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Timothy Eaton

Timothy Eaton was an Irish businessman who founded the Eaton's department store, one of the most important retail businesses in Canada's history. He was born in County Antrim, Ireland, his parents were John Eaton and Margaret Craig. As a 20-year-old Irish apprentice shopkeeper, Timothy Eaton sailed from Ireland to settle with other family members in southern Ontario, Canada. On 28 May 1862, Eaton married Margaret Wilson Beattie, they had three daughters. Among the sons were John Craig Eaton and Edward Young Eaton. One of the daughters, Josephine Smyth Eaton, survived the sinking of the RMS Lusitania off the Irish coast in 1915, his granddaughter, Iris Burnside, was lost in that sinking. In 1854, he worked for a short time in a haberdashery store in Ontario, his sister married William Reid. In 1865, with the help of his brothers and James, Timothy Eaton set up a bakery business in the town of Kirkton, which went under after only a few months. Undaunted, he opened a dry goods store in Ontario. In 1869, Eaton purchased an existing dry-goods and haberdashery business at 178 Yonge Street in Toronto.

In promoting his new business, Eaton embraced two retail practices that were ground-breaking at the time: first, all goods had one price with no credit given, second, all purchases came with a money-back guarantee. Starting in 1884, Eaton introduced Canada to the wonders of the mail-order catalogue, reaching thousands of small towns and rural communities with an array of products unattainable. In these tiny communities, the arrival of Eaton's catalogue was a major event. More than clothing, furniture, or the latest in kitchen gadgetry, the catalogue offered such practical items as milking machines, in addition to just about every other contraption or new invention desirable. And, when rendered obsolete by the new season's catalogue, it served another important use in the outdoor privy of most every rural home. Eaton spawned a colossal retail empire that his offspring would expand coast to coast, reaching its high point during World War II, when the T. Eaton Co. Limited employed more than 70,000 people.

Although Eaton did not invent the department store, nor was he the first retailer in the world to implement a money-back guarantee, the chain he founded popularized both concepts and revolutionized retailing in Canada. Eaton died of pneumonia on 31 January 1907, is buried in Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Toronto, he was succeeded by John Craig Eaton. In 1919, two life-sized statues of Timothy Eaton were donated by the Eaton's employees to the Toronto and Winnipeg stores in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the company. For years, it was tradition for customers in both Toronto and Winnipeg to rub the toe of the statue for good luck; the Toronto statue is now housed by the Royal Ontario Museum, the Winnipeg statue sits in the city's new arena, Bell MTS Place, in exactly the same spot where it stood in the now demolished Eaton's store. Museum-goers in Toronto and hockey fans in Winnipeg continue to rub Timothy Eaton's toe for luck, his grandson was flying ace Henry John Burden. In 1985, his great-great granddaughter, Nancy Eaton, was murdered by a childhood friend, found not guilty by reason of insanity.

Timothy Eaton Memorial Church, in Toronto, was erected in 1914. The town of Eatonia, Saskatchewan was named after Timothy Eaton; the ground of Ballymena RFC the sports grounds of the Mid-Antrim Sports Association, is called Eaton Park. A school in Scarborough, Timothy Eaton Business and Technical Institute, was named after him, it opened in 1971 for classes and closed its doors permanently in 2009. Robert Simpson John Wanamaker Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online Media related to Timothy Eaton at Wikimedia Commons

Joe Camel

Joe Camel was the advertising mascot for Camel cigarettes from late 1987 to July 12, 1997, appearing in magazine advertisements and other print media. The U. S. marketing team of R. J. Reynolds, looking for an idea to promote Camel's 75th anniversary, re-discovered Joe in the company's archives in the late 1980s. Quoted from The New York Times: Joe Camel was born in Europe; the caricatured camel was created in 1974 by a British artist, Nicholas Price, for a French advertising campaign that subsequently ran in other countries in the 1970s. Indeed, O'Toole recalled a visit to France many years ago during which he glimpsed Joe Camel wearing a Foreign Legion cap; the inspiration behind Mr. Price's cartoon was the camel, named Old Joe, that has appeared on all Camel packages since the brand's initial appearance in 1913. Joe Camel first appeared in the U. S in 1988, in materials created for the 75th anniversary of the Camel brand by Trone Advertising. Trone is a mid-size agency in Greensboro, N. C. that Reynolds used on various advertising and promotional projects.

The character lacked many typical camel traits appearing as a muscular humanoid with a camel's head. Feet were always to be covered, in footwear consistent with the rest of the outfit; the character lacked a tail or hump. Advertising presented Joe Camel in a variety of "fun and entertaining and fresh" situations, wearing "bold and bright" colors and yellow where appropriate, his face remained the same in different advertising pieces, images of his hands only used when necessary. In 1991, the Journal of the American Medical Association published a study showing that by age six nearly as many children could respond that "Joe Camel" was associated with cigarettes as could respond that the Disney Channel logo was associated with Mickey Mouse, alleged that the "Joe Camel" campaign was targeting children, despite R. J. Reynolds' contention that the campaign had been researched only among adults and was directed only at the smokers of other brands. At that time it was estimated that 32.8% of all cigarettes sold illegally to underage buyers were Camels, up from less than one percent.

Subsequently, the American Medical Association asked R. J. Reynolds Nabisco to pull the campaign. R. J. Reynolds refused, the Joe Camel Campaign continued. In 1991, Janet Mangini, a San Francisco-based attorney, brought a suit against R. J. Reynolds, challenging the company for targeting minors with its "Joe Camel" advertising campaign. In her complaint, Mangini alleged that teenage smokers accounted for US$476 million of Camel cigarette sales in 1992; when the Joe Camel advertisements started in 1988, that figure was only at US$6 million, "implicitly suggesting such advertisements have harmed a great many teenagers by luring them into extended use of and addiction to tobacco products."R. J. Reynolds has denied Joe Camel was intended to be directed at children. In response to the criticism, R. J. Reynolds instituted "Let's Clear the Air on Smoking", a campaign of full-page magazine advertisements consisting of text set in large type, denying those charges, declaring that smoking is "an adult custom".

Internal documents produced to the court in Mangini v. R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, San Francisco County Superior Court No. 959516, demonstrated the industry's interest in targeting children as future smokers. The importance of the youth market was illustrated in a 1974 presentation by RJR's Vice-President of Marketing who explained that the "young adult market... represent tomorrow's cigarette business. As this 14-24 age group matures, they will account for a key share of the total cigarette volume - for at least the next 25 years." A 1974 memo by the R. J. Reynolds Research Department points out that capturing the young adult market is vital because "virtually all start by the age of 25" and "most smokers begin smoking and select a usual brand at or before the age of 18."In July 1997, under pressure from the impending Mangini trial and various public-interest groups, RJR announced it would settle out of court and voluntarily end its Joe Camel campaign. A new campaign with a more adult theme debuted: instead of Joe Camel, it had a plain image of a quadrupedal, non-anthropomorphic camel.

This image is still used in advertisements for Camel today. As part of the agreement, RJR paid $10 million to San Francisco and the other California cities and counties who intervened in the Mangini litigation; this money was earmarked to fund anti-smoking efforts targeted at youth. Marlboro Man Willie, the Kool penguin Joe Camel at Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on October 8, 2016. A gallery of Joe Camel advertisements. Joe Chemo, an anti-smoking website based on an Adbusters character

Montesano (sternwheeler)

Montesano was a steamboat, operated from 1882 to about 1903 in the coastal regions of Oregon and southwest Washington, including Astoria, Willapa Bay, Grays Harbor, the Chehalis River, Yaquina Bay and Coos Bay. The Montesano of 1882, built in Astoria, should not be confused with another, larger sternwheeler named Montesano, built in Cosmopolis, Washington in 1889. Montesano was built in 1882 at Astoria, for the Shoalwater Bay Transportation Company. One of the principals of the Shoalwater Bay Transportation Company was Lewis A. Loomis, an early businessman in the Ilwaco - Long Beach area of Pacific County, Washington. Loomis was a principal behind the Ilwaco Railway and Navigation Company. A meeting of the shareholders of the Shoalwater Bay Transportation Company was scheduled to have been held on November 15, 1881, where a proposition to increase the capital stock of the company was to be acted upon, it was reported to have been probable. The keel was laid on October 8, 1881; the hull and planking were from Oregon fir.

The cabin structure, called the "house", was built of cedar. By December 4, 1881, planking was complete on the new steamer, it is possible that the vessel was intended to be named Chehalis. The new boat was launched on Saturday, January 7, 1882. On January 9, 1882, the boat was towed to Portland by the steamer Favorite to have the machinery installed at the Willamette Iron Works; the boat was to have each with a cylinder 12 inches in diameter with a 36-inch stroke. By March 10, 1882, the installation of machinery was complete A name, had been picked for the boat, after a settlement on the Chehalis River. A trial trip was taken on Wednesday afternoon, March 8, 1882, the boat was expected to be run downriver from Portland to Astoria in a day or so after March 10. Montesano would be run together with Garfield, another steamer owned by Shoalwater Bay Transportation Co; the Daily Astorian was enthusiastic about the prospects for the new boat: These boats are the avant courier of coast lines that will one day center at Astoria as the natural headquarters, are admirably adapted for the trade they are to be engaged in.

The country in tho immediate vicinity of Gray's Harbor is tributary by nature to this place and permanent means of communication is all, needed for our merchants to secure the trade of that section. When complete, Montesano was 79.6 ft, long with a beam of 17.8 ft and depth of hold of 4.4 ft. The length of the sternwheeler was once reported as 95 ft in the press; this difference may have been as a result of measuring the vessel over the deck, which included the stern extension to mount the stern wheel, as opposed o a shorter measurement over the length of the hull alone. The home port in 1887 was Astoria; the official merchant vessel registration number was 91400. Gross tonnage was 112.55 and net tonnage was 87.01. On the Thursday before May 3, 1882, Montesano left Astoria for the Chehalis River and arrived on the same day. In November 1882, Montesano was running to Washington on the Chehalis River. In the summer of 1882, Montesano operated as part of a transportation line connecting Astoria with Olympia, Washington by a combination of steamboats and stage lines.

Travellers on this route could reach Olympia from Astoria in 60 days. Starting on March 14, 1883, the steamers of the Shoalwater Bay Transportation Company carried mail from Astoria to Montesano, Washington and to Olympia once a week, with extra mail on Saturday, it took one day on this route to reach Montesano from Astoria. Travel time to Olympia continued to take 60 hours; some sources indicate that Montesano operated on Willapa Bay known as Shoalwater Bay. In 1882, the Shoalwater Bay Transportation Company launched Montesano at Astoria to run mail from Willapa to Sealand, now known as Nahcotta, Washington on the Long Beach Peninsula. Woodard's Landing, which in October 1884 was described as "the second place of importance in the region", was about 10 miles up the Willapa River from the present city of South Bend, Washington. Steamers at South Bend could reach Woodard's Landing at high tide. In late 1884, the settlement at Woodard's Landing, sustained principally by the logging industry on the upper Willapa River, consisted of two stores, two hotels, a warehouse.

Montesano was handled on the Willapa Bay route by two members of a prominent steamboating family, Capt. James P. Whitcomb as master and his brother George A. Whitcomb, as mate. Montesano's service on the Chehalis River was brief; the boat was transferred to the lower Columbia River, where it was in service from 1886 to 1889, according to one historian. A contemporary source states however that Montesano was transferred to Yaquina Bay, in the central Oregon coast, in June 1887. Prior to the departure for Yaquina Bay, Montesano is reported to have been once more in service in Grays Harbor, but dates for this second period of operations in the Chehalis River area are not furnished in the source. On the evening of June 8, 1887, Montesano departed Astoria bound for Yaquina Bay, to be the boat's new base of operations. On August 19, 1887, it was reported that the Shoalwater Bay Transportation Company was about to disincorporate. Montesano was reported in a contemporary source owned by D. H. Welch when in service at Yaquina Bay in 1887.

In June, 1887, D. H. Welch raced Montesano against the propeller-driven steamer Tressa May; the race went from Yaquina City to Oregon. Both vessels arrived at the same time, with Montesano just a little ahead. H. W. Dunham is reported to have been master of Montesano while the boat was in Yaquina Bay, which may have be

Kalyani Ghoshpara railway station

Kalyani Ghoshpara railway station is a Kolkata Suburban Railway station on the Kalyani Simanta Branch line of Sealdah railway division. It is situated at Kalyani in Nadia district in the Indian state of West Bengal, it serves Kalyani University and B Block area of the city. The Calcutta -Kusthia line of Eastern Bengal Railway was opened to run in the year of 1862. British Government in India established the railway station in the Roosvelt town named Chandmari Halt in 1883. In 1954 it was renamed into Kalyani. In 1979, the rail line was extended from Kalyani main station to Kalyani Simanta railway station and established direct connectivity to Sealdah through Kalyani Simanta local EMU trains

Beaufort-Jasper Water and Sewer Authority

The Beaufort-Jasper Water and Sewer Authority is a public water system and non-profit corporation which handles water and wastewater operations for many areas in Beaufort and Jasper counties in the Lowcountry region of South Carolina. The Authority was created under the provisions of Act 784 by the South Carolina General Assembly in 1954 to provide services to Beaufort County. In 1969, its powers were expanded to include wastewater facility construction and services. In 1983, the authority merged with the Jasper County Water and Sewer Authority and thus adopting the BJWSA moniker. Although set up to provide water and wastewater services to unincorporated areas, BJWSA has over time acquired municipal water and sewer systems for Beaufort, Port Royal and Hardeeville. Since 2008, BJWSA provides water and service to the military installations located in northern Beaufort County. In 2009, BJWSA assumed ownership of the former Port Royal Railroad right-of-way in northern Beaufort County; the railway was decommissioned and removed in order to allow BJWSA to use the right-of-way for future utility routing and to create the Spanish Moss Trail.

The authority is governed by an eleven-member board appointed by the Governor of South Carolina. A general manager is in charge of day-to-day operations of the authority and oversees the various departments and functions of BJWSA; the Authority's headquarters is located near the border of Beaufort and Jasper counties, between Beaufort and Bluffton along S. C. Highway 170 in the Okatie area; the major fresh-water source for BJWSA is the Savannah River eight miles north of downtown Hardeeville. An eighteen-mile canal carries freshwater from the river to the BJWSA facility for treatment purposes; the authority operates two water treatment plants, three wastewater treatment plants and hundreds of pump stations. BJWSA has 45,000 retail accounts for water services and 28,000 for wastewater services. BJWSA treats an average of 20 million gallons of water for consumption and 7 million gallons of wastewater each day. BJWSA has received many awards from state and national groups, including: Association of Metropolitan Water Associations'Platinum Award for Competitiveness Achievement' Government Finance Officers Association Certificate of Achievement for Excellence in Financial Reporting 2004 - 2010 South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Facility Excellence Award Cherry Point Wastewater Treatment Plant 2006 - 2010 Hardeeville Wastewater Treatment Plant 2006 - 2010 LB Wastewater Treatment Plant 2008-2010 Beaufort-Jasper Water & Sewer Authority Web site


The Alamut geographic region is a region in Iran including western and eastern parts in the western edge of the Alborz range, between the dry and barren plain of Qazvin in the south and the densely forested slopes of the Mazandaran province in the north. Starting from Qazvin toward Alamut, passing through the first range of hills, forms, are significant themes in nature's composition of this area. Two big citadels of Ismailis and Alamut castles, are in this area. Hassan-i Sabbah and his Assassins controlled the area for many years. In 1090 CE, Hassan-i Sabbah, the leader of the Assassins, a sect of Nizari Ismailis in Iran, chose the Alamut region as his headquarters to campaign and convert new followers; this proved to be a turning point for the destiny of Alamut Valley. The result of over two centuries of Ismailite stronghold, the region witnessed numerous castles throughout, of which at least 20 "castles" dating back to this era have been identified; the most magnificent castle in the Alamut Valley is the Alamut Castle, built on top of a high rock reaching 2163 m above sea level near the Gazor Khan Village.

The rock covers an area of 20 hectares. Only ruins of the fort and some towers are apparent, it is only through archaeological excavation that the main portions can be discovered. Today, the leader of the contemporary Ismaili community is the Aga Khan. Hassan-i Sabbah Kia Bozorg Omid Muḥammad ibn Kiyā Buzurg-Ummīd El-Hâdî bin el-Nizâr El-Môhtadî bin el-Hâdî El-Kahir bin el-Môhtadî bi-Kuvvet’ûl-Lâh / bi-Ahkâmî’l-Lâh Hasan Alâ Zikrihi’s Selâm Nūr al-Dīn Muḥammad II Jalaluddin Hasan ‘Alā’ ad-Dīn Muḥammad III Ruknu-d-Dīn Khurshāh Alamut River Rudkhan Castle List of Ismaili castles Alamut-e Gharbi District Alamut-e Sharqi District Alamut-e Bala Rural District Alamut-e Pain Rural District Kıyâmet-i Kûbrâ Alamut, novel written by Vladimir Bartol in 1938