of optical theory. Depending on the parameters of a given shot, there is very little room for error; as such, the role of a focus puller is important within the realm of a film production. One must consider that an actor may not be able to duplicate his or her best performance in a subsequent take, so the focus puller is expected to perform flawlessly on every take.
Because of these factors, some production personnel consider the focus puller to have the most difficult job on set. British cinematographer Oliver Stapleton has written: The 1st AC has one of the hardest jobs on the set, and it's one of those jobs. You get an almighty bollocking, or you get fired... Focus Pulling not only involves what it sounds like, but the Focus Puller "runs" the department, in the sense of taking care of all the camera gear, making sure that everything is tickety-boo. I have my own camera, so it's treated well! A focus puller relies on the Operator to tell him if the shot is out of focus — after all only the operator is looking through the lens. During production, 1st ACs are responsible for the maintenance and upkeep of all camera equipment and accessories, including. 1st ACs arrive on set before the director, director of photography and camera operator, ensures the camera and all required lenses are prepared for the day's shoot. During filming, the 1st AC is responsible for moving the camera to each setup as directed by the Director of Photography.
On larger budget productions, the camera is mounted on a dolly for most of the day, operated by the Dolly Grip. At the end of each shooting day, 1st ACs clean the equipment and pack it up in preparation for the next day. If there is a problem with the rushes, the focus puller communicates with the film lab to fix any faults with the camera or film stock. Sharp focus is fundamental to reproducing a realistic, appealing image, a viewer's attention is automatically drawn to sharper areas; when done good pulling goes unnoticed by the audience. The shooting of a scene begins with a blocking rehearsal, in which the various actors' positions are established. During the rehearsal, the 2nd AC lays tape marks on the floor at all points an actor pauses movement; the actors leave set to go through hair and makeup, stand-ins come in to take their places at these various positions for the purposes of lighting and focus-mark setting. Once a camera position is established by the director of photography and camera operator, the 1st AC begins to measure the various distances between the actors' marks and the focal plane of the camera.
These distances are recorded in a series of grease pencil/pen marks on the focus barrel of the lens, and/or the marking disc on the follow focus device. Using the stand-ins or 2nd AC, marks are checked through the viewfinder and/or the onboard monitor for accuracy. Marks may be repositioned in order to provide specific framing desired, the 1st AC must be aware of this and re-measure/re-set his marks accordingly. Additionally, the 1st AC may have the 2nd AC lay down specific distance marks on the floor which will be referenced during the take as actors move between their marks, in order to assist in adjusting the focus to the correct intermediate distances; when the actors return to set, there is a rehearsal for camera in which the focus puller and operator will practice the shot and make sure everything has been set up properly. During a take, the focus puller modifies the focus based on the dialog, movement of the actors or subject, movement of the camera, the DoP's directions, compensates on the fly for actors missing their marks or any unforeseen movement.
In cases where an obstruction prevents the focus puller from seeing all his marks, he may request the 2nd AC call the marks for him over a 2-way radio during the shot. In some situations, such as on long lenses, wide apertures close distances, or any combination of the three, a subject moving a few millimeters may require immediate and precise focus correction. After a take, if the focus puller feels he's made a mistake—be it a timing error, a missed mark, or any other issue which may have rendered some part of the take "soft," he or she will report this to the operator or director of photography, may ask for another take if another wasn't planned. Traditionally, the focus puller used only his marks and his own well-developed sense of distance estimation to achieve good results. Over the last decade, the increased use of digital ca
A data logger is an electronic device that records data over time or in relation to location either with a built in instrument or sensor or via external instruments and sensors. But not they are based on a digital processor, they are small, battery powered and equipped with a microprocessor, internal memory for data storage, sensors. Some data loggers interface with a personal computer, use software to activate the data logger and view and analyze the collected data, while others have a local interface device and can be used as a stand-alone device. Data loggers vary between general purpose types for a range of measurement applications to specific devices for measuring in one environment or application type only, it is common for general purpose types to be programmable. Electronic data loggers have replaced chart recorders in many applications. One of the primary benefits of using data loggers is the ability to automatically collect data on a 24-hour basis. Upon activation, data loggers are deployed and left unattended to measure and record information for the duration of the monitoring period.
This allows for a comprehensive, accurate picture of the environmental conditions being monitored, such as air temperature and relative humidity. The cost of data loggers has been declining over the years as technology improves and costs are reduced. Simple single channel data loggers cost as little as $25. More complicated loggers may costs thousands of dollars. Standardisation of protocols and data formats has been a problem but is now growing in the industry and XML, JSON, YAML are being adopted for data exchange; the development of the Semantic Web and the Internet of Things is to accelerate this present trend. Several protocols have been standardised including a smart protocol, SDI-12, that allows some instrumentation to be connected to a variety of data loggers; the use of this standard has not gained much acceptance outside the environmental industry. SDI-12 supports multi drop instruments; some datalogging companies are now supporting the MODBUS standard. This has been used traditionally in the industrial control area, there are many industrial instruments which support this communication standard.
Another multi drop protocol, now starting to become more used is based upon CAN Bus. Some data loggers use a flexible scripting environment to adapt themselves to various non-standard protocols; the terms data logging and data acquisition are used interchangeably. However, in a historical context they are quite different. A data logger is a data acquisition system, but a data acquisition system is not a data logger. Data loggers have slower sample rates. A maximum sample rate of 1 Hz may be considered to be fast for a data logger, yet slow for a typical data acquisition system. Data loggers are implicitly stand-alone devices, while typical data acquisition system must remain tethered to a computer to acquire data; this stand-alone aspect of data loggers implies on-board memory, used to store acquired data. Sometimes this memory is large to accommodate many days, or months, of unattended recording; this memory may be battery-backed static random access memory, flash memory or EEPROM. Earlier data loggers used magnetic tape, punched paper tape, or directly viewable records such as "strip chart recorders".
Given the extended recording times of data loggers, they feature a mechanism to record the date and time in a timestamp to ensure that each recorded data value is associated with a date and time of acquisition in order to produce a sequence of events. As such, data loggers employ built-in real-time clocks whose published drift can be an important consideration when choosing between data loggers. Data loggers range from simple single-channel input to complex multi-channel instruments; the simpler the device the less programming flexibility. Some more sophisticated instruments allow for cross-channel computations and alarms based on predetermined conditions; the newest of data loggers can serve web pages, allowing numerous people to monitor a system remotely. The unattended and remote nature of many data logger applications implies the need in some applications to operate from a DC power source, such as a battery. Solar power may be used to supplement these power sources; these constraints have led to ensure that the devices they market are power efficient relative to computers.
In many cases they are required to operate in harsh environmental conditions where computers will not function reliably. This unattended nature dictates that data loggers must be reliable. Since they may operate for long periods nonstop with little or no human supervision, may be installed in harsh or remote locations, it is imperative that so long as they have power, they will not fail to log data for any reason. Manufacturers go to great length to ensure that the devices can be depended on in these applications; as such dataloggers are completely immune to the problems that might affect a general-purpose computer in the same application, such as program crashes and the instability of some operating systems. Applications of data logging include: Unattended weather station recording. Unattended hydrographic recording. Unattended soil moisture level recording. Unattended gas pressure recording. Offshore buoys for recording a vari