The Timor Sea is a shallow sea bounded to the north by the island of Timor, to the east by the Arafura Sea, to the south by Australia. The sea contains a number of uninhabited islands and significant hydrocarbon reserves. International disputes emerged after the reserves were discovered resulting in the signing of the Timor Sea Treaty; the Timor Sea was hit by the worst oil spill for 25 years in 2009. It is possible that Australia's first inhabitants crossed the Timor Sea from Indonesia at a time when sea levels were lower; the waters to the east are known as the Arafura Sea. The Timor Sea is adjacent to three substantial inlets on the north Australian coast, the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf, Beagle Gulf and the Van Diemen Gulf; the Australian city of Darwin, located in part on the shore of the Beagle Gulf, is the nearest large city to the sea. The small town of Wyndham is located on the west arm of Cambridge Gulf, an inlet of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf. Rivers that enter the Timor Sea from the Northern Territory include Fish River, King River, Dry River, Victoria River and the Alligator Rivers.
Rivers in the Kimberley region that flow into the Timor Sea include the Ord River, Forrest River, Pentecost River and Durack River. The sea is about 480 km wide, covering an area of about 610 thousand km2, its deepest point is the Timor Trough, located in the northern part of the sea, which reaches a depth of 3,300 m. The remainder of the sea is much shallower, much of it averaging less than 200 m deep, as it overlies the Sahul Shelf, part of the Australian continental shelf; the Big Bank Shoals is an area on the sloping seabed between the continental shelf and the Timor Trough where a number of submerged banks are located. The ecosystem of the shoals differs from the deeper waters surrounding them. In May 2010, it was announced that a crater about 50 km wide has been discovered on the seabed of the Timor Sea; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the Timor Sea as being one of the waters of the East Indian Archipelago. The IHO defines its limits as follows: On the North The Southeastern limit of the Savu Sea the Southeastern coast of Timor and the Southern limit of the Banda Sea.
On the East. The Western of the Arafura Sea. On the South; the North coast of Australia from Cape Don to Cape Londonderry. On the West. A line from Cape Londonderry to the Southwest point of Roti Island. Many tropical storms and cyclones pass through the Timor Sea. In February 2005, Tropical Cyclone Vivienne disrupted oil and gas production facilities in the area, the next month, Severe Tropical Cyclone Willy interrupted production. Petroleum production facilities are designed to withstand the effects of cyclones, although as a safety precaution production work is reduced or temporarily halted and workers evacuated by helicopter to the mainland - to Darwin or Dili. A number of significant islands are located in the sea, notably Melville Island, part of the Tiwi Islands, off Australia and the Australian-governed Ashmore and Cartier Islands, it is thought. Scott and Seringapatam Reefs formed in the area and to the west, on the same underwater platform, are the Rowley Shoals; the Timor Current is an oceanic current that runs south-west in the Timor Sea between the Indonesia archipelago and Australia.
It is a major contributor to the Indonesian Throughflow that transports water from the Pacific Ocean to the Indian Ocean. Beneath the Timor Sea lie considerable reserves of gas. Confirmation of the prospectivity of the Timor Sea came when Woodside-Burmah's Big John rig drilled Troubadour No. 1 well in June 1974 on the Troubadour Shoals about 200 kilometres southeast of Timor, intersected 83 metres of hydrocarbons. A number of offshore petroleum projects are in operation and there is considerable exploration activity either underway and numerous proposed projects. A gas pipeline crosses the Timor Sea from the Joint Petroleum Development Area to Wickham Point near Darwin; the Timor Sea was the location for Australia's largest oil spill when the Montara oil field leaked oil, natural gas and condensate from 21 August to 3 November 2009. During the spill 400 barrels of oil leaked each day; the Montara Commission of Inquiry placed blame on the Thai company PTTEP, owner of the wells. The largest petroleum project in operation in the Timor Sea is the Bayu-Undan project operated by ConocoPhillips.
The Bayu-Undan field is located 500 km north-west of Darwin in the Bonaparte Basin. Production commenced in 2004 as a gas recycle project - with liquids being stripped from the raw production stream and exported. Gas was pumped back down into the reservoir. At around the same time, construction commenced on a 500 km subsea natural gas pipeline connecting the Bayu-Undan processing facility to a liquefied natural gas plant situated at Wickham Point in Darwin harbour. Since
Highland games are events held in spring and summer in Scotland and other countries with a large Scottish diaspora, as a way of celebrating Scottish and Celtic culture that of the Scottish Highlands. Certain aspects of the games are so well known as to have become emblematic of Scotland, such as the bagpipes, the kilt, the heavy events the caber toss. While centred on competitions in piping and drumming and Scottish heavy athletics, the games include entertainment and exhibits related to other aspects of Scottish and Gaelic culture; the Cowal Highland Gathering, better known as the Cowal Games, held in Dunoon, every August, is the largest Highland games in the world, attracting around 3,500 competitors and somewhere in the region of 23,000 spectators from around the globe. Worldwide, however, it is exceeded in terms of spectators by two gatherings in the United States: the estimated 30,000 that attend Grandfather Mountain in North Carolina and the larger gathering—the largest in the Northern Hemisphere—that has taken place every year since 1866.
This event is held on Labor Day weekend in Pleasanton and their Sesquicentennial Games held on 5–6 September 2015, attracted record crowds close to 50,000. The games are claimed to have influenced Baron Pierre de Coubertin when he was planning the revival of the Olympic Games. De Coubertin saw a display of Highland games at the Paris Exhibition of 1889; the origin of human games and sports predates recorded history. An example of a possible early games venue is at Fetteresso, although that location is technically a few miles south of the Scotland Highlands, it is reported in numerous Highland games programs, that King Malcolm III of Scotland, in the 11th century, summoned contestants to a foot race to the summit of Craig Choinnich. King Malcolm created this foot race in order to find the fastest runner in the land to be his royal messenger; some have seen this apocryphal event to be the origin of today's modern Highland games. There is a document from 1703 summoning the clan of the Laird of Clan Grant.
They were to arrive wearing Highland coats and "also with gun, sword and dirk". From this letter, it is believed. However, the modern Highland games are a Victorian invention, developed after the Highland Clearances. In their original form many centuries ago, Highland games revolved around athletic and sports competitions. Though other activities were always a part of the festivities, many today still consider Highland athletics to be what the games are all about—in short, that the athletics are the Games, all the other activities are just entertainment. Regardless, it remains true today that the athletic competitions are at least an integral part of the events and one—the caber toss—has come to symbolise the Highland games. Although quite a range of events can be a part of the Highland athletics competition, a few have become standard. Caber toss: A long log is stood upright and hoisted by the competitor who balances it vertically holding the smaller end in his hands; the competitor runs forward attempting to toss it in such a way that it turns end over end with the upper end striking the ground first.
The smaller end, held by the athlete hits the ground in the 12 o'clock position measured relative to the direction of the run. If successful, the athlete is said to have turned the caber. Cabers vary in length, weight and balance, all of which affect the degree of difficulty in making a successful toss. Competitors are judged on how their throws approximate the ideal 12 o'clock toss on an imaginary clock. Stone put: This event is similar to the modern-day shot put as seen in the Olympic Games. Instead of a steel shot, a large stone of variable weight is used. There are some differences from the Olympic shot put in allowable techniques. There are two versions of the stone toss events, differing in allowable technique; the "Braemar Stone" uses a 20–26 lb stone for men and does not allow any run up to the toeboard or "trig" to deliver the stone, i.e. it is a standing put. In the "Open Stone" using a 16–22 lb stone for men, the thrower is allowed to use any throwing style so long as the stone is put with one hand with the stone resting cradled in the neck until the moment of release.
Most athletes in the open stone event use either the "spin" techniques. Scottish hammer throw: This event is similar to the hammer throw as seen in modern-day track and field competitions, though with some differences. In the Scottish event, a round metal ball is attached to the end of a shaft about 4 feet in length and made out of wood, rattan, or plastic. With the feet in a fixed position, the hammer is whirled about one's head and thrown for distance over the shoulder. Hammer throwers sometimes employ specially designed footwear with flat blades to dig into the turf to maintain their balance and resist the centrifugal forces of the implement as it is whirled about the head; this increases the distance attainable in the throw. Weight throw known as the weight for distance event. There are two separate events, one using a light and the other a heavy weight; the weights have a handle attached either directly or by means of a chain. The implement is thrown otherwise using any technique. A spinning technique is employed.
The longest throw wins. Weight over the bar known as weight for height; the athle
Romesh Bhandari was an Indian Foreign Secretary, former Lieutenant Governor of Delhi and Nicobar Islands, former governor of Tripura and Uttar Pradesh. Bhandari was born in Lahore, present day Pakistan, to Amar Nath Bhandari, a Punjab High Court Judge, part of bench which decided Gandhi Assassination case, he joined the Indian Foreign Service in 1950 as the Vice-Consul at the consulate in New York. He was minister in the Indian Embassy at Moscow from 1970 to 1971, he was the ambassador to Thailand and Permanent Representative to UN Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East from 1971 to 1974 and ambassador to Iraq from 1974 to 1976. He returned to the Ministry of External Affairs as Additional Secretary from February 1977 to July 1979, he was promoted as Secretary on 1 August 1979 and was appointed Foreign Secretary on 1 February 1985. He retired from service on 31 March 1986, he has the unique distinction of bringing back to India, hijackers of an Indian Airlines Aircraft from Dubai in 1984.
He was the Lieutenant Governor of Delhi from 4 August 1988 to December 1989 and of Andaman and Nicobar islands from December 1989 to 24 February 1990. He was the governor of Tripura from 15 August 1993 to 15 June 1995, governor of Goa from 16 June 1995 to 18 July 1996 and governor of Uttar Pradesh from 19 July 1996 to 17 March 1998. Bhandari died on the night of 7 September 2013 after a prolonged illness