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Timeline of the evolutionary history of life

This timeline of the evolutionary history of life represents the current scientific theory outlining the major events during the development of life on planet Earth. In biology, evolution is any change across successive generations in the heritable characteristics of biological populations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organization, from kingdoms to species, individual organisms and molecules, such as DNA and proteins; the similarities between all present day organisms indicate the presence of a common ancestor from which all known species and extinct, have diverged through the process of evolution. More than 99 percent of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that lived on Earth are estimated to be extinct. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described. However, a May 2016 scientific report estimates that 1 trillion species are on Earth, with only one-thousandth of one percent described.

While the dates given in this article are estimates based on scientific evidence, there has been controversy between more traditional views of increased biodiversity through a cone of diversity with the passing of time and the view that the basic pattern on Earth has been one of annihilation and diversification and that in certain past times, such as the Cambrian explosion, there was great diversity. Species go extinct as environments change, as organisms compete for environmental niches, as genetic mutation leads to the rise of new species from older ones. Biodiversity on Earth takes a hit in the form of a mass extinction in which the extinction rate is much higher than usual. A large extinction-event represents an accumulation of smaller extinction- events that take place in a brief period of time; the first known mass extinction in earth's history was the Great Oxygenation Event 2.4 billion years ago. That event led to the loss of most of the planet's obligate anaerobes. Researchers have identified five major extinction events in earth's history since: End of the Ordovician: 440 million years ago, 86% of all species lost, including graptolites Late Devonian: 375 million years ago, 75% of species lost, including most trilobites End of the Permian, "The Great Dying": 251 million years ago, 96% of species lost, including tabulate corals, most extant trees and synapsids End of the Triassic: 200 million years ago, 80% of species lost, including all of the conodonts End of the Cretaceous: 66 million years ago, 76% of species lost, including all of the ammonites, ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs and nonavian dinosaurs Smaller extinction-events have occurred in the periods between these larger catastrophes, with some standing at the delineation points of the periods and epochs recognized by scientists in geologic time.

The Holocene extinction event is under way. Factors in mass extinctions include continental drift, changes in atmospheric and marine chemistry and other aspects of mountain formation, changes in glaciation, changes in sea level, impact events. In this timeline, bya means "billion years ago", Ma means "million years ago," ka means "thousand years ago," and ya means "years ago." 4000 Ma and earlier. 4000 Ma – 2500 Ma 2500 Ma – 542 Ma. Contains the Palaeoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic eras. 542 Ma – present The Phanerozoic Eon the "period of well-displayed life," marks the appearance in the fossil record of abundant, shell-forming and/or trace-making organisms. It is subdivided into three eras, the Paleozoic and Cenozoic, which are divided by major mass extinctions. 542 Ma – 251.0 Ma and contains the Cambrian, Silurian, Devonian and Permian periods. From 251.4 Ma to 66 Ma and containing the Triassic and Cretaceous periods. 66 Ma – present Dawkins, Richard. The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life.

Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 978-0-618-00583-3. LCCN 2004059864. OCLC 56617123. "Understanding Evolution: your one-stop resource for information on evolution". University of California, Berkeley. Retrieved 2015-03-18. "Life on Earth". Tree of Life Web Project. University of Arizona. January 1, 1997. Retrieved 2015-03-18. Explore complete phylogenetic tree interactively Brandt, Niel. "Evolutionary and Geological Timelines". TalkOrigins Archive. Houston, TX: The TalkOrigins Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2015-03-18. "Palaeos: Life Through Deep Time". Palaeos. Retrieved 2015-03-18. Kyrk, John. "Evolution". Cell Biology Animation. Retrieved 2015-03-18. Interactive timeline from Big Bang to present "Plant Evolution". Plant and Animal Evolution. University of Waikato. Retrieved 2015-03-18. Sequence of Plant Evolution "The History of Animal Evolution". Plant and Animal Evolution. University of Waikato. Retrieved 2015-03-18. Sequence of Animal Evolution Yeo, Dannel. "History of Life on Earth". Archived from the original on 2015-03-15.

Retrieved 2015-03-19. Exploring Time; the Science Channel. 2007. Retrieved 2015-03-19. Roberts, Ben. "Plant evolution timeline". University of Cambridge. Archived from the original on 2015-03-13. Retrieved 2015-03-19. Art of the Nature Timelines on Wikipedia

Happy Truck HAPPinas

Happy Truck HAPPinas is a Philippine Sunday noontime variety show produced by TV5's entertainment division and VIVA Entertainment and started airing since March 6, 2016. It is presented by Ogie Alcasid, Janno Gibbs, Derek Ramsay, Tuesday Vargas, Kim Idol; the show is airing every Sunday, 11:00am to 1:00pm on TV5, it is the biggest project to date this year by the network and hosted by majority of the network's bunch of talents collectively known as "HappyPeeps". Competed against long-time rivals ASAP of ABS-CBN and Sunday PinaSaya of GMA Network, it serve as the replacement of former show, Happy Truck ng Bayan, whom it was the brainchild project of former TV5's Entertainment Division Head, Wilma Galvante, until she resigned on her position. HTH served as drive for advertisers and sponsors thru on-ground and below-the-line activation events and pluggings for the network's new shows. Derek Ramsay Tuesday Vargas Kim Idol Shy Carlos Empoy Alwyn Uytingco Eula Caballero Mark Neumann Alonzo Muhlach Ogie Alcasid Sam Pinto Gelli de Belen Ritz Azul Yassi Pressman Meg Imperial Roxanne Barcelo Ella Cruz Janno Gibbs Sexbomb Girls Jessie Salvador Nathalie Colipano Jasmine Hollingworth Nicole Omillo Issa Pressman Akihiro Blanco Andrew Muhlach VJ Marquez Jason Salvador Owy Posadas Jack Reid “Linggo Limbo" is a warm-up game, where the five best limbo rock performers will be chosen by Ogie and Janno to advance in the portion's next level.

Each “Linggo Limbo” level correspondents to a cash prize. List of programs broadcast by TV5 TV5 website

Racing Post Novice Chase

The Racing Post Novice Chase is a Grade 1 National Hunt chase in Ireland. The race is run at Leopardstown Racecourse in December, over a distance of 2 miles and 1 furlong and during its running there are 11 fences to be jumped; the race is run on 26 December, known in Ireland as St Stephen's Day, is one of the feature races of the course's four-day Christmas Festival. Prior to 2011 it was titled the Bord Na Mona With Nature Novice Chase. Prior to 2009 it was titled the Durkan New Homes Novice Chase. During the 1990s the race was known as the Dennys Gold Medal Novice Chase. Horse racing in Ireland List of Irish National Hunt races Racing Post: 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1997 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 2018, 2019

Johan Evertsen

Johan Evertsen was an admiral, born in the 17th century. Like his five brothers, Evertsen started his military career as a lieutenant after the death of his father, "Captain Jan", he moved through the ranks, fighting battles with corsairs and protecting Dutch ships from other privateers. Evertsen was promoted to the rank of admiral during the Anglo-Dutch Wars. Despite Evertsen's successes and influence in the Dutch Navy, his abilities were questioned due to rumours that he was a coward. Evertsen was born in Vlissingen, he was the eldest son of Johan Evertsen known as Captain Jan who died in 1617 fighting near La Rochelle against a French corsair. In gratitude for the services he rendered, all five sons of Captain Jan were named lieutenants by the Admiralty of Zeeland. At age 18, he was made captain of a ship, he fought near La Rochelle in 1625 under Willem de Zoete, in 1626 and 1627 in a campaign against the Barbary Coast under Laurens Reael. Between 1628 and 1636, he distinguished himself while fighting the Dunkirk corsairs.

His greatest successes were in 1628, when he prevented the Dunkirkers from intercepting the captured treasure fleet of Piet Heyn and in 1636, when he captured corsair Jacob Collaert. He played an important part in the Dutch victory in the Battle of the Slaak against the Spanish. In the wake of this battle, he came into conflict with Witte Corneliszoon de With, receive no other important commands. During this time, he developed a friendship with stadtholders Frederick Henry and William II. At the outbreak of the First Anglo-Dutch War, Evertsen was left aside by de With, who considered him an orangist, but after de With's defeat in the Battle of the Kentish Knock, de With was replaced by Maarten Tromp, who reinstated Evertsen as a squadron commander. Evertsen helped to achieve victory in the Battle of Dungeness, extricating Tromp's flagship from an English attack. In 1653, he fought the last Battle of Battle of the Gabbard; the final Battle of Scheveningen was lost and Tromp was killed in battle.

Evertsen's ship was so badly damaged that he had to leave the command to de With. Because he withdrew, Evertsen was accused of cowardice by de With, he received no commands for the next 5 years. In May 1659, Evertsen sailed under Michiel de Ruyter in the fleet that assisted Jacob van Wassenaer Obdam in reconquering the Danish islands after they had been lost in the Battle of the Sound, in which de With was killed. Despite his age, Johan Evertsen was third in command of the fleet that faced the English in the Battle of Lowestoft; the battle went horribly wrong for the Dutch, the first and second in command, Jacob van Wassenaer Obdam and Egbert Bartholomeusz Kortenaer, were killed. Evertsen became commander, but the confusion in the Dutch fleet was so great, that Cornelius Tromp did the same. By evening, the Dutch fleet was in full flight. Evertsen was summoned to The Hague; when he travelled there, he was dragged from his carriage by an angry mob, bound hand and foot, thrown into the water. He saved himself by clinging to the stern of a ship.

He had to be escorted for his protection by an armed detachment to Den Helder, where he was tried for cowardice. The commanders of the fleet spoke out in his favour, when it became clear that Evertsen had prevented the worst possible scenario by covering the retreat of the fleet, receiving 150 bullet impacts in his ship, he was released; when Johan's brother Cornelis Evertsen the Elder was killed in the Four Days' Battle, Johan joined the fleet and took command of the vanguard of De Ruyter. He was killed on the first day of the St James's Day Battle. After much conflict between the Admiralty and the family over the costs, both brothers were buried in 1681 in the Abbey of Middelburg, where their shared grave memorial remains. Johan married Maayken Gorcum, they had five children, Johan Evertsen, the younger, Cornelis Evertsen the Younger, vice-admiral and three daughters. Jonge, J. C. de, Levens-beschrijving van Johan en Cornelis Evertsen, Luitenant-Admiralen van Zeeland, ’s Gravenhage, Weduwe J. Allart & Comp.

1820. AttributionThis article is based on the article from the Dutch Wikipedia "Johan Evertsen". Michiel de Ruyter

Louis Abel Beffroy de Reigny

Louis Abel Beffroy de Reigny, was a French dramatist and man of letters. He was born at Aisne. Under the name of "Cousin Jacques" he founded; the Courrier des planetes ou Correspondance du Cousin Jacques avec le firmament followed. Nicodeme clans la Lune, ou la révolution pacifique a three-act farce, is said to have had more than four hundred representations. In spite of his protests against the evils of the Revolution he escaped interference through the influence of his brother, Louis Etienne Beffroy, a member of the Convention. Of La Petite Nanette and several other operas he wrote the music, his Dictionnaire neologique of the chief actors and events in the Revolution was interdicted by the police and remained incomplete. Beffroy spent his last years in retirement, dying in Paris on December 17, 1811. TheatreCompliment 1781. Paris, Théâtre de l'Hôtel de Bourgogne, 16 August 1781. Les Ailes de l'amour, comedy in 1 act in verse and in vaudevilles mingled with new songs. Paris, Théâtre Italien, 23 May 1786.

Les Clefs du jardin, ou les Pots de fleurs, divertissement en vers et en vaudevilles. Paris, Théâtre Italien, 24 March 1787. La Fin du bail, ou le Repas des fermiers, divertissement en prose et en vaudevilles. Paris, Théâtre Italien, 8 March 1788. Sans adieu, compliment de clôture 1789. Paris, Théâtre Italien, 24 March 1789. La Couronne de fleurs, comédie en un acte et en vaudevilles. Paris, Théâtre Italien, 20 April 1789. Text online La Confédération du Parnasse. Paris, Théâtre des Beaujolais, 11 July 1790. Le Retour du Champ de Mars. Paris, Théâtre des Beaujolais, 25 July 1790. Nicodème dans la lune, ou la Révolution pacifique, folie en prose et en 3 actes, mêlée d'ariettes et de vaudevilles. Paris, Théâtre-Français, 7 November 1790. Reprinting: Nizet, Paris, 1983. Text online L'Histoire universelle, comédie en vers et en 2 actes, mêlée de vaudevilles et d'airs nouveaux. Paris, Théâtre de Monsieur, 16 December 1790. Le Club des bonnes-gens, ou la Réconciliation, comédie en vers et en 2 actes, mêlée de vaudevilles et d'airs nouveaux.

Paris, Théâtre de Monsieur, 24 September 1791. Text online Les Deux Nicodèmes, ou Les Français sur la planète de Jupiter. Paris, Théâtre Feydeau, 21 November 1791. Allons, ça va, ou le Quaker en France, tableau patriotique en vers et en 1 acte. Paris, Théâtre Feydeau, 28 October 1793. Text online Toute la Grèce, ou Ce que peut la liberté, tableau patriotique en un acte. Paris, Théâtre de la Porte-Saint-Martin, 5 January 1794. Text online Le Compère Luc ou Les Dangers de l'ivrognerie. Paris, Théâtre Feydeau, 19 February 1794. La Petite Nannette, opéra-comique en 2 actes. Paris, Théâtre Feydeau, 7 December 1796. Turlututu, empereur de l'Isle verte, folie, bêtise, farce ou parade, comme on voudra, en prose et en 3 actes. Paris, Théâtre de la Cité, 3 July 1797. Jean-Baptiste, opéra comique en prose et en 1 acte. Paris, Théâtre Feydeau, 1 June 1798. Un Rien, ou l'Habit de noces, folie épisodique en 1 acte et en prose, mêlée de vaudevilles et d'airs nouveaux. Paris, Théâtre de l'Ambigu-Comique, 7 June 1798.

Le Grand Genre. Paris, Théâtre de l'Ambigu-Comique, 13 January 1799. Magdelon, comédie épisodique en prose et en 1 acte, mêlée d'ariettes. Paris, Théâtre Montansier, 4 June 1799. Émilie ou Les Caprices, comédie en vers et en 3 actes. Paris, Théâtre des Jeunes-Artistes, 9 July 1799. Les Deux Charbonniers, ou Les Contrastes, comédie. Paris, Théâtre Montansier, 24 August 1799. Le Bonhomme, ou Poulot et Fanchon. Paris, Théâtre Montansier, 11 December 1799. PoetryLes Petites Poésies d'Antoine Jacques, citoyen de la place Maubert Turlututu, ou la Science du bonheur, poème héroï-comique en vers et en huit chants, par le Cousin Jacques Hurluberlu, ou le Célibataire, poème demi-burlesque avec des airs nouveaux, en vers et en trois chants, par le Cousin Jacques, avec des notes de M. de Kerkorkurkayladeck Marlborough, poëme comique en prose rimée, par le Cousin-Jacques, avec des notes de M. de Kerkorkurkayladeck, gentilhomme bas-breton Les Petites-Maisons du Parnasse, ouvrage comico-littéraire d'un genre nouveau, en vers et en prose, par le Cousin Jacques, traduit de l'arabe, etc. et donné au public par un drôle de corps, avec des notes de Messire Ives de Kerkorkurkaïladek-Kakabek, seigneur de Konkalek, Kikokikar, et autres lieux Nouveau Te Deum en vers saphiques, avec des notes sur le Pape, sur le légal, sur le nouvel archevêque de Paris, sur les philosophes Les Soirées chantantes, ou le Chansonnier bourgeois, formé du choix de tous les vaudevilles, romances, rondes, scènes chantantes du Cousin-Jacques, recueil revu, épuré par l'auteur, avec les airs nouveaux notés Journalism and otherLe Cousin Jacques hors du Sallon, folie sans conséquence, à l'occasion des tableaux exposés au Louvre en 1787 Histoire de France pendant trois mois, ou Relation exacte, impartiale et suivie des événemens qui ont eu lieu à Paris, à Versailles et dans les provinces, depuis le 15 mai jusqu'au 15 août 1789, avec des anecdotes qui n'ont point encore été publiées et des réflexions sur l'état actuel de la France, et suivie d'une épître en vers à Louis XVI Précis exact de la prise de la Bastille rédigé sous les yeux des principaux acteurs qui ont joué un rôle dans cette expédition et lu le même jour à l'Hôtel-de-Ville Supplément nécessaire au Précis exact de la prise de la Bastille, avec des anecdotes curieuses sur le même sujet.

Text online Les Repentirs de l'année 1788, suivis de douze petites lettres, écrites a qui voudra les lire Le Lendemain, ou l'Esprit des feuilles de la veille (10 Octobe

Theological University of Northern Italy – Turin Campus

The Theological University of Northern Italy is a university of the Catholic Church, has its main campus in Milan. The administration of the University, located in Milan, in the monastery annexed to the Basilica of St Simplician, is under the leadership of the Bishops of four ecclesiastical regions: Piedmont, Lombardy and Liguria. Liguria joined the other three regions recently; the Turin Campus is the Piedmont branch of the Theological University of Northern Italy. It offers academic degrees similar to those available in the Milan Campus, in the other regions. Instead, the Master Program in Moral Theology is offered only in the Turin Campus, on behalf of all the affiliates of the Theological University; the main building of the Turin Campus is the Palace of the Seminary located at 83, XX Settembre Street, close by the Cathedral of Turin, in the downtown area. The Theological University–Turin Campus offers a B. A. and a M. A. programs. The B. A. is a five-year program. The M. A. program is a two-year program with specialization in social emphasis.

A Master's degree of Theology is conferred at the conclusion of the studies. The Theological University of Northern Italy–Turin Campus is in charge of the supervision of the courses offered at the Higher Institute of Religious Sciences, located in the same building Archdiocese of Turin Turin Campus official website Central Administration in Milan official website