1979 oil crisis
The 1979 oil crisis or oil shock occurred in the world due to decreased oil output in the wake of the Iranian Revolution. Despite the fact that global oil supply decreased by only ~4%, widespread panic resulted, driving the price far higher; the price of crude oil more than doubled to $39.50 per barrel over the next 12 months, long lines once again appeared at gas stations, as they had in the 1973 oil crisis. In 1980, following the outbreak of the Iran–Iraq War, oil production in Iran nearly stopped, Iraq's oil production was cut as well. Economic recessions were triggered in other countries. Oil prices did not subside to pre-crisis levels until the mid-1980s. After 1980, oil prices began a 20-year decline, except for a brief rebound during the Gulf War reaching a 60 percent fall-off during the 1990s; as with the 1973 crisis, global politics and power balance were impacted. Oil exporters such as Mexico and Venezuela expanded production, it seemed that the United States of America and Norway had much more oil reserves than forecasted in the 1970s.
OPEC lost influence. Amid massive protests, the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, fled his country in early 1979 and the Ayatollah Khomeini soon became the new leader of Iran. Protests disrupted the Iranian oil sector, with production being curtailed and exports suspended. In November 1978, a strike by 37,000 workers at Iran's nationalized oil refineries reduced production from 6 million barrels per day to about 1.5 million barrels. Foreign workers fled the country. On January 16, 1979, the Shah and his wife left Iran at the behest of Prime Minister Shapour Bakhtiar, who sought to calm the situation; the rise in oil price benefited other OPEC members. When oil exports were resumed under the new Iranian government, they were inconsistent and at a lower volume, pushing the prices up. Saudi Arabia and other OPEC nations, under the presidency of Mana Al Otaiba, increased production to offset most of the decline, in early 1979 the overall loss in worldwide production was about 4 percent. OPEC failed to hold on to its prominent position after Iran and Iraq went to war in 1980 and caused a further 10% drop in worldwide production – and by 1981, OPEC production was surpassed by other exporters like the USA.
Additionally, its own member nations were divided among themselves. Saudi Arabia, a "swing producer" trying to gain back market share after 1985, increased production and caused downward pressure on prices, making high-cost oil production facilities less profitable or unprofitable; the oil crisis had mixed effects in the United States, due to some parts of the country being oil-producing regions and other parts being oil-consuming regions. Richard Nixon had imposed price controls on domestic oil. Gasoline controls were repealed; the Jimmy Carter administration began a phased deregulation of oil prices on April 5, 1979, when the average price of crude oil was US$15.85 per barrel. Starting with the Iranian revolution, the price of crude oil rose to $39.50 per barrel over the next 12 months Deregulating domestic oil price controls allowed U. S. oil output to rise from the large Prudhoe Bay fields, while oil imports fell sharply. And although not directly related, the near-disaster at Three Mile Island on March 28, 1979 increased anxiety about energy policy and availability.
Due to memories of oil shortage in 1973, motorists soon began panic buying, long lines appeared at gas stations, as they had six years earlier during the 1973 oil crisis. As the average vehicle of the time consumed between two and three liters of gasoline an hour while idling, it was estimated that Americans wasted up to 150,000 barrels of oil per day idling their engines in the lines at gas stations. During the period, many people believed the oil companies artificially created oil shortages to drive up prices, rather than factors beyond human control or the US's own price controls; the amount of oil sold in the United States in 1979 was only 3.5 percent less than the record set for oil sold the year previously. A telephone poll of 1,600 American adults conducted by the Associated Press and NBC News and released in early May 1979 found that only 37% of Americans thought the energy shortages were real, 9% were not sure, 54% thought the energy shortages were a hoax. Many politicians proposed gas rationing.
Several states implemented odd-even gas rationing, including California, New York, New Jersey and Texas. Coupons for gasoline rationing were printed but were never used during the 1979 crisis. On July 15, 1979, President Carter outlined his plans to reduce oil imports and improve energy efficiency in his "Crisis of Confidence" speech, it is said that during the speech, Carter wore a cardigan and encouraged citizens to do what they could to reduce their use of energy. He had installed solar hot water panels on the roof of the White House and a wood-burning stove in the living quarters. However, the panels were removed in 1986 for roof maintenance, during the administration of his successor, Ronald Re
Gallium arsenide is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic. It is a III-V direct bandgap semiconductor with a zinc blende crystal structure. Gallium arsenide is used in the manufacture of devices such as microwave frequency integrated circuits, monolithic microwave integrated circuits, infrared light-emitting diodes, laser diodes, solar cells and optical windows. GaAs is used as a substrate material for the epitaxial growth of other III-V semiconductors including indium gallium arsenide, aluminum gallium arsenide and others. In the compound, gallium has a +3 oxidation state. Gallium arsenide single crystals can be prepared by three industrial processes: The vertical gradient freeze process. Crystal growth using a horizontal zone furnace in the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique, in which gallium and arsenic vapors react, free molecules deposit on a seed crystal at the cooler end of the furnace. Liquid encapsulated Czochralski growth is used for producing high-purity single crystals that can exhibit semi-insulating characteristics.
Alternative methods for producing films of GaAs include: VPE reaction of gaseous gallium metal and arsenic trichloride: 2 Ga + 2 AsCl3 → 2 GaAs + 3 Cl2 MOCVD reaction of trimethylgallium and arsine: Ga3 + AsH3 → GaAs + 3 CH4 Molecular beam epitaxy of gallium and arsenic: 4 Ga + As4 → 4 GaAs or 2 Ga + As2 → 2 GaAsOxidation of GaAs occurs in air and degrades performance of the semiconductor. The surface can be passivated by depositing a cubic gallium sulfide layer using a tert-butyl gallium sulfide compound such as 7. If a GaAs boule is grown with excess arsenic present, it gets certain defects, in particular arsenic antisite defects; the electronic properties of these defects cause the Fermi level to be pinned to near the center of the bandgap, so that this GaAs crystal has low concentration of electrons and holes. This low carrier concentration is similar to an intrinsic crystal, but much easier to achieve in practice; these crystals are called reflecting their high resistivity of 107 -- 109 Ω · cm.
Wet etching of GaAs industrially uses an oxidizing agent such as hydrogen peroxide or bromine water, the same strategy has been described in a patent relating to processing scrap components containing GaAs where the Ga3+ is complexed with a hydroxamic acid, for example: GaAs + H2O2 + "HA" → "GaA" complex + H3AsO4 + 4 H2OThis reaction produces arsenic acid. GaAs can be used for various transistor types: MESFET HEMT JFET Heterojunction bipolar transistor The HBT can be used in integrated injection logic; the earliest GaAs logic gate used Buffered FET Logic. From ~1975 to 1995 the main logic families used were: Source-coupled FET logic fastest and most complex, Capacitor–diode FET logic Direct-coupled FET logic simplest and lowest power Some electronic properties of gallium arsenide are superior to those of silicon, it has a higher saturated electron velocity and higher electron mobility, allowing gallium arsenide transistors to function at frequencies in excess of 250 GHz. GaAs devices are insensitive to overheating, owing to their wider energy bandgap, they tend to create less noise in electronic circuits than silicon devices at high frequencies.
This is a result of lower resistive device parasitics. These superior properties are compelling reasons to use GaAs circuitry in mobile phones, satellite communications, microwave point-to-point links and higher frequency radar systems, it is used in the manufacture of Gunn diodes for the generation of microwaves. Another advantage of GaAs is that it has a direct band gap, which means that it can be used to absorb and emit light efficiently. Silicon has an indirect bandgap and so is poor at emitting light; as a wide direct band gap material with resulting resistance to radiation damage, GaAs is an excellent material for outer space electronics and optical windows in high power applications. Because of its wide bandgap, pure GaAs is resistive. Combined with a high dielectric constant, this property makes GaAs a good substrate for Integrated circuits and unlike Si provides natural isolation between devices and circuits; this has made it an ideal material for monolithic microwave integrated circuits, MMICs, where active and essential passive components can be produced on a single slice of GaAs.
One of the first GaAs microprocessors was developed in the early 1980s by the RCA corporation and was considered for the Star Wars program of the United States Department of Defense. These processors were several times faster and several orders of magnitude more radiation proof than silicon counterparts, but were more expensive. Other GaAs processors were implemented by the supercomputer vendors Cray Computer Corporation and Alliant in an attempt to stay ahead of the ever-improving CMOS microprocessor. Cray built one GaAs-based machine in the early 1990s, the Cray-3, but the effort was not adequately capitalized, the company filed for bankruptcy in 1995. Complex layered structures of gallium arsenide in combination with aluminium arsenide or the alloy AlxGa1−xAs can be grown using molecular beam epitaxy or using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy; because GaAs and AlAs have the same lattice constant, the layers have little induced strain, which allows them to be g
Vanguard 1 is an American satellite, the fourth artificial Earth orbital satellite to be launched. Vanguard 1 was the first satellite to have solar electric power. Although communication with the satellite was lost in 1964, it remains the oldest man-made object still in orbit, together with the upper stage of its launch vehicle, it was designed to test the launch capabilities of a three-stage launch vehicle as a part of Project Vanguard, the effects of the space environment on a satellite and its systems in Earth orbit. It was used to obtain geodetic measurements through orbit analysis. Vanguard 1 was described by the Soviet Premier, Nikita Khrushchev, as "the grapefruit satellite"; the spacecraft is a 1.47 kg aluminum sphere 16.5 cm in diameter. It contains a 10 mW, 108 MHz transmitter powered by a mercury battery and a 5 mW, 108.03 MHz transmitter, powered by six solar cells mounted on the body of the satellite. Six short antennas protrude from the sphere; the transmitters were used for engineering and tracking data, but were used to determine the total electron content between the satellite and the ground stations.
Vanguard carries two thermistors which measured the interior temperature over sixteen days in order to record the effectiveness of the thermal protection. A backup version of Vanguard 1 is on display at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia. On March 17, 1958, the three-stage launch vehicle placed Vanguard into a 654-by-3,969-kilometer, 134.2 minute elliptical orbit inclined at 34.25 degrees. Original estimates had the orbit lasting for 2,000 years, but it was discovered that solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag during high levels of solar activity produced significant perturbations in the perigee height of the satellite, which caused a significant decrease in its expected lifetime to only about 240 years. Vanguard 1 transmitted its signals for nearly seven years. A 10 mW transmitter, powered by a mercury battery, on the 108 MHz band used for International Geophysical Year scientific satellites, a 5 mW, 108.03 MHz transmitter powered by six solar cells were used as part of a radio phase-comparison angle-tracking system.
The tracking data were used to show that the shape of the Earth has a slight north-south asymmetry described as "pear-shaped" with the stem at the North Pole. These radio signals were used to determine the total electron content between the satellite and selected ground-receiving stations; the battery-powered transmitter provided internal package temperature for about sixteen days and sent tracking signals for twenty days. The transmitter powered by solar cells transmitted for more than six years, its signal weakened and was last received at Quito, Ecuador, in May 1964. Since the spacecraft has been tracked optically from Earth, via telescope; because of its symmetrical shape, Vanguard 1 was used by experimenters for determining upper atmospheric densities as a function of altitude, latitude and solar activity. As the satellite continuously orbited, it would deviate from its predicted positions accumulating greater and greater shift due to drag of the residual atmosphere. By measuring the rate and timing of orbital shifts, together with the body's drag properties, the relevant atmosphere's parameters could be back-calculated.
It was determined that atmospheric pressures, thus drag and orbital decay, were higher than anticipated, since Earth's upper atmosphere does taper off into space gradually. This experiment was planned extensively prior to launch. Initial Naval Research Laboratory proposals for the project included conical satellite bodies. Radio tracking would establish a position. Early in the program, optical tracking was added. A panel of scientists proposed changing the design to spheres, at least twenty inches in diameter and thirty. A sphere would have a constant optical reflection, constant coefficient of drag, based on size alone, while a cone would have properties that varied with its orientation. James Van Allen of the University of Iowa proposed a cylindrical satellite based on his work with rockoons, which became Explorer 1, the first American satellite; the Naval Research Laboratory accepted a sphere with a 6.4-inch diameter as a "test vehicle", with a diameter of twenty inches set for the follow-on satellites.
The weight savings, from reduced size as well as decreased instrumentation in the early satellites, was considered to be acceptable. Since three of the Vanguard satellites are still orbiting 8 April 2019 with their drag properties unchanged, they form a baseline data set on the atmosphere of Earth, over 50 years old and continuing. After its scientific mission ended in 1964, Vanguard 1 became a derelict object—just like the upper stage of the rocket used to launch the satellite had after it finished the delta-v maneuver to place Vanguard 1 in orbit in 1958; as of April 2018, both objects remain in orbit. The Vanguard 1 satellite and upper launch stage hold the record for being in space longer than any other man-made object. A small group of former NRL and NASA workers had been in communication with one another, a number of government agencies were asked to commemorate the event; the Naval Research Laboratory commemorated the event with a day-long meeting at NRL on March 17, 2008. The meeting concluded with a simulation of the satellite's track as it passed into the orbita
Western Electric Company was an American electrical engineering and manufacturing company that served as the primary supplier to AT&T from 1881 to 1996, to the local Bell Operating Companies until 1984. The company was responsible for many technological innovations and seminal developments in industrial management, it served as the purchasing agent for the member companies of the Bell System. In 1856, George Shawk purchased an electrical engineering business in Ohio. On December 31, 1869, he became partners with Enos M. Barton and the same year, sold his share to inventor Elisha Gray. In 1872 Barton, Gray moved the business to Clinton Street, Chicago and incorporated it as the Western Electric Manufacturing Company, they manufactured a variety of electrical products including typewriters and lighting and had a close relationship with telegraph company Western Union, to whom they supplied relays and other equipment. In 1875, Gray sold his interests to Western Union, including the caveat that he had filed against Alexander Graham Bell's patent application for the telephone.
The ensuing legal battle between Western Union and the Bell Telephone Company over patent rights ended in 1879 with Western Union withdrawing from the telephone market and Bell acquiring Western Electric in 1881. Western Electric was the first company to join in a Japanese joint venture with foreign capital. In 1899, it invested in a 54 % share of Ltd.. Western Electric's representative in Japan was Walter Tenney Carleton. In 1901, Western Electric secretly purchased a controlling interest in a principal competitor, the Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Company, but in 1909 was forced by a lawsuit to sell back to Milo Kellogg. On July 24, 1915, employees of the Hawthorne Works boarded the SS Eastland in downtown Chicago for a company picnic; the ship rolled over at the dock and over 800 people died. In 1920, Alice Heacock Seidel was the first of Western Electric's female employees to be given permission to stay on after she had married; this set a precedent in the company, which had not allowed married women in their employ.
Miss Heacock had worked for Western Electric for sixteen years before her marriage, was at the time the highest-paid secretary in the company. In her memoirs, she wrote that the decision to allow her to stay on "required a meeting of the top executives to decide whether I might remain with the Company, for it established a precedent and a new policy for the Company - that of married women in their employ. If the women at the top were permitted to remain after marriage all women would expect the same privilege. How far and how fast the policy was expanded is shown by the fact that a few years women were given maternity leaves with no loss of time on their service records."In 1925, ITT purchased the Bell Telephone Manufacturing Company of Brussels and other worldwide subsidiaries from AT&T, to avoid an antitrust action. The company manufactured rotary system switching equipment under the Western Electric brand. Early on, Western Electric managed an electrical equipment distribution business, furnishing its customers with non-telephone products made by other manufacturers.
This electrical distribution business was spun off from Western Electric in 1925 and organized into a separate company, Graybar Electric Company, in honor of the company's founders, Elisha Gray and Enos Barton. Bell Telephone Laboratories was half-owned by Western Electric, the other half belonging to AT&T. Western Electric used various logos during its existence. Starting in 1914 it used an image of AT&T's statue Spirit of Communication. In 1915, the assets of Western Electric Manufacturing were transferred to a newly incorporated company in New York, New York named Western Electric Company, Inc, a wholly owned subsidiary of AT&T; the sole reason for the transfer was to provide for the issuance of a non-voting preferred class of capital stock, disallowed under the statutes of the state of Illinois. All telephones in areas where AT&T subsidiaries provided local service, all components of the public switched telephone network, all devices connected to the network were made by Western Electric and no other devices were allowed to be connected to AT&T's network.
AT&T and Bell System companies were rumored to employ small armies of inspectors to check household line impedance levels to determine if non-leased phones were in use by consumers. Western Electric telephones were owned not by end customers but by the local Bell System telephone companies—all of which were subsidiaries of AT&T, which owned Western Electric; each phone was leased from the phone company on a monthly basis by customers who paid for their phone as part of the recurring lease fees. This system had the effect of subsidizing basic telephone service, keeping local phone service inexpensive, under $10 per month, including the leased phone. After divestiture, basic service prices increased, customers were now responsible for inside building wiring and telephone equipment; the Bell System had an extensive policy and infrastructure to recycle or refurbish phones taken out of service, replacing all defective, weak, or otherwise unusable parts for new installations. This resulted in an extraordinary longevity of Western Electric telephone models and limited the variety of new designs introduced into the market place.
AT&T strictly enforced policies against using telephone equipment by other manufacturers on their network. A customer who insisted on using a telephone not supplied by the Bell System had to first transfer the phone to the local Bell operating company, who leased the phone back to the customer for a monthly charge in addition to a re-wiring fee. In the 1970s when consumers incr
Zhores Ivanovich Alferov was a Soviet and Russian physicist and academic who contributed to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics. He shared the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics, he became a politician in his life, serving in the lower house of the Russian parliament, the State Duma, as a member of the communist party since 1995. Alferov was born in Vitebsk, Byelorussian SSR, Soviet Union, to a Belarusian father, Ivan Karpovich Alferov, a factory manager, a Jewish mother, Anna Vladimirovna Rosenblum, he was named after French socialist Jean Jaurès while his older brother was named Marx after Karl Marx. In 1947 he started Belarusian Polytechnic Academy. In 1952, he graduated from V. I. Ulyanov Electrotechnical Institute in Leningrad. Starting in 1953 he worked in the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences. From the Institute, he earned several scientific degrees: a Candidate of Sciences in Technology in 1961 and a Doctor of Sciences in Physics and Mathematics in 1970.
He was director of the Institute from 1987 to 2003. He was elected a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1972, a full member in 1979. From 1989, he was Vice-President of the USSR Academy of Sciences and President of its Saint Petersburg Scientific Center. Starting in 1995 he was a member of the State Duma on the list of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. In 2000 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics together with Herbert Kroemer, "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics". Alferov invented the heterotransistor; this coped with much higher frequencies than its predecessors, revolutionised the mobile phone and satellite communications. Alferov and Kroemer independently applied this technology to firing laser lights. This, in turn, revolutionised semiconductor design in a host of areas, including LEDs, barcode readers and CDs. Hermann Grimmeiss of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, which awards Nobel prizes, said: "Without Alferov, it would not be possible to transfer all the information from satellites down to the Earth or to have so many telephone lines between cities."
After 1962 Alferov worked in the area of semiconductor heterostructures. His contributions to physics and technology of semiconductor heterostructures investigations of injection properties, development of lasers, solar cells, LEDs, epitaxy processes, have led to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics, he had an messianic conception of heterostructures, writing: "Many scientists have contributed to this remarkable progress, which not only determines in large measure the future prospects of solid state physics but in a certain sense affects the future of human society as well." Alferov was elected to the Russian Parliament, the State Duma, in 1995 as a deputy for the political party Our Home is Russia considered to be supportive of the policies of President Boris Yeltsin. In 1999 he was elected again, this time on the list of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, he was re-elected in 2003 and again in 2007, when he was placed second on the party's federal electoral list behind Gennady Zyuganov and ahead of Nikolai Kharitonov though he was not a member of the party.
He was one of the signers of the Open letter to the President Vladimir V. Putin from the Members of the Russian Academy of Sciences against clericalisation of Russia. Alferov was an atheist and expressed objections to religious education, although he was not against religion as such. Alferov served on the advisory council of CRDF Global. Since November 2018 Alferov suffered from the hypertensive emergency, he died at the age of 88 on 1 March 2019. Russian and Soviet awardsOrder of Merit for the Fatherland: 1st class – for outstanding contribution to the development of national science and active participation in legislative activities.
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Salyut 1 was the first space station of any kind, launched into low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union on April 19, 1971. The Salyut program followed this with five more successful launches out of seven more stations; the final module of the program, Zvezda became the core of the Russian segment of the International Space Station and remains in orbit. Salyut 1 originated as a modification of the military Almaz space station program in development. After the landing of Apollo 11 on the Moon in July 1969, the Soviets began shifting the primary emphasis of their manned space program to orbiting space stations, with a possible lunar landing in the 1970s if the N-1 booster became flight-worthy. One other motivation for the space station program was a desire to one-up the US Skylab program in development; the basic structure of Salyut 1 was adapted from the Almaz with a few modifications and would form the basis of all Soviet space stations through Mir. Civilian Soviet space stations were internally referred to as DOS, although publicly, the Salyut name was used for the first six DOS stations.
Several military experiments were nonetheless carried on Salyut 1, including the OD-4 optical visual ranger, the Orion ultraviolet instrument for characterizing rocket exhaust plumes, the classified Svinets radiometer. Construction of Salyut 1 began in early 1970, after nearly a year it was shipped to the Baikonur Cosmodrome; some remaining assembly work had yet to be done, this was completed at the launch center. The Salyut programme was managed by Kerim Kerimov, chairman of the state commission for Soyuz missions. Launch was planned for April 12, 1971 to coincide with the 10th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's flight on Vostok 1, but technical problems delayed it until the 19th; the first crew launched in the Soyuz 10 mission, but they ran into troubles while docking and were unable to enter the station. A replacement crew remained on board for 23 days; this was the first time in the history of spaceflight that a space station had been manned, a new record time was set in space. This success was, short-lived when the crew was killed during re-entry, as a pressure-equalization valve in the Soyuz 11 re-entry capsule had opened prematurely, causing the crew to asphyxiate.
After this accident, all missions were suspended. The station was intentionally destroyed by de-orbiting after six months in orbit, because it ran out of fuel before a redesigned Soyuz spacecraft could be launched to it. At launch, the announced purpose of Salyut was to test the elements of the systems of a space station and to conduct scientific research and experiments; the craft was described as being 20 m in length, 4 m in maximum diameter, 99 m3 in interior space with an on-orbit dry mass of 18,425 kg. Of its several compartments, three were pressurized, two could be entered by the crew; the transfer compartment was equipped with the only docking port of Salyut 1, which allowed one Soyuz 7K-OKS spacecraft to dock. It was the first use of the Soviet SSVP docking system that allowed internal crew transfer, a system, in use today; the docking cone had a 3 m aft diameter. The second and main compartment was about 4 m in diameter. Televised views showed enough space for eight large chairs, several control panels, 20 portholes.
The third pressurized compartment contained the control and communications equipment, the power supply, the life support system, other auxiliary equipment. The fourth and final unpressurized compartment was about 2 m in diameter and contained the engine installations and associated control equipment. Salyut had buffer chemical batteries, reserve supplies of oxygen and water, regeneration systems. Externally mounted were two double sets of solar cell panels that extended like wings from the smaller compartments at each end, the heat regulation system's radiators, orientation and control devices. Salyut 1 was modified from one of the Almaz airframes; the unpressurized service module was the modified service module of a Soyuz craft. The astrophysical Orion 1 Space Observatory designed by Grigor Gurzadyan of Byurakan Observatory in Armenia, was installed in Salyut 1. Ultraviolet spectrograms of stars were obtained with the help of a mirror telescope of the Mersenne system and a spectrograph of the Wadsworth system using film sensitive to the far ultraviolet.
The dispersion of the spectrograph was 32 Å/mm, while the resolution of the spectrograms derived was about 5 Å at 2600 Å. Slitless spectrograms were obtained of the stars Vega and Beta Centauri between 2000 and 3800 Å; the telescope was operated by crew member Viktor Patsayev, who became the first man to operate a telescope outside the Earth's atmosphere. Length – 15.8 m Maximum diameter – 4.15 m Habitable volume – 90 m³ Mass at launch – 18,900 kg Launch vehicle – Proton Span across solar arrays – about 10 m Area of solar arrays – 28 m² Number of solar arrays – 4 Resupply carriers – Salyut 1-type Soyuz Number of docking ports – 1 Total manned missions – 2 Total long-duration manned missions – 1 After taking 24 hours for rendezvous and approach, Soyuz 10 soft-docked with Salyut at 01:47 on April 24 and remained for 5.5 h. Hard-docking was unsuccessful due to technical malfunctions; the crew could not enter the station