Timiș-Torontal was a county in the Kingdom of Romania. Its capital was Timișoara; the territory of the county had been transferred to Romania in 1920 from the Kingdom of Hungary under the Treaty of Trianon. Timiș-Torontal County covered 7,600 km2 and was located in western part of Greater Romania, in the Banat; the territory that comprised Timiș-Torontal County is now part of Timiș County except for the eastern part, the areas around Lugoj and Făget, which are in Arad County. On 27 July 1919, the first prefect of Timiș, appointed by the Royal Romanian authorities, Aurel Cosma, was installed; the Timiş-Torontal County included the parts of the former counties Temes and Torontál which were awarded to the Kingdom of Romania as part of the Banat. The new county was composed, in the first phase, until 1925, the districts: Buziaş, Centrală, Comloş, Deta, Gătaia, Giulvăz, Lipova, Periam, Sânnicolaul Mare, Vinga. On 24 November 1923, there was a border correction between Romania and the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes.
The villages Jimbolia, Beba Veche, Cherestur and Iam were ceded to Romania, Meda, Modoș, Șurian, Căptălan and Gaiu Mare were handed over to the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. In 1925 the Law of Administrative Unification was promulgated; the Timiş-Torontal District was divided into two urban communes and 246 rural communes grouped in twelve districts. Subsequently, on 12 December 1926, a thirteenth district was established; the county neighbored Caraș County to the southeast, Severin County to the east, Arad County to the north, Kingdom of Yugoslavia to the west and southwest and Hungary to the northwest. In 1929 Timis-Torontal County was integrated into the 7th Ministerial Directorate, led by Sever Bocu. In 1938, Timiş-Torontal, Arad County, Caraș County, Severin County and Hunedoara County were merged into the newly founded Ținutul Timiș; the counties were re-established in the 1940 administrative reform, only for Timiş-Torontal County to be disbanded with the administrative reform of 6 September 1950.
Administratively, Timiș-Torontal County was divided into ten districts: Plasa Buziaş, with headquarters at Buziaş Plasa Centrală, with headquarters at Timişoara Plasa Ciacova, with headquarters at Ciacova Plasa Deta, with headquarters at Deta Plasa Jimbolia, with headquarters at Jimbolia Plasa Lipova, with headquarters at Lipova Plasa Periam, with headquarters at Periam Plasca Recaş, with headquarters at Recaş Plasa Sânnicolaul Mare, with headquarters at Sânnicolau Mare Plasa Vinga, with headquarters at Vinga Subsequently, three more districts were established:Plastica Comloş, with headquarters at Comloşu Mare Plasa Gătaia, with headquarters at Gătaia Plasa Giulvăz, with headquarters at Giulvăz According to the 1930 census data, the county's population was 499,443, ethnically divided as follows: 37.6% Romanians, 34.9% Germans, 15.4% Hungarians, 5.8% Serbs and Croats, as well as other minorities. From the religious point of view the inhabitants were Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Greek Catholic, Reformed, as well as other minorities.
In the year 1930, the urban population of the county was 97,580 inhabitants, ethnically divided as follows: 30.5% Germans, 29.3% Hungarians, 27.7% Romanians, 7.6% Jews, 2.2% Serbs and Croats, as well as other minorities. From the religious point of view, the urban population consisted of 52.1% Roman Catholic, 27.7% Eastern Orthodox, 9.9% Jewish, 5.0% Reformed, 2.8% Greek Catholic, 2.4% Lutheran, as well as other minorities. Timiş-Torontal County on memoria.ro
The Timiș or Tamiš is a 359 km long river originating from the Semenic Mountains, southern Carpathian Mountains, Caraș-Severin County, Romania. It flows into the Danube near Pančevo, in northern Serbia. In antiquity, the river was known as Tibisis; the Romans, who traversed the plains of Hungary, suppose that they passed several navigable rivers, either in canoes or portable boats. The drainage area covers 10,280 km2. With the Danube, it belongs to the Black Sea drainage basin; the river flows through Romania for 241 km, 118 km through Serbia. The river starts at the confluence of headwaters Grădiștea and Semenic in Lake Trei Ape. After entering Banat, the river becomes meandering. In its lower course, the river is regulated, for the last 53 km it is navigable; the most important port is the industrialized Pančevo. After Banat, floods occur in rainy years. Devastating were the floods of 2005, when the villages Boka and Jaša Tomić were badly damaged. On April 20, 2005, a level of 844 centimeters was recorded, the highest since the measurements began.
In the spring of 2007 works on the elevation of the embankments on the both sides of the river began, 11.5 kilometers on the right bank and 13.2 kilometers on the left. The embankments will be 30–70 cm higher than they are now and being higher than 8.5 m should prevent any future floodings. In some parts of the low, marshy areas created by the floods, several fish-filled lakes have been created, most notably at Banatski Despotovac, Uzdin and Slatina; the following rivers are tributaries to the river Timiș: Left: Brebu, Goleț, Bucoșnița, Cernețu, Petroșnița, Valea Mare, Vălișoara, Măcicaș/Rugiu, Mâtnic, Vâna Mare, Spaia, Știuca, Timișana, Șurgani, Pogăniș, Timișul Mort, Găvojdia, Lanca Birda, Bârzava/Brzava Right: Grădiște, Teregova, Criva, Râul Rece, Râul Lung, Armeniș, Sadovița, Groapa Copacului, Bolvașnița, Sebeș, Valea Mare, Calova, Maciovița, Vălișorul, Cernola, Nădrag, Slatina, Măguri, Iarcoș, Timișaț Major cities in its Romanian course are Caransebeș and Lugoj, smaller places include: Teregova, Armeniș, Slatina-Timiș, Bucoșnița, Caransebeș, Constantin Daicoviciu, Gavojdia, Lugoj, Coșteiu, Moșnița Nouă, Șag, Parța, Peciu NouTimișoara has its name derived from the river Timiș meaning the fortress of Timiș.
However the town of Timiș City though its name may indicate it, is not a settlement on the river, but on another Romanian-Serbian river, Bega. From source to mouth: Jaša Tomić, Šurjan, Boka, Sečanj, Banatski Despotovac, Botoš, Tomaševac, Uzdin, Farkaždin, Sakule, Čenta, Opovo, Glogonj, Pančevo The river's old mouth into the Danube was some 40 km to the north-west, between villages of Čenta and Surduk, thus it was shorter. Canal Karaš remained marking old river bed, the area bounded by the old and new river beds and the Danube, is called Pančevački Rit; the 400 km2 large wetland was flooded, but since World War II it has been drained part by part and half of it is turned into a fertile patch of land, suitable for cultivating grains and vegetables. It is managed by Serbian largest agricultural company, "PKB Beograd", which exclusively provides food for 2 million people in wider Belgrade area, thus Pančevački Rit is nicknamed Granary of Belgrade. Stockbreeding is very intensive, so are fishery and hunting.
Many meandering canals and bogs remained in the marsh: slow streams of Vizelj, Sibnica, Butuš, Buk, Belanoš and Sebeš, large bogs of Reva, Veliko Blato, Sebeš and Široka bara. In the south, area ends with a river island Kožara. After being uninhabited before 1945, today its population density is above average for Serbia as a whole, since some of the fastest growing suburbs of Belgrade are built there; the whole area of Pančevački Rit belongs administratively to Belgrade's municipality of Palilula. Mala Prosvetina Enciklopedija, Third edition. Marković: Enciklopedijski geografski leksikon Jugoslavije.
Timiș 2 were a series of tramcars built by the "Timișoara Transport and Tram Carriage Construction Company" Electrometal Timișoara between 1972 and 1990. The tramcars appeared in the late 1960s as part of the desire of the Timișoara Transport Executive to locally produce and buy trams; the transport company acquired Electroputere Craiova's V54 type trams in 1955 and Bucharest Transport Executive Main Workshops' V56 and V58. However these were only imported vehicles, weren't in a major number, as Timișoara still operated trams made from the pre-WW2 era; the first attempt at making a locally produced tram was the Gb 2/2 in 1948 and 1954, but only 7 units were made. The next attempt was the Timiș 1 tramcars, however built in a limited series in 1962. Between 1965 and 1967 the transport executive considered introducing a series of articulated tramcars, named TA-65, but this plan was soon abandoned due to the radius of the curves; the planners turned on to an easier alternative: a motor car-trailer car solution.
Thus in 1969 the TM 69E prototype, the "pioneer" of the Timiș 2 was made. Trials with this unit led to the production of a trailer car as well starting from July 1970, being put on trials on 1 December 1970, in 1971 the project was approved for mass production. Mass production started in 1972. Over the years the tramcar suffered modifications. In 1974 the factory switched from Kiepe Electric combined power handles to locally made Eltim ones. In 1975 the tram was exported for the first time outside Timișoara, examples reaching Oradea, Brăila and Galați. In 1977 production was transferred to Electrometal Timișoara after the Transport Executive's ownership of the tramcar factory was revoked. Starting with 1981, production for metre gauge tram networks commences. In 1982 a major facelift is added to the base model and at around the same time, an articulated prototype, named Eltim V2 was produced. Starting with 1985 it entered in severe competition with the articulated V2A and V3A trams made by the Bucharest Transport Executive's Main Workshops.
Production of the model stopped in 1990, with 541 motor cars and 531 trailer cars produced, at the same time when the V2A and V3A production stopped. Soon after the downfall of communism in Romania, these tram cars began to be retired. Sibiu was the first city to phase them out in 1994 though the fleet was only 7 years old at the time. More cities followed, in Timișoara these trams were retired in 2005; the last town that retired these passenger cars was Cluj, in August 2011, thus ending the era of Romanian-made tramcars from the communist times. The project was led by engineer Gheorghe Bihoi; the construction of this tram is simple, being parallelepipedical-shaped and made out of welded metal. It had the destination display varied by city and year of manufacture, it had 3 doors, the middle one being double the 1st and 3rd door being simple folding. Internally the drivers cab was separated from the passenger salloon. In the drivers cab, apart from the driving controls and door switches, a megaphone for the passenger salloon was included, so the tram driver could communicate to the passengers.
The passenger interior varied for the motor trailer car. At 5 passengers/m ², 61 people could fit in 76 in the trailer car. At 8 passengers/m ², 98 people would fit in 122 in a trailer car. Both the motor car and the trailer car had 24 seats. Illumination was provided by 6 tubes of neon lighting. Ventilation was done not only through hatches placed on the roof that could be opened, but through "heaters", where air from the outside would be introduced into the inside of the tramcars, with the help of 4 "heaters" placed under the seats. In the cold winters, they would heat it up; the trucks/bogeys were made by the Grivița Auto Repair Works, which at the time was producing axles for trams. The power was supplied by 2 axle-mounted traction motors, giving a combined output of 240 kW. In the case of networks that had 600 V DC electrification networks instead of the 750 V DC electrification network, the output of these motors was reduced to 190 kW, combined. Separated, these traction motors would have a power output of 95 kW, respectively.
The tram type suffered many modifications during the time whilst it was in production from 1972 to 1990. Below is a full list of modifications that were done along the years: The first trams, numbered 230-234 did not have openable windows on the door side. Starting with tram 235-5, the openable windows were fitted on both sides The first 5 tram sets had electrically operated doors, but due to the fact that the passengers would get stuck in them and the electric mechanisms would overheat, so starting from the 6th tram set, the factory opted for pneumatic door mechanisms; the first 14 trams had a throttle and braking equipment made by Kiepe Elektrik of Düsseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany. This mechanism had 17 braking notches; however starting from the 15th car, made in 1974, to reduce costs, it was decided to switch to locally made Eltim-made throttle and brake equipments instead. By the end of 1976, when tram set 289-59 was made, the seating was made out of plastic and had 2 pieces and it was painted in yellow.
Starting from 1977, red fiberglass seats were introduced. In 1977, the ownership of the tramcar factory is switched. Due to unknown reasons, the Timișoara Transport Executive can no longer manufacture trams and own the factory. After a long process, the factory is sold to Electrometal, a company th
Predeal is a town in Brașov County, Romania. Predeal, a mountain resort town, is the highest town in Romania, it is located in the Prahova Valley at an elevation of over 1,000 m. The town administers three villages: Timișu de Jos and Timișu de Sus. Beginning in the 2000s, the area experienced a boom in construction, now many wealthy families own mountain retreats in Predeal. During the 2013 European Youth Olympic Winter Festival, it hosted the cross-country skiing and snowboarding competitions; the name Predeal is derived from the Slavic word predel, which means "border". Predeal is situated in the Centru development region of Romania, in the Prahova Valley, in the southern part of Brașov County. Neighboring towns include Azuga to the south, Bușteni to the southwest, Râșnov to the northwest and Brașov to the north; the town is mountainous, with the Piatra Mare mountains to the north, the Bucegi mountains to the southwest and the Postăvarul Massif to the northwest. The woods around Predeal have a rich and diversified fauna, including a high number of wild boars, European pine martens, foxes, gray wolves, squirrels, rabbits and heather cocks.
The town of Predeal is a well-known tourist destination in Romania in winter. Predeal has each with a difficulty grade. Most of them have snowmaking guns, some are fitted with floodlights and ski lifts; the slopes range from 790 metres to 2,243 metres. Some of the town's tourist attractions include the 3 Brazi Chalet, The Susai Chalet and The Poiana Secuilor Chalet. In close proximity to Predeal are several tourist destinations, including the Peleş Castle, Râșnov Citadel, Bran Castle, The Old Town of Brașov, Biserica Neagră and the Seven Ladders Canyon; the town has been certified as a climate resort by government decree due to the ionized air rich in ultraviolet radiation and the low atmospheric pressure. Because of this, Predeal is popular within the holistic healing community; the town is crossed by one national railway. Predeal is one of the cities which will be crossed by the future Bucharest – Brașov motorway. Strategia de dezvoltare a orașului Predeal Town map Pictures and landscapes from the Carpathian Mountains Predeal-alpine station, sensitive map
Timișoara is the capital city of Timiș County, the 3rd largest city in Romania and the main social and cultural centre in western Romania. The third most populous city in the country, with 319,279 inhabitants as of the 2011 census, Timișoara is the informal capital city of the historical region of Banat. In September 2016, Timișoara was selected as the European Capital of Culture for 2021. All names of the city are derived from its Hungarian name Temesvár meaning "Castle on Temes river". Archaeological discoveries prove that the area where Timișoara is located today has been inhabited since ancient times; the first identifiable civilization in this area were the Dacians. From coin finds, it is known. While no record of the settlement is known from those times, it is agreed that the site was inhabited through the Middle Ages when the city was mentioned for the first time. Timișoara was first mentioned as a place in either 1212 or 1266 as the Roman fort of Castrum Temesiensis or Castrum regium Themes.
The territory known as Banat was conquered during the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin. The town was destroyed by the Tatars in the 13th century but Timișoara was rebuilt and grew during the reign of Charles I, upon his visit there in 1307, ordered the fortress to be fortified with stone walls and to build a royal palace. Timișoara's importance grew due to its strategic location, which facilitated control over the Banat plain. By the middle of the 14th century, Timișoara was at the forefront of Western Christendom's battle against the Muslim Ottoman Turks. French and Hungarian Crusaders met at the city before engaging in the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396. Beginning in 1443, John Hunyadi used Timișoara as a military stronghold against the Turks, having built a powerful fortress; the city was besieged by the Ottomans in 1462, 1476, 1491, 1522. In 1552, a 16,000-strong Ottoman army led by Kara Ahmed Pasha conquered the city and transformed it into a capital city in the region; the local military commander, István Losonczy, other Christians were massacred on 27 July 1552 while escaping the city through the Azapilor Gate.
Timișoara remained under Ottoman rule for nearly 160 years, controlled directly by the Sultan and enjoying a special status, similar to other cities in the region such as Budapest and Belgrade. During this period, Timișoara was home to a large Islamic community and produced famous historical figures such as Osman Aga of Temesvar, until Prince Eugene of Savoy conquered it in 1716 during the Ottoman-Habsburg war. Subsequently, the city came under Habsburg rule, it remained so until the early 20th century as part of the Kingdom of Hungary, Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, except for the Ottoman occupation between 1788–1789 during the 1787–91 Austro-Turkish War; the city was defortified starting in 1892 up until 1910, several major road arteries were built to connect the suburbs with the city centre, paving the way for further expansion of the city. It was the 1st mainland European city and 2nd in the world after New York to be lit by electric street lamps in 1884, it was the second European and the first city in what is now Romania with horse-drawn trams in 1869.
It is said that Gustave Eiffel, the creator of the Eiffel Tower in Paris, drew the projects of one of Timișoara's footbridges over the Bega, the "Metal Bridge", however, it was planned by Róbert Tóth, the head of the Bridge Department, at the Reșița rail factory. On 31 October 1918, local military and political elites established the "Banat National Council", together with representatives of the region's main ethnic groups: Germans, Hungarians and Romanians. On 1 November they proclaimed the short-lived Banat Republic. In the aftermath of World War I, the Banat region was divided between the Kingdom of Romania and the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, Timișoara came under Romanian administration after Serbian occupation between 1918–1919; the city was ceded from Hungary to Romania by the Treaty of Trianon on 4 June 1920. In 1920, King Ferdinand I awarded Timișoara the status of a University Centre, the interwar years saw continuous economic and cultural development. A number of anti-fascist and anti-revisionist demonstrations took place during this time.
During World War II, Timișoara suffered damage from both Allied and Axis bombing raids during the second half of 1944. On 23 August 1944, which until was a member of the Axis, declared war on Nazi Germany and joined the Allies. Surprised, the local Wehrmacht garrison surrendered without a fight, German and Hungarian troops attempted to take the city by force throughout September, without success. After the war, the People's Republic of Romania was proclaimed, Timișoara underwent Sovietization and Systematization; the city's population tripled between 1948 and 1992. In December 1989, Timișoara witnessed a series of mass street protests in what was to become the Romanian Revolution. On 20 December, three days after bloodshed began there, Timișoara was declared the first city free of Communism in Romania. Timișoara lies at an altitude of 90 metres on the southeast edge of the Banat plain, part of the Pannonian Plain near the divergence of the Timiș and Bega rivers; the waters of the two rivers form a swampy and flooded land.
Timișoara developed on one of few places wher
The Canalul Timiș is a canal linking the Timiş and the Ghimbăşel in Romania. It starts in the proximity of Dârste and follows the southern limit of the city of Braşov; the canal intercepts the rivers flowing towards the city from the Postăvarul Massif and diverts them into the Ghimbăşel, on many reaches using the river beds of previous rivers. In the city the canal is covered. Administrația Națională Apelor Române - Cadastrul Apelor - București Institutul de Meteorologie și Hidrologie - Rîurile României - București 1971 Harta Județului Brașov Harta Munților Postăvaru Harta orașului Brașov
County of Temes was an administrative county of the Kingdom of Hungary, Austria-Hungary. Its territory is now in northeastern Serbia; the capital of the county was Temesvár. Temes county was located in the Banat region, it shared borders with the Kingdom of Serbia and the Hungarian counties of Torontál, Arad and Krassó-Szörény. The river Danube formed its southern border, the river Maros its northern border; the river Temes flowed through the county. Its area in 1910 was 7,433 km². Temes County was formed in the 11th century, after the establishment of Hungarian rule in the region, it was named after the local Temes river. Principal center of the County was named Temesvár in Hungarian language, meaning literally: Temes Castle; the area was taken by the Ottoman Empire in the middle of 16th century and the county was abolished. This territory was included into the Ottoman Temeşvar Eyalet. After the region was captured by the Habsburgs in 1716, the area was included into the so-called Banat of Temeswar, a Habsburg province with administrative center in Temeswar.
This province was abolished in 1778, the county of Temes was restored. It was incorporated into Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. Between 1849 and 1860, the area of the county was part of Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banat, a separate Austrian crown land. During this time, the county did not existed. Temes County was re-established after 1860, when the area was again incorporated into the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary. In 1918, the county first became part of the newly proclaimed Banat Republic that lasted only few days; the region was taken by Serbian and French troops, divided in 1919 between Romania and the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, confirmed at the Paris Peace Conference. A majority of the county was assigned to Romania, while the south-western third was assigned to the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes; the Yugoslav part of the pre-1920 Temes County is part of the Serbian autonomous region of Vojvodina. The Romanian part is now part of Timiș County, except a 10 km wide strip along the Mureș River, in the Romanian Arad County.
In 1900, the county had a population of 476,242 people and was composed of the following linguistic communities:Total: German: 171,087 Romanian: 167,523 Serbian: 64,902 Hungarian: 58,153 Slovak: 2,977 Croatian: 387 Ruthenian: 79 Other or unknown: 11,134 According to the census of 1900, the county was composed of the following religious communities:Total: Eastern Orthodox: 223,247 Roman Catholic: 209,690 Greek Catholic: 12,360 Lutheran: 11,993 Jewish: 9,745 Calvinist: 8,712 Unitarian: 111 Other or unknown: 384 In 1910, the county had a population of 500,835 people and was composed of the following linguistic communities:Total: Romanian: 169,030 German: 165,883 Hungarian: 79,960 Serbian: 69,905 Slovak: 3,080 Croatian: 350 Ruthenian: 30 Other or unknown: 12,597 According to the census of 1910, the county was composed of the following religious communities:Total: Eastern Orthodox: 232,057 Roman Catholic: 221,175 Lutheran: 13,611 Greek Catholic: 12,381 Calvinist: 11,135 Jewish: 9,734 Unitarian: 160 Other or unknown: 582 In the early 20th century, the subdivisions of Temes county were: The towns of Vršac, Bela Crkva, Kovin are now in Serbia.