Clifton College is a co-educational independent school in the suburb of Clifton in the city of Bristol in South West England, founded in 1862. In its early years it was notable for emphasising science rather than classics in the curriculum, for being less concerned with social elitism, e.g. by admitting day-boys on equal terms and providing a dedicated boarding house for Jewish boys, called Polacks. Having linked its General Studies classes with Badminton School, it admitted girls to the Sixth Form in 1987 and is now coeducational. Polacks house closed in 2005, it was at Clifton that the second-highest cricket score recorded was made by 13-year-old A. E. J. Collins in June 1899. Collins's 628 not out stood as the record score till January 2016 when Pranav Dhanawade, 15 years old, of Mumbai, scored 1009 in a school game. Collins was killed in World War I; the school was the headquarters of the US army in Britain for part of the Second World War. Clifton is one of the original 26 English public schools as defined by the Public Schools Yearbook of 1889.
The school takes boys and girls aged between 13 and 18. It has its own preparatory school, Clifton College Preparatory School, for children from 8 to 13 which adjoins the school and shares many of the same facilities. To distinguish it from the junior schools, Clifton College proper is referred to as the'Upper School'. There are around 720 children in the Upper School of. At the start of the 2004 – 2005 school year, a new boarding/day house for girls was opened. In 2005, the school was one of fifty of the country's leading private schools which were found guilty of running an illegal price-fixing cartel, exposed by The Times, which had allowed them to drive up fees for thousands of parents; each school was required to pay a nominal penalty of £10,000 and all agreed to make ex-gratia payments totalling three million pounds into a trust designed to benefit pupils who attended the schools during the period in respect of which fee information was shared. During World War II the heavy bombing of Bristol caused the students to be evacuated to Bude.
In February 1941 the buildings were used by the Royal Army Service Corps as an Officer Cadet Training Unit. In 1942 they were replaced by the United States Army who established it as the headquarters of V Corps and the First Army. Staff were involved in preparations for the Normandy landings under General Omar Bradley. After D-Day the college was taken over as headquarters of the Ninth Army under General William Hood Simpson. To enable rapid travel and communications between the headquarters and dispersed units extensive use was made of light aircraft for travel; some flights used Filton Airfield and others Whitchurch, however the majority were from the college's playing fields at Beggars Bush Field, between the college and Leigh Woods, turned into an airfield. Before 1987, Clifton was a boys-only school with three day-houses. In each of the current seven boarding Houses live the Housemaster or Housemistress and family, an Assistant and the Matron. In addition, each House has up to four non-residential Tutors.
Pupils wear ties with different coloured stripes according to their house membership. There are 12 houses in the Upper School of Clifton College, which have an order of precedence based on the date of their foundation. There are houses in Clifton College Preparatory School that are not listed below. Holland's house, a girls day house, was made in 2017 with colours white and navy. Several other houses have existed during the school's history. In WW2, while the school was evacuated to Bude, United House was created from pupils of houses placed in temporary abeyance. Dakyns' House and Brown's House were closed in 1993, Polack's House, which took Jewish boys only, was closed in 2005; these are listed below: In the decades after the school's foundation, with the exception of School House, the Houses were named after the Housemaster at the time, but in the late 19th century this pattern was abandoned, all Houses reverted to the name of their first Housemaster. This nomenclature convention was not however used for Hallward's House (founded in 2004 and named after a former Headmaster, Bertrand Hallward, nor for Worcester House.
When Dakyns' House and Brown's House were merged in September 1993, the original suggestion was to name the new establishment "Dakyns-Brown's House", but following a suggestion from a pupil, the name "Moberly's House" was chosen, commemorating the only teacher, involved in both of the antecedent establishments. The college buildings were designed by the architect Charles Hansom. Only the former was built and a small extra short wing was added in 1866 – this is what now contains the Marshal's office and the new staircase into Big School, it has been designated by English Heritage as a grade II listed building. Hansom was called back in the 1870s and asked to design what is now the Percival Library and the open-cloister classrooms; this project
Sultan of Oman's Armed Forces
The Sultan's Armed Forces — Arabic: القوات المسلحة لسلطان عمان, transliterated: al-Quwāt ul-Musallaḥatu lis-Sulṭān ‘Umān) are the Royal Army of Oman, Royal Navy of Oman, Royal Air Force of Oman, Sultan's Special Forces and other defense forces of the Sultanate of Oman. Since their formal establishment in the early 1950s, with British assistance SAF has twice overcome insurgencies which have threatened the integrity or social structure of the state, more have contributed contingents or facilities to coalitions formed to protect the Persian Gulf states. Oman has a military history. At the time, the forces of the Azd tribe were powerful enough to help the prophet Mohammed's companion Abu Bakr, in the War of al Mortadeen, it is said that before that, the Azd tribe, led by Malek bin Faham, were able to defeat a Persian force which controlled Oman at that time. The second known Omani army force was raised during the Yarubid dynasty, who forced the Portuguese out of the country in 1650. During the rule of the Yarubi dynasty, fortified buildings covered the country from the north of Musandam to the south of Dhofar, making Oman a great power in the Persian Gulf.
During the al Busaidi dynasty, Oman was a substantial empire with a powerful military force, making Oman one of the greatest forces in the Indian Ocean, second only to the United Kingdom. After Said bin Sultan's death, political conflicts in Oman forced Oman to close in upon itself, to transform from a powerful empire to a poor country. Prior to 1954, when Said bin Taimur became ruler of Muscat and Oman, the defence of the region was guaranteed by treaties with Britain; the only armed forces in Muscat and Oman were tribal levies and a palace guard recruited from Baluchistan in Pakistan. Prior to that year, there had been a dispute with Saudi Arabia over the ownership of the Buraimi Oasis, important for oil exploration rights. For many centuries, the interior of Oman had been the Imamate of Oman; the Imam of Oman was its secular leader. In 1954, the Imam was Ghalib bin Ali, he had been prepared to muster Omani tribesmen to expel the Saudis from Buraimi, but at British instigation, the matter was settled by arbitration.
To prevent the Imam interfering with the settlement over Buraimi, a battalion-sized task force, the Muscat and Oman Field Force was raised, occupied the town of Ibri. The Sultan's prestige and authority was damaged by his disdain for his own people. At this point, the SAF consisted. Muscat and Oman Field ForceSome British officers were attached to each unit. With the Field Force occupying part of his territory, Ghalib tried to declare the Imamate of Oman independent, but in December 1955 the Field Force captured Ghalib at the town of Rostaq, he was released on recognisances. Talib bin Ali, the Imam's brother, had fled to Saudi Arabia, he returned from there in 1957 with 300 well-equipped fighters, the insurrection broke out again. Talib's forces occupied a fortified tower near Bilad Sait, which the Field Force lacked the heavy weapons to destroy. After some weeks' inconclusive fighting, Suleiman bin Himyar, the Sheikh of one of the major tribes in the interior proclaimed his defiance of the Sultan, began a general uprising.
The Muscat and Oman Field Force was destroyed as it tried to retreat through hostile towns and villages. The rebellion was suppressed by the Muscat Regiment and the Trucial Oman Levies from the neighbouring United Arab Emirates; the decisive factor however, was the intervention of infantry and armoured car detachments from the British Army and aircraft of the RAF. Talib's forces retreated to the inaccessible Jebel Akhdar; the SAF's attacks up the few paths up the Jebel were repelled. The Sultan's army was reorganised under Colonel David Smiley; the Batinah Force was renamed the Northern Frontier Regiment and the remnants of the Muscat and Oman Field Force merged into the new Oman Regiment. Within each unit and sub-unit and Arab soldiers were mixed; this prevented units defecting to or sympathising with the rebels, but led to tensions within units, orders were not followed because of language problems. Many of the notionally Omani soldiers were recruited from the province of Dhofar, looked down upon by other Arabs.
The Army was still unable to deal with Talib's stronghold. The few paths up the Jebel Akhdar were far too narrow to deploy attacking battalions or companies. One attempt was made against the southern face of the Jebel, using four infantry companies (including two companies from the Trucial Oman Scouts, from what would become the United Arab Emirates; the attackers withdrew hastily after concluding they cut off. In another attempt, infantry launched a feint and withdrew while Avro Shackleton bombers of the RAF bombarded the massed defenders, they inflicted no casualties. For two years, rebel infiltrators continually mined the roads around the Jebel, ambushed SAF and British detachments and oil company vehicles; the SAF were spread in small detachments in the towns and villages at the foot of the Jebel, thus vulnerable and on the defensive. Their arms were less effective than the up-to-date equipment used by Talib's fighters. A SAF artillery unit with two 5.5 inch medium guns harassed the settlements on the plateau
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Headquarters Northern Ireland
HQ Northern Ireland was the formation responsible for the British Army in and around Northern Ireland. It was established in 1922 and disbanded, replaced by a brigade-level Army Reserve formation, 38 Brigade, in 2009. Northern Ireland District was established following the partition of Ireland in 1922 and was based at Victoria Barracks, Belfast. During the Second World War the role of the District was enhanced from internal security to that of combatting any threat of invasion from the Republic of Ireland; the status of the formation was upgraded from District to Command under the leadership of Lieutenant General Sir John Hackett in 1961. With the emergence of the Troubles, which started in Northern Ireland in the late 1960s, the role of HQ Northern Ireland increased as it took responsibility for "assisting in the defeat of terrorism and the maintenance of public order" and by 1972 it had 27,000 troops under its command. On 30 January 2006 the Secretary of State for Defence announced to the House of Commons that 19 Light Brigade stationed at Catterick, would be re-roling into a light brigade and relocating to Scotland and Northern Ireland.
On 10 May 2006 it was further announced that "in addition to the HQ and other units of 19 Light Brigade that we expect to relocate to Northern Ireland in 2007 and 2008, a new and non-deployable regional brigade headquarters will form at Thiepval Barracks, Lisburn. The current 107 Brigade, based at Ballymena, will merge on 15 December this year into HQ 39 Infantry Brigade, which will itself be replaced by the new regional brigade headquarters, 38th Brigade under the command of the 2nd Division, on 1 August 2007". On 6 August 2007 HQ Northern Ireland and 38 Brigade combined to create a single transitional headquarters with a two star General Officer Commanding. At the same time the British military presence in the Province was reduced to about 5,000 troops. On 1 January 2009 the name of the formation changed to 38 Brigade and HQ Northern Ireland was dissolved with residual regional functions being migrated to HQ 2 Division in Edinburgh. Other services had a smaller'footprint' in the province during the Troubles.
The RAF's presence in Northern Ireland was based at RAF Aldergrove, 230 Squadron was based there for many years, among other units. The Royal Navy no longer maintain a regular presence in Northern Ireland waters with the disbandment of the Northern Ireland Squadron; the Royal Navy's main presence is HMS Hibernia, which serves as the HQ of the Royal Naval Reserve's Ulster Division. Before the start of World War II the British army in northern ireland was known as the "Northern Ireland District", it controlled many units including: Headquarters - Belfast Regular Troops Northern Ireland District Signal Company, Royal Corps of Signals - Belfast 2nd Battalion, The South Wales Borderers - Derry 1st Battalion, The East Lancashire Regiment - Holywood 2nd Battalion, The Northamptonshire Regiment - Ballykinler 2nd Battalion, The Royal Sussex Regiment - Belfast Commander Royal Artillery, Northern Ireland District Belfast Fire Command - Belfast Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers Depot - Omagh The Royal Ulster Rifles Depot - Armagh Territorial Army 188th Independent Heavy Battery, Royal Artilleryy - Belfast Antrim Fortress Engineers, Royal Engineers - Belfast The Supplementary Reserve The North Irish Horse - Belfast 3rd Anti-Aircraft Brigade Headquarters - Belfast 3rd Searchlight Regiment, Royal Artillery 8th Anti-Aircraft Regiment, RA 9th Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery Other Units 26th Transport Company, Royal Army Service Corps - Belfast 53rd Transport Company, Royal Army Service Corps - Belfast 54th Transport Company, Royal Army Service Corps - Derry 15th Field Hospital Company, Royal Army Medical Corps - Holywood Northern Ireland District, Royal Army Ordnance Corps - Carrickfergus Northern Ireland District, Royal Army Pay Corps - Belfast In December 1989 the following units were based in Northern Ireland under command of HQ Northern Ireland: Headquarters Northern Ireland, covering Northern Ireland 3rd Infantry Brigade, Armagh 1st Btn and Sherwood Foresters Regiment, Omagh 1st Btn, Royal Regiment of Fusiliers 2nd Btn, Ulster Defence Regiment, County Armagh 3rd Btn, Ulster Defence Regiment, County Down 11th Btn, Ulster Defence Regiment, Craigavon 8th Infantry Brigade, Derry 1st Btn, Gloucestershire Regiment 4th Btn, Royal Irish Rangers, Portadown 4th Btn, Ulster Defence Regiment, County Fermanagh 5th Btn, Ulster Defence Regiment, County Londonderry 6th Btn, Ulster Defence Regiment, County Tyrone 8th Btn, Ulster Defence Regiment, County Tyrone 39th Infantry Brigade, Lisburn 3rd Btn, Parachute Regiment 1st Btn, Royal Welch Fusiliers 5th Btn, Royal Irish Rangers, Armagh 1st/9th Btn, Ulster Defence Regiment, County Down 3rd Btn, Ulster Defence Regiment, County Down 7th/10th Btn, Ulster Defence Regiment, Belfast 655 Squadron AAC, Aldergrove 1 Flight AAC, Aldergrove Permanent Units HQ Northern Ireland 15 Signal Regiment 38 Infantry Brigade HQNI Support Battalion 2nd Battalion, The Royal Irish Regiment 591 Field Squadron, Royal Engineers 152 Transport Regiment, Royal Logistic Corps 253 Medical Regiment, Royal Army Medical Corps Queen's University Officer Training Corps B Squadron, Queen's Own Yeomanry 40 Signal Squadron 206 Battery, 105th Regiment Royal Artillery 204 Field Hospital, Royal Army Medical Corps No. 3 Squadron, RAF Regiment 5 Regiment, Army Air Corps 25 Engineer Regiment 8 Detachment, Northern Ireland – 243 Provost Company General Officers Commanding have included:Northern Ireland District General Sir Archibald Cameron 1922–1925 General Sir Felix Re
Operation Banner was the operational name for the British Armed Forces' operation in Northern Ireland from August 1969 to July 2007, as part of the Troubles. It was one of the longest continuous deployments in British military history; the British Army was deployed, at the request of the unionist government of Northern Ireland, in response to the August 1969 riots. Its role was to support the Royal Ulster Constabulary and to assert the authority of the British government in Northern Ireland. At the peak of the operation in the 1970s, about 21,000 British troops were deployed, most of them from Britain; as part of the operation, a new locally-recruited regiment was formed: the Ulster Defence Regiment. After the 1998 Belfast Agreement, the operation was scaled down and the vast majority of British troops were withdrawn. According to the Ministry of Defence, 1,441 serving British military personnel died in Operation Banner; the British military killed 306 people during the operation, about 51% of whom were civilians and 41% of whom were members of republican paramilitaries.
The British Army was deployed, at the request of the unionist government of Northern Ireland, in response to the August 1969 riots. Its role was to support the Royal Ulster Constabulary and to assert the authority of the British government in Northern Ireland; the main opposition to the British military's deployment came from the Provisional Irish Republican Army. It waged a guerrilla campaign against the British military from 1970 to 1997. Catholics welcomed the soldiers when they first arrived in August 1969, but Catholic hostility to the British military's deployment increased after incidents such as the Falls Curfew, Operation Demetrius, the Ballymurphy Massacre and Bloody Sunday. An internal British Army document released in 2007 stated that, whilst it had failed to defeat the IRA, it had made it impossible for the IRA to win through violence, reduced the death toll in the last years of conflict; the operation was scaled down from 1998, after the Good Friday Agreement, when patrols were suspended and several military barracks closed or dismantled before the beginning of IRA's decommissioning.
The process of demilitarisation started after the first IRA ceasefire. From the second IRA ceasefire in 1997 until the first act of decommission of weapons in 2001 50% of the army bases had been vacated or demolished along with surveillance sites and holding centers, while more than 100 cross-border roads were reopened. In August 2005, it was announced that in response to the Provisional IRA declaration that its campaign was over, in accordance with the Good Friday Agreement provisions, Operation Banner would end by 1 August 2007; this involved troops based in Northern Ireland reduced to 5,000, only for training purposes. Security was transferred to the police; the Northern Ireland Resident battalions of the Royal Irish Regiment — which grew out of the Ulster Defence Regiment — were stood down on 1 September 2006. The operation ended at midnight on 31 July 2007, making it the longest continuous deployment in the British Army's history, lasting over 38 years. While the withdrawal of troops was welcomed by the nationalist parties Social Democratic and Labour Party and Sinn Féin, the unionist Democratic Unionist Party and Ulster Unionist Party opposed the decision, which they regarded as'premature'.
The main reasons behind their resistance were the continuing activity of republican dissident groups, the loss of security-related jobs for the protestant community and the perception of the British Army presence as an affirmation of the political union with Great Britain. Adam Ingram, the Minister of State for the Armed Forces, has stated that assuming the maintenance of an enabling environment, British Army support to the PSNI after 31 July 2007 was reduced to a residual level, known as Operation Helvetic, providing specialised ordnance disposal and support to the PSNI in circumstances of extreme public disorder as described in Patten recommendations 59 and 66, should this be needed, thus ending the British Army's emergency operation in Northern Ireland; the support to the police forces was from the British Army, with the Royal Air Force providing helicopter support as required. A maritime component was supplied under the codename of Operation Grenada, by the Royal Navy and Royal Marines in direct support of the Army commitment.
This was tasked with interdicting the supply of weapons and munitions to paramilitaries, acting as a visible deterrence by maintaining a conspicuous maritime presence on and around the coast of Northern Ireland and Lough Neagh. The role of the armed forces in their support role to the police was defined by the Army in the following terms: "Routine support — Includes such tasks as providing protection to the police in carrying out normal policing duties in areas of terrorist threat; the military can provide soldiers to protect and, if necessary, supplement police cordons. The military can provide heavy plant to remove barricades and construct barriers, additional armoured vehicles and helicopters to help in the movement of police and soldiers" "Specialist support — Includes bomb disposal and tracker dogs, divers from the Royal Engineers" At the peak of the operation in the
Secretary of State for Northern Ireland
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, informally known as the Northern Ireland Secretary, is the principal secretary of state in Her Majesty's Government with responsibilities for Northern Ireland. The Secretary of State is a Minister of the Crown, accountable to the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is the chief minister in the Northern Ireland Office; as with other ministers, the position is appointed by the British monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister. The position is described as'the Secretary of State' by residents of Northern Ireland. Holding a large portfolio over home affairs in Northern Ireland, the current devolution settlement has lessened the Secretary of State's role, granting many of the former powers to the Northern Ireland Assembly and Northern Ireland Executive; the Secretary of State is now limited to representing Northern Ireland in the UK cabinet, overseeing the operation of the devolved administration and a number of reserved and excepted matters which remain the sole competence of the UK Government e.g. security, human rights, certain public inquiries and the administration of elections.
Created in 1972, the position has switched between Members of Parliament from the Conservative Party and Labour Party. As Labour has not fielded candidates in Northern Ireland and the Conservatives have not had candidates elected to Northern Ireland Assembly or for House of Commons seats in the province, those appointed as Secretary of State for Northern Ireland have not represented a constituency in Northern Ireland; this contrasts with the Secretary of the Secretary of State for Wales. The Secretary of State resides in Hillsborough Castle, the official residence of the Governor of Northern Ireland, remains the royal residence of the Monarch in Northern Ireland; the Secretary of State exercises their duties through, is administratively supported by, the Northern Ireland Office. The principal ministers for Irish affairs in the UK Government and its predecessors were: the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. In August 1969, for example, Home Secretary James Callaghan approved the sending of British Army soldiers to Northern Ireland.
Scotland and Wales were represented by the Secretary of State for Scotland and Secretary of State for Wales from 1885 and 1965 but Northern Ireland remained separate, due to the devolved Northern Ireland Government and Northern Ireland Parliament. The office of Secretary of State for Northern Ireland was created after the Northern Ireland government was first suspended and abolished following widespread civil strife; the British government was concerned that Stormont was losing control of the situation. On 30 March 1972, direct rule from Westminster was introduced; the Secretary of State filled three roles which existed under the previous Stormont regime: the Governor of Northern Ireland the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland the Minister of Home Affairs. Direct rule was seen as a temporary measure, with a power-sharing devolution preferred as the solution, was annually renewed by a vote in Parliament; the Sunningdale Agreement in 1973 resulted in a brief, power-sharing Northern Ireland Executive, from 1 January 1974, ended by the loyalist Ulster Workers' Council strike on 28 May 1974.
The strikers opposed the all-Ireland aspects of the new administration. The Northern Ireland Constitutional Convention and Northern Ireland Assembly were unsuccessful in restoring devolved government. After the Anglo-Irish Agreement on 15 November 1985, the UK Government and Irish Government co-operated more on security and political matters. Following the Belfast Agreement on 10 April 1998, devolution returned to Northern Ireland on 2 December 1999; this removed many of the duties of the Secretary of State and his Northern Ireland Office colleagues and devolved them to locally elected politicians, constituting the Northern Ireland Executive. The devolved administration was suspended several times because the Ulster Unionist Party and Democratic Unionist Party were uncomfortable being in government with Sinn Féin when the Provisional Irish Republican Army had failed to decommission its arms and continued its criminal activities. On each of these occasions, the responsibilities of the ministers in the Executive returned to the Secretary of State and his ministers.
During these periods, in addition to administration of the region, the Secretary of State was heavily involved in the negotiations with all parties to restore devolved government. Power was again devolved to the Northern Ireland Assembly on 8 May 2007; the Secretary of State retained responsibility for policing and justice until most of those powers were devolved on 12 April 2010. Colour key Conservative Labour First Minister of Northern Ireland Great Seal of Northern Ireland Shadow Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Secretary of State Secretary of State for Scotland Secretary of State for Wales Chief Secretary for Ireland, office that existed until 1922
British Army of the Rhine
There have been two formations named British Army of the Rhine. Both were occupation forces in Germany, one after the First World War, the other after the Second World War; the first British Army of the Rhine was set up in March 1919 to implement the occupation of the Rhineland. It was composed of five corps, composed of two divisions each, plus a cavalry division:II Corps: Commanded by Sir Claud Jacob Light Division: Commanded by Major-General George Jeffreys Southern Division: Commanded by Major-General William HenekerIV Corps: Commanded by Sir Alexander Godley Lowland Division Highland Division VI Corps: Commanded by Sir Aylmer Haldane Northern Division London Division IX Corps: Commanded by Sir Walter Braithwaite and by Ivor Maxse Western Division Midland Division X Corps: Commanded by Sir Thomas Morland Lancashire Division Eastern Division Cavalry Division Most of these units were progressively dissolved, so that by February 1920 there were only regular battalions: 1st Battalion Royal Irish Regiment 4th Battalion Worcestershire Regiment 2nd Battalion Black Watch 1st Battalion Middlesex Regiment 3rd Battalion Middlesex Regiment 1st Battalion Durham Light InfantryIn August 1920 Winston Churchill told the British Parliament that the BAOR comprised 13,360 troops, consisting of staff, Royal Artillery, Royal Engineers, machine gun corps and the usual ancillary services.
The troops were located principally in the vicinity of Cologne at an approximate cost per month of £300,000. The Cologne Post was a newspaper published for members of the BAOR during this period. From 1922 the BAOR was organised into two brigades:1st Rhine Brigade 1st Battalion Northumberland Fusiliers 1922–1926 1st Battalion West Yorkshire Regiment 1922–1926 2nd Battalion Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders 1922–1926 1st Battalion York and Lancaster Regiment 1922–1924 2nd Battalion Royal Berkshire Regiment 1926–1928 2nd Battalion Royal Welch Fusiliers Nov 1926 – Oct 1929 2nd Battalion Worcestershire Regiment 1926–19282nd Rhine Brigade 2nd Battalion Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry 1922–1924 1st Battalion King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry 1922–1924 2nd Battalion King's Royal Rifle Corps 1922–1925 1st Battalion Royal Ulster Rifles 1922–1926 1st Battalion Manchester Regiment 1923–1924 2nd Battalion King's Shropshire Light Infantry 1924–1927 1st Battalion Oxford and Bucks Light Infantry 1925–1927 2nd Battalion Royal Fusiliers 1926–1929 2nd Battalion Leicestershire Regiment 1927–1929 2nd Battalion Dorsetshire Regiment 1928–1929 The commanders were: Field Marshal Lord Plumer 1918–1919 General Sir William Robertson 1919–1920 General Sir Thomas Morland 1920–1922 General Sir Alexander Godley 1922–1924 General Sir John Du Cane 1924–1927 General Sir William Thwaites 1927–1929 The second British Army of the Rhine was formed on 25 August 1945 from the British Liberation Army.
Its original function was to control the corps districts which were running the military government of the British zone of occupied Germany. After the assumption of government by civilians, it became the command formation for the troops in Germany only, rather than being responsible for administration as well; as the potential threat of Soviet invasion across the North German Plain into West Germany increased, BAOR became more responsible for the defence of West Germany than its occupation. It became the primary formation controlling the British contribution to NATO after the formation of the alliance in 1949, its primary combat formation was British I Corps. From 1952 the commander-in-chief of the BAOR was the commander of NATO's Northern Army Group in the event of a general war with the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact; the BAOR was armed with tactical nuclear weapons. In 1967, the force was reduced in strength to 53,000 soldiers; the 1993 Options for Change defence cuts resulted in BAOR being replaced by forces 25,000 strong, divided between Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps, 1st Armoured Division, other combat support and combat service support forces, administrative elements headed by United Kingdom Support Command.
Garrisons which closed at this time included Soest and Minden. The commanders were: Field Marshal Lord Montgomery 1945–1946 Lieutenant General Sir Richard McCreery 1946–1948 Lieutenant General Sir Brian Horrocks 1948 Lieutenant General Sir Charles Keightley 1948–1951 General Sir John Harding 1951–1952 General Sir Richard Gale 1952–1957 General Sir Dudley Ward 1957–1960 General Sir James Cassels 1960–1963 General Sir William Stirling 1963–1966 General Sir John Hackett 1966–1968 General Sir Desmond Fitzpatrick 1968–1970 General Sir Peter Hunt 1970–1973 General Sir Harry Tuzo 1973–1976 General Sir Frank King 1976–1978 General Sir William Scotter 1978–1980 General Sir Michael Gow 1980–1983 General Sir Nigel Bagnall 1983–1985 General Sir Martin Farndale 1985–1987 General Sir Brian Kenny 1987–1989 General Sir Peter Inge 1989–1992 General Sir Charles Guthrie 1992 – May 1994 Bergen-Hohne Garrison Osnabrück Garrison Westfalen Garrison British military history Canadian Forces Europe The Original British Army of the Rhine by Richard A. Rinaldi Peter Blume: BAOR – Vehicles Of The British Army Of The Rhine – Fahrzeuge der Britischen Rheinarmee – 1945–1979 Tankograd 2006.
Peter Blume: BAOR: The Final Years – Vehicles Of The British Army Of The