Heurelho da Silva Gomes, better known as Heurelho Gomes, is a Brazilian professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Watford. He made a name for himself at Dutch club PSV, spent six years at Tottenham Hotspur. Gomes began as a forward, only becoming a goalkeeper at age 19. Gomes started his career in his native country Brazil at Cruzeiro, where he played 59 games between 2001 and 2004. Here, he was scouted by Piet de Visser and in July 2004, he was sold to PSV. Gomes made his debut for the Eindhoven club against Serbian side Red Star Belgrade on 11 August 2004. At first, there were critics, saying that Brazilians "should be on the field, not in the goal". In other words, there were doubts; those doubts were erased. Though he conceded two goals in his debut against RBC, which PSV won 5–2, he proved himself to be a reliable goalkeeper, he played a major part in PSV's four latest consecutive titles in the Eredivisie and in the great European achievements. In his first season, PSV reached the semi-finals of the UEFA Champions League, where in the 14 attempts before, PSV wasn't able to reach the second round.
In the following seasons, PSV progressed each time from the group stage. In the Eredivisie, Gomes was known for his outstanding reflexes, which saved points for PSV more than once, his trademark throwing ability is well known. Gomes is able to throw the ball all the way deep into the opponents half. Before the start of the match and second half, Gomes jumps up above the goal with his shoulders, pumping up the PSV supporters. Gomes was a crowd favorite at PSV, he can speak Portuguese and Spanish and while in the Netherlands, he picked up a fair amount of Dutch, although it has to be said he is not fluent in the language. Though the rivalry between PSV, Feyenoord and Ajax is intense, fans from rival clubs showed sympathy for the Brazilian. Notable was an incident in Rotterdam in the match against Feyenoord, when Gomes injured himself whilst celebrating a goal, scored by his teammate Phillip Cocu. However, he managed to continue and managed to pull off a wonder save, keeping his side in the game, which they went on to draw.
Following the appointment of manager Juande Ramos, Gomes signed for Tottenham Hotspur on 27 June 2008 for a fee was believed to be around £7.8 million. Gomes played his first game in Tottenham colours in a pre-season friendly match on 19 July 2008 against Spanish Segunda División B side Dénia, which Tottenham won 4–2. Gomes obtained a work permit to play in the United Kingdom, despite playing less than the 75% required number of games for Brazil in the last two years. Gomes made his home debut on 10 August 2008, keeping a clean sheet with a 5–0 victory over Roma on Tottenham's last pre-season friendly, before the 2008–09 Premier League began. Tottenham lost their two opening games 2–1 to Middlesbrough and Sunderland but his presence in goal helped Spurs earn their first point of the season with a draw against rival club Chelsea at Stamford Bridge, his reputation took a hit a week however, when he conceded a weak shot from Ashley Young in Spurs' 2–1 home defeat against Aston Villa. These blunders continued as he conceded an own goal in a London derby against Fulham on 15 November 2008, which kept his club mired deep in the relegation zone and caused Spurs goalkeeping coach Hans Leitert to be sacked on 19 November 2008, with the appointment of former Spurs goalkeeper Tony Parks made shortly after.
Gomes went on to put in a strong performance against West Ham United, saving two shots deep into the match in which Tottenham won 2–0, before making two important saves to deny Park Ji-sung and Ryan Giggs in a 0–0 draw with Manchester United. Gomes was injured in Spurs' 5–1 win over Hull City in the second game of the 2009–10 Premier League season and had to be replaced by second-choice goalkeeper Carlo Cudicini. After an MRI scan, it was revealed that Gomes suffered damage to his groin which would keep him out for up to a month, he made his return to first team action in the 5–1 victory over Preston North End in the League Cup on 23 September 2009, made his Premier League comeback in the 2–1 win at Portsmouth on 17 October. During this match, the Brazilian made a handful of brilliant saves, one of, compared by former Spurs goalkeeper Pat Jennings to a famous save made by Gordon Banks against Brazil in the 1970 FIFA World Cup. On 3 April 2010, he made two penalty saves out of three against in a 3–1 defeat away at Sunderland on 14 April, Gomes' fine form aided Spurs in picking up their first Premier League victory over Arsenal in 21 meetings.
The following week, on 17 April, Gomes again made several crucial saves as Tottenham beat Chelsea 2–1 as the team passed Manchester City to sit fourth in the League standings. He kept a clean sheet in a 1–0 win over Bolton Wanders and played a vital role in the 1–0 victory against Manchester City with two crucial saves which saw Tottenham get into the UEFA Champions League for the first time ever. On 20 October 2010, Gomes received a red card for fouling Jonathan Biabiany within the first ten minutes of the first half against European Champions Inter Milan at the San Siro in the Champions League. Tottenham Hotspur lost the match 4–3 after going 4–0 down inside the first 35 minutes, despite a second half hat-trick from Gareth Bale. Gomes' goalkeeping ability was called into question on 13 April 2011 in the second leg tie against Real Madrid after a long-shot from Cristiano Ronaldo slipped out of Gomes' hands over his head and into the goal to put Real Madrid 5–0 up on aggregate. Gomes took blame for another controversial goal against Chelsea on 30 April after a shot from Frank
Feyenoord Rotterdam is a Dutch professional football club based in Rotterdam, that plays in the Eredivisie, the top tier in Dutch football. Founded as Wilhelmina in 1908, the club changed its name to SC Feijenoord in 1912, SC Feyenoord in 1974, Feyenoord Rotterdam in 1978, when SC Feyenoord became a separate amateur team. Since 1937, Feyenoord's home ground has been Stadion Feijenoord, nicknamed De Kuip. Feyenoord is one of the most successful clubs in the Netherlands, winning 15 Eredivisie titles, 13 KNVB Cups, 4 Johan Cruyff Shields. Internationally, it has won one European Cup, two UEFA Cups, one Intercontinental Cup; the club has played continuously in the top tier of the Dutch football system since gaining promotion to Eerste Klasse in 1921, more times than any other club in the country, including the likes of Ajax and PSV Eindhoven. Feyenoord is known as a people's club with a huge international support; the club's most successful period in history was the 1960s and'70s, when Coen Moulijn and Ove Kindvall led the club to six league titles, two European trophies, an Intercontinental Cup, thereby becoming the first Dutch club in history to win both the European Cup and the Intercontinental Cup.
In the 21st century, Feyenoord ended an 18-year league title drought in 2017 and won the 2002 UEFA Cup against Borussia Dortmund in its home stadium. Feyenoord has a longstanding rivalry with Ajax, a clash between two teams from the two biggest cities in the Netherlands, called De Klassieker; the club's anthem is "Hand in Hand". As of 2019, Feyenoord will become a multi-sports club; the football club Wilhelmina was founded in the pub De Vereeniging on 19 July 1908 and played in blue-sleeved red shirts and white shorts. Between 1908, 1910, 1911, 1912, the club underwent a series of changes of name and team colours, becoming Hillesluise Football Club in 1909, RVV Celeritas. Upon earning promotion to the National football association in 1912, the club renamed to SC Feijenoord, changed uniform once again, adopting the red and white shirts, black shorts and black socks that they still wear today. In 1918, Feijenoord were promoted to the highest level of Dutch football and moved to the ground Kromme Zandweg.
After 18 years, the formation of the club and a mere three years after they were promoted to the highest level of Dutch football Feijenoord earned their first honours by capturing the national league championship in 1924. The team enjoyed a string of successes in the latter half of the decade, taking divisional titles in 1926, 1927, 1928 and 1929, winning their second national championship in 1928. Feijenoord won their first Dutch Cup in 1930 by scoring the only goal in a derby final against Excelsior, they continued to dominate their division with three consecutive titles, but were winless in subsequent championship finals. Five years after their first cup win, Feijenoord took the prize for a second time in 1935, by beating Helmond Sport. Feijenoord started to attract more fans to their stadium at Kromme Zandweg, in 1933, they decided to build a new facility; the club moved to the Feijenoord Stadion in 1937, playing the first match there on 27 March against Beerschot. During this period Feijenoord won three consecutive division titles from 1936 to 1938, with their third and fourth national championships coming in 1936 and 1938.
During World War II, Feijenoord played their matches at Sparta Rotterdam's Kasteel, as the Nazis had occupied De Kuip. When Het Kasteel was unavailable due to clashes with Sparta fixtures, Feijenoord played at their former ground, the Kromme Zandweg. Feijenoord's again won a division title with a national championship in 1940, their fifth Dutch title. During the German occupation of the Netherlands, play continued in Dutch football leagues, though the 1945 championship was cancelled as the war came to its conclusion. During this period, Feijenoord's only trophy was a divisional championship in 1943. After the war, Feijenoord did not perform as well as they had in previous decades, not challenging in their division and so missing the national playoff rounds. On 30 June 1954, the chairmen of the three biggest Rotterdam teams organised a meeting in Utrecht, attended by several chairmen of other clubs and a delegation of the KNVB to discuss the start of professional football in the Netherlands; the professional era commenced with the first Eredivisie season in 1954/1955.
Feijenoord were one of the clubs participating in the inaugural Eredivisie and have never been relegated. One of the most memorable matches in these first years of professional football was the clash between Feijenoord and the Volewijckers at 2 April 1956, which Feijenoord won 11–4, with nine goals by Henk Schouten. Feijenoord would grow an intense rivalry with Ajax. Matches between the two clubs were dubbed as de Klassieker; the first memorable Klassieker from a Feijenoord point of view took place at 11 November 1956, when Daan den Bleijker scored four times to give Feijenoord a 7–3 win over their archrivals. Feijenoord claimed their first professional Eredivisie Championship and their sixth Dutch Championship in 1961. On the road to the title Ajax was beaten 9–5 in De Kuip, four of Feijenoord's goals were scored by Henk Schouten; the following season, they played their first European Cup match facing IFK Göteborg. The Swedes were beaten 8 -- 2 in Rotterdam. Feijenoord were eliminated by Tottenham Hotspur in the following round.
In 1962, Feijenoord defended their Dutch Championship title and rea
Ruud Gullit, OON is a Dutch football manager and former footballer who played professionally in the 1980s and 1990s as a midfielder or forward. He was the captain of the Netherlands national team, victorious at UEFA Euro 1988 and was a member of the squad for the 1990 FIFA World Cup and Euro 1992. At club level, in 1987 he moved from PSV to Milan for a world record transfer fee. Recognizable with his distinctive dreadlocks and moustache, he was part of the famed Dutch trio at Milan which included Marco van Basten and Frank Rijkaard. Gullit won two European Cups with Milan. In 1996, he signed for Chelsea and a year was appointed the club's player-manager. In his debut season, he led Chelsea to FA Cup success, the club's first major title for 26 years, in so doing became the first overseas manager to win the FA Cup. Gullit won the Ballon d'Or in 1987 and was named the World Soccer Player of the Year in 1987 and 1989. An attacking midfielder, he was a versatile player, playing in numerous positions during his career.
In 2004, he was named one of the Top 125 greatest living footballers as part of FIFA's 100th anniversary celebration. Gullit was born Rudi Dil in Amsterdam to George Gullit, a Surinamese migrant who arrived in the Netherlands with Herman Rijkaard, father of Frank Rijkaard, Ria Dil, his mistress, from the Jordaan district of Amsterdam; the family lived in one split level room on the top floor of a small apartment building. Gullit's father worked as an economics teacher at a local school, his mother as a custodian at the Rijksmuseum. Gullit developed his football skills in the confines of the Rozendwarsstraat, street football was instrumental in his formative years. Gullit's first team were the Meerboys, where he joined as a junior in 1970. At the age of ten, Gullit moved from the Jordaan to Amsterdam Old West where he played street football alongside Frank Rijkaard. Gullit joined the DWS club after his move, came to the attention of the Dutch youth team, where he played alongside future full international teammates, Erwin Koeman, Ronald Koeman and Wim Kieft.
It was during his time at DWS that Gullit first took to using his father's surname, rather than his registered surname, as he thought it sounded more like a football player. He retained his mother's surname and continues to sign all contracts as Ruud Dil. In 1978, Gullit signed professionally for HFC Haarlem under coach and former West Bromwich Albion player Barry Hughes. Gullit made 91 league appearances for Haarlem, he made his debut for the club at just 16 years old, becoming at the time the youngest player in the history of the Eredivisie. In his first year at Haarlem, the club finished bottom of the Eredivisie, but bounced back the following season winning the Eerste Divisie. Gullit was named as the best player in the Eerste Divisie that season. In the 1981–82 season, Gullit was in fine form as Haarlem finished fourth and qualified for Europe for the only time in their history. In that same season, Gullit scored the goal he would consider his finest: "Playing against Utrecht I went past four defenders and the goalkeeper, scored.
It was an unforgettable goal for me." Hughes was so impressed with the young Gullit that he described him as the "Dutch Duncan Edwards". The young Gullit was considered as a signing by English sides Arsenal and Ipswich Town, but managers Terry Neill and Bobby Robson turned him down. Neill told that he considered £30,000 too much for "this wild kid". Gullit therefore moved to Feyenoord in 1982. At Feyenoord, Gullit found himself playing alongside Dutch legend Johan Cruyff, while the assistant manager was Wim van Hanegem, they were to leave a lasting impression. Gullit's first season saw Feyenoord miss out on major honours, but the following year they completed the league and cup double. Gullit was named Dutch Footballer of the Year in recognition of his contribution to Feyenoord's success. At Feyenoord, Gullit occupied an advanced role in midfield, having played predominantly as a sweeper at Haarlem. While at Feyenoord, Gullit became the focus of a race row as manager Thijs Libregts was alleged to have referred to Gullit as "blackie" and criticised him for being lazy, though Libregts defended himself by claiming that it was a nickname.
While playing for Feyenoord at St Mirren in September 1983, he was racially abused and spat on by Scottish supporters. Gullit called it "the saddest night of my life". In 1985, Gullit moved to PSV for 1.2 million Dutch guilders and wound up scoring 46 goals in 68 league appearances for the team. Gullit was again named Footballer of the Year in 1986 as he helped PSV capture the Eredivisie crown, a feat they repeated the following year, it was at PSV that Gullit began to establish himself as a world class footballer and his distinctive, dreadlocked appearance made certain that he would catch the eye of Europe's biggest clubs. Gullit was singled out for criticism by large numbers of Feyenoord supporters, who branded him a "wolf" and accused him of moving to Eindhoven for money. Silvio Berlusconi signed Gullit for Milan in 1987, paying the world record transfer fee of 18 million guilders as a replacement for Ray Wilkins. Among his teammates at that club were compatriots Marco van Basten and Frank Rijkaard, along with Paolo Maldini and Franco Baresi.
Gullit's exploits with first PSV and Milan helped him win the Ballon d'Or award in 1987 which he dedicated to Nelson Mandela. When he arrived at Milan, Gullit struggled to settle as he spoke no Italian and was unused to living in a foreign country. Gullit's first season at Milan, saw the club
Belgium national football team
The Belgian national football team has represented Belgium in association football since their maiden match in 1904. The squad is under the global jurisdiction of FIFA and is governed in Europe by UEFA—both of which were co-founded by the Belgian team's supervising body, the Royal Belgian Football Association. Periods of regular Belgian representation at the highest international level, from 1920 to 1938, from 1982 to 2002 and again from 2014 onwards, have alternated with unsuccessful qualification rounds. Most of Belgium's home matches. Belgium's national team have participated in three quadrennial major football competitions, it appeared in the end stages of thirteen FIFA World Cups and five UEFA European Championships, featured at three Olympic football tournaments, including the 1920 Olympic tournament which they won. Other notable performances are victories over four reigning world champions—West Germany, Brazil and France—between 1954 and 2002. Belgium has long-standing football rivalries with its Dutch and French counterparts, having played both teams nearly every year from 1905 to 1967.
The squad has been known as the Red Devils since 1906. During the national player career of forward Paul Van Himst, the most-praised Belgian footballer of the 20th century, Belgium took third place at Euro 1972. After that, they experienced two golden ages with many gifted players. In the first period, which lasted from the 1980s to the early 1990s, the team finished as runners-up at Euro 1980 and fourth in the 1986 World Cup. In the second, under guidance of Marc Wilmots and Roberto Martínez in the 2010s, Belgium topped the FIFA World Rankings for the first time in November 2015 and finished third at the 2018 World Cup. Belgium participates in League A of the first UEFA Nations League edition. Belgium was one of the first mainland European countries to play association football, its practice in Belgium began on 26 October 1863, after an Irish student walked into the Josephites College of Melle with a leather ball. An elitist pastime, during the following decades association football supplanted rugby as Belgium's most popular football sport.
On 1 September 1895, ten clubs for football, athletics and cycling founded the Belgian sports board Union Belge des Sociétés de Sports Athlétiques. On 11 October 1900, Beerschot AC honorary president Jorge Díaz announced that Antwerp would host a series of challenge matches between Europe's best football teams. After some organisational problems, on 28 April 1901, Beerschot's pitch hosted its first tournament, in which a Belgian A-squad and a Dutch B-team contested the Coupe Vanden Abeele. Belgium won, beat the Netherlands in all three follow-up matches. On 1 May 1904, the Belgians played their first official match, against France at the Stade du Vivier d'Oie in Uccle. Twenty days the football boards of both countries were among the seven FIFA founders. At that time, the Belgian squad was chosen by a committee drawn from the country's six or seven major clubs. In 1906, the national team players received the nickname Red Devils because of their red jerseys, four years Scottish ex-footballer William Maxwell replaced the UBSSA committee as their manager.
From 1912, UBSSA governed football only and was renamed UBSFA. During the Great War, the national team only played unrecognised friendlies, with matches in and against France. At the 1920 Summer Olympics, in their first official Olympic appearance, the Red Devils won the gold medal on home soil after a controversial final in which their Czechoslovak opponents left the pitch. In the three 1920s Summer Olympics, they achieved fair results, played their first intercontinental match, against Argentina. However, over the following decade, Belgium lost all of their matches at the first three FIFA World Cup final tournaments. According to historian Richard Henshaw, "he growth of in Scandinavia, Central Europe, South America left Belgium far behind". Although World War II hindered international football events in the 1940s, the Belgian team remained active with unofficial matches against squads of other allied nations. Belgium qualified for only one of eight major tournaments during the 1950s and the 1960s: the 1954 World Cup.
The day before the tournament began, the RBFA was among the three UEFA founders. Dutch journalists considered the draw of the 1954 Belgian team in their opener against England to be the most surprising result of that match day more than Switzerland's victory over the Italian "football stars". However, Belgium were eliminated after a loss to Italy in the second group match. Two bright spots in these decades were wins against World Cup holders: West Germany in 1954, Brazil in 1963. Between these, Belgium defeated Hungary's Golden Team in 1956; the combination of failure in competitive matches, success in exhibition matches, gave the Belgians the mock title of "world champion of the friendlies". The team's performance improved under manager Raymond Goethals. Dressed in white, as the White Devils, Belgium had their first victories at World and European Championships at the 1970 World Cup and Euro 1972. En route to that Euro appearance, their first, they eliminated reigning European champions Italy by winning the two-legged quarter-final on aggregate.
At the end stage, they finished third by winning the consolation match against Hungary. In 1973, the denial of a match-winning goal in their last 1974 FIFA World C
Phillip John-William Cocu is a Dutch professional football manager and former player, who last managed Fenerbahce SK. Cocu was born in Eindhoven but raised in Zevenaar, playing youth football for local clubs DCS and De Graafschap. After a year at AFC'34, he started his professional career at AZ. In 1990, Cocu moved to Vitesse. A broken fibula disrupted his first season, but he became a first-team regular in the following four seasons. In 1995, he joined PSV, where he won the KNVB Cup and the Eredivisie title in 1997. Cocu played for Barcelona between 1998 and 2004. There, he would win La Liga in 1999 and play two Champions League semi-finals, he left the club in 2004 as club record holder for the most league appearances by a foreign player. During Cocu’s second stint at PSV, he won another three Eredivisie titles and reached the Champions League semi-finals. After a year at Al Jazira, Cocu retired from professional football. Cocu debuted for the Netherlands national team in 1996 and appeared at the 1998 World Cup, scoring two goals but missing a penalty in the semi-finals against Brazil.
He played at the 2006 World Cup, as well as the 1996, 2000 and 2004 European Championships. Cocu reached the semi-finals in the latter two tournaments and in 2004, he served as captain of the Dutch team. With 101 caps, Cocu is eighth on the list of most Dutch international appearances. During his career, he played as a defensive "playmaker" midfielder, but became known for his ability to be fielded as a defender, wing back, winger or forward. After his retirement from playing professional football, Cocu joined PSV again as youth coach and assistant manager, he served as assistant at the Dutch team under Bert van Marwijk between 2008 and 2012. Cocu was caretaker manager at PSV in 2012. In 2013, he was appointed as PSV manager. Cocu was born in Eindhoven, but he and his family moved to Zevenaar when he was three years old after his father switched jobs, he started playing youth football at the local amateur club DCS. Though youth players were not allowed to play until they were seven, the team made an exception for Cocu.
He played for DCS. After a short period, he moved to AFC'34 in 1986. A year his talent was again noticed by a professional club and in June 1987, Cocu joined the AZ youth ranks. Cocu was soon added to the first team, he made his professional debut on 22 January 1989, when assistant coach Hugo Hovenkamp brought him on in an Eerste Divisie match against NEC. The 18-year-old played as left winger at the time. Cocu scored his first goal two weeks in a cup match against Fortuna Sittard, followed up by his first league goal in March against SVV, he score four goals in his first season. In the 1989-90 season, he appeared in nearly every league match. After the competition ended, Cocu was sold to the newly promoted Vitesse for €272,000. Cocu played, he had a more productive second season, playing most scoring three times. He netted his first Vitesse goal in August 1991 in a match against ADO Den Haag. In Arnhem, Cocu changed from being a left winger to a central midfielder. Coach Herbert Neumann envisioned a leading central role for Cocu in 1991 and placed him on the midfield position.
In 1992, Cocu played his first European match. After Vitesse defeated Derry City, they beat Belgian side Mechelen in the following round; the away match was decided by a long-range effort from Cocu. Vitesse was knocked out by Real Madrid. In the Eredivisie, the team finished in fourth place. Cocu played all league matches and doubled his goal tally in his third season. In the 1993–94 season, Cocu scored 11 Eredivisie goals, including three in a 5–0 victory over Go Ahead Eagles in December. After the season, Louis van Gaal and Ajax became interested in buying Cocu, but they could not meet the transfer fee demands. A year PSV and Feyenoord triggered the release clause in Cocu’s contract, making Vitesse unable to reject the offer, he chose to play for PSV. Cocu was signed in June 1995 in a joint-transfer with Chris van der Weerden, he scored in his PSV debut against Fortuna Sittard. In his first season, he won the KNVB Cup with PSV. In the final against Sparta Rotterdam, Cocu scored the first goal. In October 1996, Cocu scored twice in a 7–2 win against Feyenoord.
That season, Cocu and PSV would go on to win the Johan Cruyff Shield, beating Ajax 3–0, the Eredivisie. In the 1997–98 season, Cocu won the Johan Cruyff Shield again after scoring twice in a 3–1 victory against Roda JC. In the Eredivisie, PSV finished second behind Ajax; the KNVB Cup final was lost to Ajax. After the season, Cocu decided not to extend his contract, demonstrating his intent to leave on a free transfer. Atlético Madrid, Real Madrid, Juventus and Lazio were all keen on signing Cocu, but he chose to join Barcelona, the club he supported as a child. In Barcelona, Cocu found himself with fellow Dutchmen Louis van Gaal, Michael Reiziger, Frank de Boer, Patrick Kluivert, Boudewijn Zenden, Ronald de Boer and Winston Bogarde. Forming a midfield with Luís Figo and Pep Guardiola, Cocu played 36 league matches and scored 12 goals, thereby contributing to Barcelona’s La Liga title win. In March, Cocu decided the match against Real Sociedad by scoring both goals. In his second season, the team finished second in the league behind Deportivo de La Coruña.
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Penalty kick (association football)
A penalty kick is a method of restarting play in association football, in which a player is allowed to take a single shot on the goal while it is defended only by the opposing team's goalkeeper. It is awarded when a foul punishable by a direct free kick is committed by a player in his or her own penalty area; the shot is taken from the penalty mark, 12 yards from the goal line and centred between the touch lines. In practice, penalty kicks result in goals more than not against the best and most experienced goalkeepers; this means that penalty awards are decisive in low-scoring games. Similar kicks are made in a penalty shootout in some tournaments to determine which team is victorious after a drawn match; the ball is placed on the penalty mark, regardless of. The player taking the kick is to be identified to the referee. Only the kicker and the defending team's goalkeeper are allowed to be within the penalty area; the goalkeeper must stand on the goal line between the goal posts. Lateral movement is allowed, but the goalkeeper is not permitted to come off the goal line by stepping or lunging forward until the ball is in play.
The assistant referee responsible for the goal line where the penalty kick is being taken is positioned at the intersection of the penalty area and goal line, assists the referee in looking for infringements and/or whether a goal is scored. When the referee is satisfied that the players are properly positioned, he/she blows the whistle to indicate that the kicker may kick; the kicker may make feinting moves during the run-up to the ball, but once the run-up is completed he/she may no longer feint and must kick the ball. The ball must be stationary before the kick, it must be kicked forward; the ball is in play once it is kicked and moves, at that time other players may enter the penalty area. Once kicked, the kicker may not touch the ball again until it has been touched by another player of either team or goes out of play. In case of an infringement of the laws of the game during a penalty kick, most entering the penalty area illegally, the referee must consider both whether the ball entered the goal, which team committed the offence.
The following infringements committed by the kicking team result in an indirect free kick for the defending team, regardless of the outcome of the kick: a teammate of the identified kicker kicks the ball instead kicker feints kicking the ball at the end of the run-up kick does not go forward kicker touches the ball a second time before it touches another player In the case of a player infringing the laws during the penalty kick, the referee may caution the player for persistent infringement. Note that all offences that occur before kick may be dealt with in this manner, regardless of the location of the offence. If the ball touches an outside agent as it moves forward from the kick, the kick is retaken. A two-man penalty, or "tap" penalty, occurs when the kicker, instead of shooting for goal, taps the ball forward so that a teammate can run on to it and shoot. If properly executed, it is a legal play since the kicker is not required to shoot for goal and need only kick the ball forward; this strategy relies on the element of surprise, as it first requires the goalkeeper to believe the kicker will shoot dive or move to one side in response.
It requires the goalkeeper to remain out of position long enough for the kicker's teammate to reach the ball before any defenders, for that teammate to place a shot on the undefended side of the goal. The first recorded tap penalty was taken by Jimmy McIlroy and Danny Blanchflower of Northern Ireland against Portugal on 1 May 1957. Another was taken by Rik Coppens and André Piters in the World Cup Qualifying match Belgium v Iceland on 5 June 1957. Arsenal players Thierry Henry and Robert Pires failed in an attempt at a similar penalty in 2005, during a Premier League match against Manchester City at Highbury. Pires ran in to take the kick, attempted to pass to the onrushing Henry, but miskicked and the ball hardly moved. Lionel Messi tapped a penalty for Luis Suárez as Suárez completed his hat-trick on 14 February 2016 against league opponents Celta de Vigo. Defending against a penalty kick is one of the most difficult tasks a goalkeeper can face. Owing to the short distance between the penalty spot and the goal, there is little time to react to the shot.
Because of this, the goalkeeper will start his or her dive before the ball is struck. In effect, the goalkeeper must act on his best prediction about; some goalkeepers decide which way they will dive beforehand, thus giving themselves a good chance of diving in time. Others try to read the kicker's motion pattern. On the other side, kickers feign and prefer a slow shot in an attempt to foil the goalkeeper; the most fruitful approach, shooting high and centre, i.e. in the space that the goalkeeper will evacuate carries the highest risk of shooting above the bar. As the shooter makes his approach to the ball, the goalke