Abraham Lincoln was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War—its bloodiest war and perhaps its greatest moral, constitutional, in doing so, he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy. Born in Hodgenville, Lincoln grew up on the frontier in Kentucky. Largely self-educated, he became a lawyer in Illinois, a Whig Party leader, elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1846, Lincoln promoted rapid modernization of the economy through banks and railroads. Reentering politics in 1854, he became a leader in building the new Republican Party, in 1860, Lincoln secured the Republican Party presidential nomination as a moderate from a swing state. Though he gained little support in the slaveholding states of the South. Subsequently, on April 12,1861, a Confederate attack on Fort Sumter inspired the North to enthusiastically rally behind the Union.
Politically, Lincoln fought back by pitting his opponents against each other, by carefully planned political patronage and his Gettysburg Address became an iconic endorsement of the principles of nationalism, equal rights and democracy. Lincoln initially concentrated on the military and political dimensions of the war and his primary goal was to reunite the nation. He suspended habeas corpus, leading to the ex parte Merryman decision. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including his most successful general, Lincoln tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, each time a general failed, Lincoln substituted another, until finally Grant succeeded. As the war progressed, his moves toward ending slavery included the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863. On April 14,1865, five days after the surrender of Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee, Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth, a Confederate sympathizer. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton launched a manhunt for Booth, and 12 days on April 26, Lincoln has been consistently ranked both by scholars and the public as among the greatest U. S. presidents.
Abraham Lincoln was born February 12,1809, the child of Thomas and Nancy Hanks Lincoln, in a one-room log cabin on the Sinking Spring Farm near Hodgenville. He was a descendant of Samuel Lincoln, an Englishman who migrated from Hingham, Norfolk to its namesake of Hingham, samuels grandson and great-grandson began the familys western migration, which passed through New Jersey and Virginia. Lincolns paternal grandfather and namesake, Captain Abraham Lincoln, moved the family from Virginia to Jefferson County, Captain Lincoln was killed in an Indian raid in 1786. His children, including eight-year-old Thomas, the presidents father
Slavery in the United States
Slavery had been practiced in British North America from early colonial days, and was legal in all Thirteen Colonies at the time of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. By the time of the American Revolution, the status of slave had been institutionalized as a racial caste associated with African ancestry, when the United States Constitution was ratified, a relatively small number of free people of color were among the voting citizens. During and immediately following the Revolutionary War, abolitionist laws were passed in most Northern states, most of these states had a higher proportion of free labor than in the South and economies based on different industries. They abolished slavery by the end of the 18th century, some with gradual systems that kept adults as slaves for two decades. But the rapid expansion of the industry in the Deep South after the invention of the cotton gin greatly increased demand for slave labor. Congress during the Jefferson administration prohibited the importation of slaves, effective in 1808, domestic slave trading, continued at a rapid pace, driven by labor demands from the development of cotton plantations in the Deep South.
More than one million slaves were sold from the Upper South, which had a surplus of labor, New communities of African-American culture were developed in the Deep South, and the total slave population in the South eventually reached 4 million before liberation. As the West was developed for settlement, the Southern state governments wanted to keep a balance between the number of slave and free states to maintain a balance of power in Congress. The new territories acquired from Britain and Mexico were the subject of major political compromises, by 1850, the newly rich cotton-growing South was threatening to secede from the Union, and tensions continued to rise. When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 election on a platform of halting the expansion of slavery, the first six states to secede held the greatest number of slaves in the South. Shortly after, the Civil War began when Confederate forces attacked the US Armys Fort Sumter, four additional slave states seceded. In the early years of the Chesapeake Bay settlements, colonial officials found it difficult to attract and retain laborers under the frontier conditions.
Most laborers came from Britain as indentured servants, having signed contracts of indenture to pay with work for their passage, their upkeep and training and these indentured servants were young people who intended to become permanent residents. In some cases, convicted criminals were transported to the colonies as indentured servants, the indentured servants were not slaves, but were required to work for four to seven years in Virginia to pay the cost of their passage and maintenance. Historians estimate that more than half of all immigrants to the English colonies of North America during the 17th and 18th centuries came as indentured servants. The number of indentured servants among immigrants was particularly high in the South, many Germans, Scots-Irish, and Irish came to the colonies in the 18th century, settling in the backcountry of Pennsylvania and further south. The planters in the South found that the problem with indentured servants was that many left after several years, just when they had become skilled.
In addition, an economy in England in the late 17th
Jefferson Finis Davis was an American politician who was a Democratic U. S. Representative and Senator from Mississippi, the 23rd U. S. Secretary of War, and he took personal charge of the Confederate war plans but was unable to find a strategy to defeat the more populous and industrialized Union. Davis was born in Kentucky to a prosperous farmer, and grew up on his older brother Josephs large cotton plantations in Mississippi. Joseph Davis secured his appointment to the U. S, after graduating, Jefferson Davis served six years as a lieutenant in the U. S. Army. He fought in the Mexican–American War, as the colonel of a volunteer regiment and he served as the U. S. Secretary of War from 1853 to 1857 under President Franklin Pierce, and as a Democratic U. S. senator from Mississippi. Before the war, he operated a cotton plantation in Mississippi. After the war had ended, he remained a proud apologist for the cause of slavery for which he, although Davis argued against secession in 1858, he believed that each state was sovereign and had an unquestionable right to secede from the Union.
Daviss first wife, Sarah Knox Taylor, died of malaria three months of marriage, and he struggled with recurring bouts of the disease. He was unhealthy for much of his life, at the age of 36, Davis married again, to 18-year-old Varina Howell, a native of Natchez who had been educated in Philadelphia and had some family ties in the North. Only two survived him, and only one married and had children, many historians attribute the Confederacys weaknesses to the poor leadership of President Davis. Historians agree he was a less effective war leader than his Union counterpart Abraham Lincoln. After Davis was captured in 1865, he was accused of treason and he was never tried and was released after two years. While not disgraced, Davis had been displaced in ex-Confederate affection after the war by his leading general, Davis wrote a memoir entitled The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government, which he completed in 1881. By the late 1880s, he began to encourage reconciliation, telling Southerners to be loyal to the Union, ex-Confederates came to appreciate his role in the war, seeing him as a Southern patriot, and he became a hero of the Lost Cause in the post-Reconstruction South.
Daviss paternal grandparents each immigrated separately to North America from the region of Snowdonia in North Wales in the early 18th century, the rest of his ancestry was English. After arriving in Philadelphia, Daviss paternal grandfather Evan settled in the colony of Georgia and he married the widow Lydia Emory Williams, who had two sons from a previous marriage. Their son Samuel Emory Davis was born in 1756 and he served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, along with his two older half-brothers. In 1783, after the war, he married Jane Cook and she was born in 1759 to William Cook and his wife Sarah Simpson in what is now Christian County, Kentucky
Henry Clay, Sr. was an American lawyer and planter and skilled orator who represented Kentucky in both the United States Senate and House of Representatives. He served three terms as Speaker of the House of Representatives and served as Secretary of State under President John Quincy Adams from 1825 to 1829. Clay ran for the presidency in 1824,1832 and 1844, however, he was unsuccessful in all of his attempts to reach his nations highest office. Despite his presidential losses, Clay remained a dominant figure in the Whig Party, Clay was a dominant figure in both the First and Second Party systems. After serving two stints in the Senate, Clay won election to the House of Representatives in 1810 and was elected Speaker of the House in 1811. Clay would remain a prominent public figure until his death 41 years in 1852, a leading war hawk, Speaker Clay favored war with Britain and played a significant role in leading the nation into the War of 1812. In 1814, Clays tenure as Speaker was interrupted when Clay traveled to Europe, Clay ran for president in 1824 and lost, finishing fourth in a four-man contest.
No candidate received a majority, and so the election was decided in the House of Representatives. Clay maneuvered House voting in favor of John Quincy Adams, who appointed him as Secretary of State. Opposing candidate Andrew Jackson denounced the actions of Clay and Adams as part of a corrupt bargain, Clay returned to the Senate in 1831. He continued to advocate his American System, and become a leader of the opposition to President Andrew Jackson, President Jackson opposed federally-subsidized internal improvements and a national bank as a threat to states rights, and the president used his veto power to defeat many of Clays proposals. In 1832, Clay ran for president as a candidate of the National Republican Party, following the election, the National Republicans united with other opponents of Jackson to form the Whig Party, which remained one of the two major American political parties until after Clays death. In 1844, Clay won the Whig Partys presidential nomination, Clays opposition to the annexation of Texas, partly over fears that such an annexation would inflame the slavery issue, hurt his campaign, and Democrat James K.
Polk won the election. Clay opposed the Mexican–American War, which resulted in part from the Texas annexation, Clay returned to the Senate for a final term, where he helped broker a compromise over the status of slavery in the Mexican Cession. Known as The Great Compromiser, Clay brokered important agreements during the Nullification Crisis, as part of the Great Triumvirate or Immortal Trio, along with his colleagues Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun, he was instrumental in formulating the Missouri Compromise of 1820, the Compromise Tariff of 1833, and he was viewed as the primary representative of Western interests in this group, and was given the names Harry of the West and The Western Star. As a plantation owner, Clay held slaves during his lifetime, Henry Clay was born on April 12,1777, at the Clay homestead in Hanover County, Virginia, in a story-and-a-half frame house. It was a home for a common Virginia planter of that time
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
John Brown (abolitionist)
John Brown was an American abolitionist who believed armed insurrection was the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States. Brown first gained attention when he led groups of volunteers during the Bleeding Kansas crisis of 1856. Dissatisfied with the pacifism of the organized abolitionist movement, he said, during the Kansas campaign, Brown commanded forces at the Battle of Black Jack and the Battle of Osawatomie. He and his supporters killed five pro-slavery supporters in the Pottawatomie massacre of May 1856 in response to the sacking of Lawrence by pro-slavery forces, in 1859, Brown led a raid on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry, to start a liberation movement among the slaves there. During the raid, he seized the armory, seven people were killed and he intended to arm slaves with weapons from the arsenal, but the attack failed. Within 36 hours, Browns men had fled or been killed or captured by local farmers, militiamen. Marines led by Robert E. Lee and he was tried for treason against the Commonwealth of Virginia, the murder of five men and inciting a slave insurrection.
He was found guilty on all counts and was hanged, Historians agree that the Harpers Ferry raid escalated tensions that, a year later, led to the Souths secession and Civil War. David Potter has said the effect of Browns raid was greater than the philosophical effect of the Lincoln–Douglas debates. Some writers, including Bruce Olds, describe him as a zealot, others. Oates, regard him as one of the most perceptive human beings of his generation, David S. John Browns Body was a popular Union marching song during the Civil War and made him a martyr. Browns actions prior to the Civil War as an abolitionist, and he is sometimes memorialized as a heroic martyr and a visionary, and sometimes vilified as a madman and a terrorist. John Brown was born May 9,1800, in Torrington and he was the fourth of the eight children of Owen Brown and Ruth Mills and grandson of Capt. Brown could trace his ancestry back to 17th-century English Puritans, in 1805, the family moved to Hudson, where Owen Brown opened a tannery.
Browns personal religion is well documented in the papers of the Rev Clarence Gee. Browns father had as an apprentice Jesse R. Grant, father of Ulysses S. Grant, at 16, Brown left his family and went to Plainfield, where he enrolled in a preparatory program. Shortly afterward, he transferred to the Morris Academy in Litchfield and he hoped to become a Congregationalist minister, but money ran out and he suffered from eye inflammations, which forced him to give up the academy and return to Ohio. In Hudson, he worked briefly at his fathers tannery before opening a successful tannery of his own outside of town with his adopted brother, in 1820, Brown married Dianthe Lusk
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Uncle Toms Cabin, or, Life Among the Lowly, is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852, the novel helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War, the sentimental novel depicts the reality of slavery while asserting that Christian love can overcome something as destructive as enslavement of fellow human beings. Uncle Toms Cabin was the novel of the 19th century. It is credited with helping fuel the abolitionist cause in the 1850s, in the first year after it was published,300,000 copies of the book were sold in the United States, one million copies in Great Britain. In 1855, three years after it was published, it was called the most popular novel of our day, to affirm the role of literature as an agent of social change. The book and the plays it inspired helped popularize a number of stereotypes about black people and these include the affectionate, dark-skinned mammy, the pickaninny stereotype of black children, and the Uncle Tom, or dutiful, long-suffering servant faithful to his white master or mistress.
In recent years, the associations with Uncle Toms Cabin have, to an extent. Stowe, a Connecticut-born teacher at the Hartford Female Seminary and an active abolitionist, wrote the novel as a response to the passage, in 1850, of the second Fugitive Slave Act. Much of the book was composed in Brunswick, where her husband, Calvin Ellis Stowe, taught at his alma mater, Bowdoin College. Stowe was partly inspired to create Uncle Toms Cabin by the slave narrative The Life of Josiah Henson, Formerly a Slave, Now an Inhabitant of Canada, as Narrated by Himself. Henson, an enslaved black man, had lived and worked on a 3,700 acres tobacco plantation in North Bethesda, Maryland. Henson escaped slavery in 1830 by fleeing to the Province of Upper Canada, where he helped other fugitive slaves settle and become self-sufficient, Stowe acknowledged in 1853 that Hensons writings inspired Uncle Toms Cabin. When Stowes work became a best-seller, Henson republished his memoirs as The Memoirs of Uncle Tom and traveled on lecture tours extensively in the United States and Europe.
Stowes novel lent its name to Hensons home—Uncle Toms Cabin Historic Site, near Dresden and it is now a part of the National Park Service National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom program, and plans are underway to build a museum and interpretive center on the site. American Slavery As It Is, Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses, a volume co-authored by Theodore Dwight Weld and the Grimké sisters, is a source of some of the novels content. Stowe said she based the novel on a number of interviews with people who escaped slavery during the time when she was living in Cincinnati, across the Ohio River from Kentucky, a slave state. In Cincinnati the Underground Railroad had local abolitionist sympathizers and was active in efforts to help runaway slaves on their route from the South. Stowe mentioned a number of the inspirations and sources for her novel in A Key to Uncle Toms Cabin and this non-fiction book was intended to verify Stowes claims about slavery
Caning of Charles Sumner
The beating nearly killed Sumner and it drew a sharply polarized response from the American public on the subject of the expansion of slavery in the United States. It has been considered symbolic of the breakdown of reasoned discourse that led to the American Civil War. In 1856, during the Bleeding Kansas crisis, Sumner denounced the Kansas–Nebraska Act in his Crime against Kansas speech, delivered on May 19, Sumner attacked the authors of the Act, Senators Stephen A. For her his tongue is always profuse in words, in addition Sumner mocked Butlers speaking ability, which had been impeded by a recent stroke, touches nothing which he does not disfigure with error, sometimes of principle, sometimes of fact. He cannot open his mouth, but out there flies a blunder, according to Hoffer, It is important to note the sexual imagery that recurred throughout the oration, which was neither accidental nor without precedent. Abolitionists routinely accused slaveholders of maintaining slavery so that they could engage in sexual relations with their slaves.
Douglas said during the speech that this damn fool is going to get killed by some other damn fool. Representative Preston Brooks, Butlers cousin, was infuriated and he said that he intended to challenge Sumner to a duel, and consulted with fellow South Carolina Representative Laurence M. Keitt on dueling etiquette. Keitt told him that dueling was for gentlemen of social standing. Two days later, on the afternoon of May 22, Brooks entered the Senate chamber with Keitt and another ally and they waited for the galleries to clear, especially concerned that there be no ladies present to witness what Brooks intended to do. He confronted Sumner as he sat writing at his desk in the almost empty Senate chamber, Mr. Sumner, I have read your speech twice over carefully. It is a libel on South Carolina, and Mr. Butler, as Sumner began to stand up, Brooks beat Sumner severely on the head before he could reach his feet, using a thick gutta-percha cane with a gold head. The force of the blows so shocked Sumner that he lost his sight immediately, I no longer saw my assailant, nor any other person or object in the room.
What I did afterwards was done almost unconsciously, acting under the instincts of self-defense, Sumner was knocked down and trapped under the heavy desk, which was bolted to the floor. His chair, which was pulled up to his desk, moved back and forth on a track, Sumner either could not or did not think to slide his chair back to escape, so it pinned him under his desk. Brooks continued to strike Sumner until Sumner rose to his feet, by this time, Sumner was blinded by his own blood. He staggered up the aisle and, arms outstretched, vainly attempted to defend himself, but he was an even larger and easier target for Brooks, who continued to beat him across the head and shoulders to the full extent of power. Brooks didnt stop when his cane snapped, he continued thrashing Sumner with the piece which held the gold head, Sumner stumbled and reeled convulsively, Oh Lord, he gasped Oh
William Lloyd Garrison
William Lloyd Garrison was a prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. He was one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society and he promoted immediate emancipation of slaves in the United States. In the 1870s, Garrison became a prominent voice for the suffrage movement. Garrison was born on December 10,1805, in Newburyport, under An Act for the relief of sick and disabled seamen, Abijah Garrison, a merchant sailing pilot and master, had obtained American papers and moved his family to Newburyport in 1806. Embargo Act of 1807, intended to injure Great Britain, caused a decline in American commercial shipping, the elder Garrison became unemployed and deserted the family in 1808. Garrisons mother was Frances Maria Lloyd, reported to have tall, charming. She started referring to their son William as Lloyd, his middle name and she died in 1823, in the town of Springfield, Massachusetts. Garrison sold home-made lemonade and candy as a youth, and delivered wood to support the family.
In 1818, at 13, Garrison began working as a compositor for the Newburyport Herald. He soon began writing articles, often under the pseudonym Aristides, Aristides was an Athenian statesman and general nicknamed the Just. After his apprenticeship ended, Garrison and a printer named Isaac Knapp bought their own newspaper in 1826. One of their regular contributors was poet and abolitionist John Greenleaf Whittier, in this early work as a small town newspaper writer, Garrison acquired skills he would use as a nationally known writer and newspaper publisher. In 1828, he was appointed editor of the National Philanthropist in Boston, Massachusetts, at the age of 25, Garrison joined the anti-slavery movement, crediting the 1826 book of Presbyterian Reverend John Rankin, Letters on Slavery, for attracting him to the cause. For a brief time he associated with the American Colonization Society. Although some members of the society encouraged granting freedom to slaves, Southern members thought reducing the threat of free blacks in society would help preserve the institution of slavery.
By late 1829–1830, Garrison rejected colonization, publicly apologized for his error, Garrison began writing for and became co-editor with Benjamin Lundy of the Quaker newspaper Genius of Universal Emancipation in Baltimore, Maryland. With his experience as a printer and newspaper editor, Garrison changed the layout of the paper, Lundy was freed to spend more time touring as an anti-slavery speaker. Garrison initially shared Lundys gradualist views, but while working for the Genius and Garrison continued to work together on the paper in spite of their differing views
It ensued after South Carolina declared that the federal Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and therefore null and void within the sovereign boundaries of the state. The US suffered an economic downturn throughout the 1820s, and South Carolina was particularly affected, many South Carolina politicians blamed the change in fortunes on the national tariff policy that developed after the War of 1812 to promote American manufacturing over its European competition. The controversial and highly protective Tariff of 1828 was enacted into law during the presidency of John Quincy Adams, the tariff was opposed in the South and parts of New England. By 1828, South Carolina state politics increasingly organized around the tariff issue and its opponents expected that the election of Jackson as President would result in the tariff being significantly reduced. In Washington, a split on the issue occurred between Jackson and Vice President John C. Calhoun, a native South Carolinian and the most effective proponent of the theory of state nullification.
On July 14,1832, before Calhoun had resigned the Vice Presidency in order to run for the Senate where he could effectively defend nullification, Jackson signed into law the Tariff of 1832. This compromise tariff received the support of most northerners and half of the southerners in Congress, military preparations to resist anticipated federal enforcement were initiated by the state. The South Carolina convention reconvened and repealed its Nullification Ordinance on March 15,1833, the crisis was over, and both sides could find reasons to claim victory. The tariff rates were reduced and stayed low to the satisfaction of the South, by the 1850s the issues of the expansion of slavery into the western territories and the threat of the Slave Power became the central issues in the nation. Later in the decade the Alien and Sedition Acts led to the states rights position being articulated in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. ”The key sentence, and the word nullification was used in supplementary Resolutions passed by Kentucky in 1799.
He was chairman of a committee of the Virginia Legislature which issued a book-length Report on the Resolutions of 1798 and this asserted that the state did not claim legal force. The declarations in such cases are expressions of opinion, unaccompanied by other effect than what they may produce upon opinion, the opinions of the judiciary, on the other hand, are carried into immediate effect by force. But, the four presidential terms spanning the period from 1800 to 1817 did little to advance the cause of states’ rights and much to weaken it. ”Over Jefferson’s opposition, the power of the federal judiciary, led by Federalist Chief Justice John Marshall, increased. Jefferson expanded federal powers with the acquisition of the Louisiana Territory, opposition to the War of 1812 was centered in New England. Delegates to a convention in Hartford, Connecticut met in December 1814 to consider a New England response to Madison’s war policy, the debate allowed many radicals to argue the cause of states’ rights and state sovereignty.
In the end, moderate voices dominated and the product was not secession or nullification. After the conclusion of the War of 1812 Sean Wilentz notes, This spirit of nationalism was linked to the tremendous growth and economic prosperity of this post war era
A cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, allowing for much greater productivity than manual cotton separation. The fibers are processed into various goods such as linens. Seeds may be used to grow cotton or to produce cottonseed oil. Handheld roller gins had been used in India and other countries since at earliest 500 CE, the Indian worm-gear roller gin, invented some time around the sixteenth century, according to Lakwete, remained virtually unchanged up to the present time. The modern mechanical cotton gin was created by American inventor Eli Whitney in 1793, whitneys gin used a combination of a wire screen and balls to pull the cotton through, while brushes continuously removed the loose cotton lint to prevent jams. It revolutionized the industry in the United States, but led to the growth of slavery in the American South as the demand for cotton workers rapidly increased. The invention has thus been identified as an inadvertent contributing factor to the outbreak of the American Civil War, modern automated cotton gins use multiple powered cleaning cylinders and saws, and offer far higher productivity than their hand-powered forebears.
The original cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney in 1793, Whitney began to work on this project after moving to Georgia in search of work. Given that farmers were desperately searching for a way to cotton farming profitable. Whitney created two cotton gins, a one that could be hand cranked and a large one that could be driven by a horse or water power. Thanks to the gin, the amount of raw cotton yielded doubled each decade after 1800. The creation of the cotton gin led to the creation of machines designed to spin and weave the fabric, single roller cotton gin, The Ajanta caves of India yield evidence of a single roller cotton gin in use by the 5th century. This cotton gin was used in India until innovations were made in form of foot powered gins, the cotton gin was invented in India as a mechanical device known as charkhi, more technically the wooden-worm-worked roller. This mechanical device was, in parts of India, driven by water power. Cotton fibers are produced in the pods of the cotton plant where the fibers in the bolls are tightly interwoven with seeds.
To make the fibers usable, the seeds and fibers must first be separated, many simple seed-removing devices had been invented, but until the innovation of the cotton gin, most required significant operator attention and worked only on a small scale. The earliest versions of the cotton gin consisted of a single roller made of iron or wood, evidence for this type of gin has been found in Africa and North America. These early gins were difficult to use and required a deal of skill