University College London
University College London, which has operated under the official name of UCL since 2005, is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom. It is a constituent college of the federal University of London, is the third largest university in the United Kingdom by total enrolment, the largest by postgraduate enrolment. Established in 1826 as London University by founders inspired by the radical ideas of Jeremy Bentham, UCL was the first university institution to be established in London, the first in England to be secular and to admit students regardless of their religion. UCL makes the contested claims of being the third-oldest university in England and the first to admit women. In 1836 UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London, granted a royal charter in the same year, it has grown through mergers, including with the Institute of Neurology, the Royal Free Hospital Medical School, the Eastman Dental Institute, the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, the School of Pharmacy and the Institute of Education.
UCL has its main campus in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals elsewhere in central London and satellite campuses in Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in Stratford, east London and in Doha, Qatar. UCL is organised into 11 constituent faculties, within which there are over 100 departments and research centres. UCL operates several culturally significant museums and manages collections in a wide range of fields, including the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology and the Grant Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, administers the annual Orwell Prize in political writing. In 2017/18, UCL had around 41,500 students and 15,100 staff and had a total group income of £1.45 billion, of which £476.3 million was from research grants and contracts. In the most recent Research Excellence Framework rankings for research power, UCL was the top-rated university in the UK as calculated by Times Higher Education, second as calculated by The Guardian/Research Fortnight.
UCL had the 9th highest average entry tariff in the UK for students starting in 2016. UCL is ranked from tenth to twentieth in the four major international rankings, from eighth to eleventh in the national league tables. UCL is a member of numerous academic organisations, including the Russell Group and the League of European Research Universities, is part of UCL Partners, the world's largest academic health science centre, the "golden triangle" of research-intensive English universities. UCL alumni include the'Father of the Nation' of each of India and Mauritius, the founders of Ghana, modern Japan and Nigeria, the inventor of the telephone, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. UCL academics discovered five of the occurring noble gases, discovered hormones, invented the vacuum tube, made several foundational advances in modern statistics; as of 2018, 33 Nobel Prize winners and 3 Fields medalists have been affiliated with UCL as alumni, faculty or researchers. UCL was founded on 11 February 1826 under the name London University, as an alternative to the Anglican universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
London University's first Warden was Leonard Horner, the first scientist to head a British university. Despite the held belief that the philosopher Jeremy Bentham was the founder of UCL, his direct involvement was limited to the purchase of share No. 633, at a cost of £100 paid in nine instalments between December 1826 and January 1830. In 1828 he did nominate a friend to sit on the council, in 1827 attempted to have his disciple John Bowring appointed as the first professor of English or History, but on both occasions his candidates were unsuccessful; this suggests that while his ideas may have been influential, he himself was less so. However, Bentham is today regarded as the "spiritual father" of UCL, as his radical ideas on education and society were the inspiration to the institution's founders the Scotsmen James Mill and Henry Brougham. In 1827, the Chair of Political Economy at London University was created, with John Ramsay McCulloch as the first incumbent, establishing one of the first departments of economics in England.
In 1828 the university became the first in England to offer English as a subject and the teaching of Classics and medicine began. In 1830, London University founded the London University School, which would become University College School. In 1833, the university appointed Alexander Maconochie, Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society, as the first professor of geography in the UK. In 1834, University College Hospital opened as a teaching hospital for the university's medical school. In 1836, London University was incorporated by royal charter under the name University College, London. On the same day, the University of London was created by royal charter as a degree-awarding examining board for students from affiliated schools and colleges, with University College and King's College, London being named in the charter as the first two affiliates; the Slade School of Fine Art was founded as part of University College in 1871, following a bequest from Felix Slade. In 1878, the University of London gained a supplemental charter making it the first British university to be allowed to award degrees to women.
The same year, UCL admitted women to the faculties of Arts and Law and of Science, although women remained barred from the faculties of Engineering and of Medicine. While UCL claims to have been the first university in England
Choir of King's College, Cambridge
The King's College Choir is a British choir. It is considered one of today's most accomplished and renowned representatives of the great English choral tradition, it was created by King Henry VI, who founded King's College, Cambridge, in 1441, to provide daily singing in his Chapel, which remains the main task of the choir to this day. Today the choir is directed by Stephen Cleobury and derives much of its fame from the Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols, broadcast worldwide to millions on Christmas Eve every year, the TV service Carols from King's which accompanies it; the choir commissions a carol from a contemporary composer for each year's Festival. The statutes specify that the choir consists of ten chaplains, six clerks and sixteen choristers who were to be "poor and needy boys, of sound condition and honest conversation... knowing competently how to read and sing". Recognising the workload placed upon the choristers who were to sing Matins and Vespers daily, the statutes stated that "they should be doubly occupied with their prescribed duties and with their education".
When Henry VI was deposed during the Wars of the Roses in 1460, the choir was reduced in numbers due to lack of funds, although by 1467 the full choir was in residence again. During this time the choir were singing in a temporary chapel, with the main King's College Chapel still being under construction. On 22 April 1506 Henry VII visited Cambridge and attended evensong, the following day heard mass with Bishop John Fisher. Following this visit, he resolved to fund continued construction, continued by his successor Henry VIII, completion coming in 1536. Elizabeth I visited the chapel in 1564, attended evensong on 5 August and again the following night, although she turned up late, causing the service to be restarted, it is recorded that pricksong was sung as it had been since the foundation of the college. During Oliver Cromwell's rule the number of choral services were reduced, departing choristers were not replaced. By 1651 there was only one chorister left and by 1654 there were none. Lay clerks were still retained during this time.
Upon the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, ten choristers were appointed immediately. In 1827 a survey of choir schools in England noted of King's: "the Choristers attend service in the Chapel once a day in the afternoon on common days, they are permitted to sing at the Chapels of other Colleges, at St. Mary's Church, they are instructed in singing by the organist, in reading and arithmetic by a master appointed by the College. The Statutes prescribe, they are admitted about eight years of age, leave the Choir when the voice breaks." By the 1860s it was recognised. John Jebb's 1843 enquiry into Anglican choirs found that "in Cambridge, the Choral Service has suffered mutilation in every place where it is retained. King's College has reduced the original number of its Conduct Chaplains from three to one; the Choir indeed attends twice daily. Amongst the lay clerks, whose duties were at this time divided by singing at Trinity and absenteeism were common. Reform began after the passing of the Cambridge University Act 1856, which enabled the statutes and governance of the college to be altered.
Two chaplains and twelve lay clerks were specified, sharing duties with Trinity was ended in 1871. The same year a new Master over the Choristers was appointed, tasked with being "watchful of their moral conduct" and "maintaining disciple without undue severity at all times". Conditions for choristers were improved with the intention of recruiting boys from a higher social background, they were given instruction in instrumental music and financial assistance upon leaving. To further widen the field for selection it was decided to open a boarding school instead of paying for choristers to be lodged with local families. From 1876 it was decreed that choristerships should be open to all candidates "whether resident in Cambridge or elsewhere" with those resident outside the city lodged at the expense of the college, a purpose-built King's College School was opened two years later. In 1876 it was decided that choral scholarships were to be awarded, with students replacing the permanently employed lay clerks.
Existing contracts meant this was a slow process, with the last clerk leaving in 1928. 1876 saw the appointment of a new organist on an increased salary, Arthur Henry Mann. There was little if any formal training of choir instructors at this time in England - most were organists who taught the choir following whatever technique they themselves had been subjected to as former choristers. Mann was fortunate in this regard having been a chorister at Norwich Cathedral under the renowned Zechariah Buck. Mann was therefore an outstanding choir trainer himself and improved the reputation of King's College Choir, he worked on improving the diction and timing of the choir to allow them to work with the acoustic of the chapel and its lengthy reverb. He op
Faculty of Mathematics, University of Cambridge
The Faculty of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge comprises the Department of Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics and the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics. It is housed in the Centre for Mathematical Sciences site in West Cambridge, alongside the Isaac Newton Institute. Many distinguished mathematicians have been members of the faculty. Alan Baker Béla Bollobás John Coates Timothy Gowers Peter Johnstone Imre Leader Gabriel Paternain Geoffrey Grimmett Frank Kelly Richard Nickl James Norris Richard Samworth David Spiegelhalter Richard Weber John Barrow and writer Gary Gibbons Raymond E. Goldstein Michael Green Peter Haynes, fluid dynamicist John Hinch, fluid dynamicist, retired 2014 Richard Jozsa John Papaloizou Malcolm Perry David Tong, theoretical physicist Paul Townsend Grae Worster, editor for the Journal of Fluid Mechanics The Department of Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics was created in 1964 under the headship of Sir William Hodge.
It was housed in a converted warehouse at 16 Mill Lane, adjacent to its sister department DAMTP, until its move around 2000 to the present Centre for Mathematical Sciences where it occupies Pavilions C, D, E. 1964–1969 W. V. D. Hodge 1969–1984 J. W. S. Cassels 1984–1991 D. J. H. Garling 1991–1997 John H. Coates 1997–2002 W. B. R. Lickorish 2002–2007 Geoffrey Grimmett 2007–2014 Martin Hyland 2014-2018 Gabriel Paternain 2018- James Norris The Statistical Laboratory is a Sub-Department of DPMMS, it was created in 1947 with accommodation in a "temporary hut", was established on 21 March 1953 within the Faculty of Mathematics. It moved in 1958 to the basement of the new Chemistry Department in Lensfield Road, formed part of the new Department in Mill Lane on its creation in 1964, it occupies Pavilion D of the Centre for Mathematical Sciences. 1953–1956 John Wishart 1956–1957 Henry Daniels, Acting Director 1957–1960 Dennis Lindley 1960–1962 Morris Walker, Acting Director 1962–1973 David Kendall 1973–1987 Peter Whittle 1987–1991 David Williams 1991–1993 Frank Kelly 1994–2000 Geoffrey Grimmett 2000–2009 Richard Weber 2009–2017 James Norris 2017– Richard Samworth The Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics was founded by George Batchelor in 1959, for many years was situated on Silver Street, in the former office buildings of Cambridge University Press.
The Department is located at the Centre for Mathematical Sciences. Theoretical Physics occupies most of Pavilion B, while Applied Mathematics occupies most of Pavilions F, G, H. 1959–1983 George Batchelor 1983–1991 Keith Moffatt 1991–2000 David Crighton 2000–2005 Timothy J. Pedley 2005–2015 Peter Haynes 2015– Nigel Peake Mathematical Tripos Wrangler List of Cambridge mathematicians Chairs associated with the Faculty: Lucasian Professor of Mathematics Lowndean Professor of Astronomy and Geometry Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics Sadleirian Professor of Pure Mathematics Herchel Smith Professorship of Pure Mathematics Professorship of Mathematical Statistics Churchill Professorship of Mathematics for Operational Research Professorship of Statistical Science Winton Professorship of the Public Understanding of Risk Official website On Google maps Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics website Statistical Laboratory website Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics website Cambridge Centre for Analysis website
Sir Philip Anthony Hopkins is a Welsh actor and producer. He won the Academy Award for Best Actor in 1992, was nominated three additional times. Hopkins has won three BAFTAs, two Emmys, the Cecil B. DeMille Award. In 1993, he was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for services to the arts. Hopkins received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2003, in 2008, he received the BAFTA Fellowship for lifetime achievement from the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. After graduating from the Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama in 1957, he trained at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, was spotted by Laurence Olivier who invited him to join the Royal National Theatre. In 1968, he achieved renown. In the mid-1970s, Richard Attenborough, who would direct five Hopkins films, called him "the greatest actor of his generation." Hopkins portrayed Hannibal Lecter in The Silence of the Lambs, for which he won the Academy Award for Best Actor, its sequel Hannibal, the prequel Red Dragon. Other notable films include The Mask of Zorro, The Bounty, Meet Joe Black, The Elephant Man, Magic, 84 Charing Cross Road, Bram Stoker's Dracula, Legends of the Fall and its sequels, The Remains of the Day, Nixon, The World's Fastest Indian and Fracture.
In 2015, he starred in the BBC television film The Dresser, since 2016, he has starred in the HBO television series Westworld. Hopkins was born on New Year's Eve 1937, in a suburb of Port Talbot, Glamorgan, his parents were Richard Arthur Hopkins, a baker. He stated. "Whenever I get a feeling that I may be special or different, I think of my father and I remember his hands – his hardened, broken hands". His school days were unproductive. In 1949, to instill discipline, his parents insisted he attend Jones' West Monmouth Boys' School in Pontypool, he remained there for five terms and was educated at Cowbridge Grammar School in the Vale of Glamorgan. In a 2002 interview he stated: "I was a poor learner, which left me open to ridicule and gave me an inferiority complex. I grew up convinced I was stupid."Hopkins was inspired by Welsh compatriot Richard Burton, whom he met at the age of 15. Hopkins promptly enrolled at the Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama in Cardiff, from which he graduated in 1957.
After two years of his national service, which he served in the British Army, Hopkins moved to London where he studied at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. Hopkins made his first professional stage appearance in the Palace Theatre, Swansea, in 1960 with Swansea Little Theatre's production of Have a Cigarette. In 1965, after several years in repertory, he was spotted by Laurence Olivier, who invited him to join the Royal National Theatre in London. Hopkins became Olivier's understudy, filled in when Olivier was struck with appendicitis during a 1967 production of August Strindberg's The Dance of Death. Olivier noted in his memoir, Confessions of an Actor, that A new young actor in the company of exceptional promise named Anthony Hopkins was understudying me and walked away with the part of Edgar like a cat with a mouse between its teeth. Hopkins was nervous prior to going on stage, but since that night he has relaxed, quoting his mentor: "He said:'Remember: nerves is vanity – you’re wondering what people think of you.
It was great advice.” Despite his success at the National, Hopkins tired of repeating the same roles nightly and yearned to be in films. He made his small-screen debut in a 1967 BBC broadcast of A Flea in Her Ear, his first starring role in a film came in 1964 in Changes, a short directed by Drewe Henley and produced by James Scott and co-starring Jacqueline Pearce. In 1968, he got his break in The Lion in Winter playing Richard the Lionheart. Although Hopkins continued in theatre he moved away from it to become more established as a television and film actor, he portrayed Charles Dickens in the BBC television film The Great Inimitable Mr. Dickens in 1970, Pierre Bezukhov in the BBC's mini series War and Peace. Making a name for himself as a screen actor, in 1972 he starred as British politician David Lloyd George in Young Winston, in 1977 he played British Army officer John Frost in the World War II-set film A Bridge Too Far. Both of these films were directed by Richard Attenborough, who described Hopkins as “unquestionably the greatest actor of his generation”.
In 1978 he starred in the psychological horror film Magic about a demonic ventriloquist's puppet. In 1980, he starred in The Elephant Man as the English doctor Sir Frederick Treves, who attends to Joseph Merrick, a deformed man in 19th century London; that year he starred opposite Shirley MacLaine in A Change of Seasons and famously said "she was the most obnoxious actress I have worked with." In 1983, Hopkins became a company member of The Mirror Theater Ltd's Repertory Company. He remained an enthusiastic member of the company and the Mirror's Producing Artistic Director Sabra Jones visited him in London in 1986 to discuss moving Pravda to New York from the National Theatre. In 1984, he starred opposite Mel Gibson in The Bounty as William Bligh, captain of the Royal Navy ship HMS Bounty, in a retelling of the mutiny on the Bounty. In 1992
Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'. Fellowship of the Society, the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence, is a significant honour, awarded to many eminent scientists from history including Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Michael Faraday, Ernest Rutherford, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Dorothy Hodgkin, Alan Turing and Francis Crick. More fellowship has been awarded to Stephen Hawking, Tim Hunt, Elizabeth Blackburn, Tim Berners-Lee, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Atta-ur Rahman, Andre Geim, James Dyson, Ajay Kumar Sood, Subhash Khot, Elon Musk and around 8,000 others in total, including over 280 Nobel Laureates since 1900; as of October 2018, there are 1689 living Fellows and Honorary Members, of which over 60 are Nobel Laureates.
Fellowship of the Royal Society has been described by The Guardian newspaper as “the equivalent of a lifetime achievement Oscar” with several institutions celebrating their announcement each year. Up to 60 new Fellows and foreign members are elected annually in late April or early May, from a pool of around 700 proposed candidates each year. New Fellows can only be nominated by existing Fellows for one of the fellowships described below: Every year, up to 52 new Fellows are elected from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Nations which make up around 90% of the society; each candidate is considered on their merits and can be proposed from any sector of the scientific community. Fellows are elected for life on the basis of excellence in science and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRS. See Category:Fellows of the Royal Society and Category:Female Fellows of the Royal Society; every year, Fellows elect up to ten new Foreign Members. Like Fellows, Foreign Members are elected for life through peer review on the basis of excellence in science.
As of 2016 there are around 165 Foreign Members, who are entitled to use the post-nominal ForMemRS. See Category:Foreign Members of the Royal Society. Honorary Fellowship is an honorary academic title awarded to candidates who have given distinguished service to the cause of science, but do not have the kind of scientific achievements required of Fellows or Foreign Members. Honorary Fellows include Bill Bryson, Melvyn Bragg, Robin Saxby, David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville and Onora O'Neill. Honorary Fellows are entitled to use the post nominal letters FRS. Others including John Maddox, Patrick Moore and Lisa Jardine were elected as honorary fellows, see Category:Honorary Fellows of the Royal Society. Statute 12 is a legacy mechanism for electing members before official honorary membership existed in 1997. Fellows elected under statute 12 include 4th Earl of Selborne. Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom such as Margaret Thatcher, Neville Chamberlain,Ramsay Macdonald and H. H. Asquith were elected under statute 12, see Category:Fellows of the Royal Society.
The Council of the Royal Society can recommend members of the British Royal Family for election as Royal Fellows of the Royal Society. As of 2016 there are five royal fellows: Charles, Prince of Wales elected 1978 Anne, Princess Royal elected 1987 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent elected 1990 Prince William, Duke of Cambridge elected 2009 Prince Andrew, Duke of York elected 2013Her Majesty the Queen, Elizabeth II is not a Royal Fellow, but provides her patronage to the Society as all reigning British monarchs have done since Charles II of England. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was elected under statute 12, not as a Royal Fellow; the election of new fellows is announced annually in May, after their nomination and a period of peer-reviewed selection. Each candidate for Fellowship or Foreign Membership is nominated by two Fellows of the Royal Society, who sign a certificate of proposal. Nominations required at least five fellows to support each nomination by the proposer, criticised for establishing an old-boy network and elitist gentlemen's club.
The certificate of election includes a statement of the principal grounds on which the proposal is being made. There is no limit on the number of nominations made each year. In 2015, there were 654 candidates for election as Fellows and 106 candidates for Foreign Membership; the Council of the Royal Society oversees the selection process and appoints 10 subject area committees, known as Sectional Committees, to recommend the strongest candidates for election to Fellowship. The final list of up to 52 Fellowship candidates and up to 10 Foreign Membership candidates is confirmed by the Council in April and a secret ballot of Fellows is held at a meeting in May. A candidate is elected if she secures two-thirds of votes of those Fellows present and voting. A maximum of 18 Fellowships can be allocated to candidates from Physical Sciences and Biological Sciences. A further maximum of 6 can be ‘Honorary’, ‘General’ or ‘Royal’ Fellows. Nominations for Fellowship are peer reviewed by sectional committees, each with 15 members and a chair.
Members of the 10 sectional committees change every 3 years to mitigate in-group bias, each group covers different
Proof (2005 film)
Proof is a 2005 American drama film directed by John Madden and starring Gwyneth Paltrow, Anthony Hopkins, Jake Gyllenhaal, Hope Davis. It was written based on David Auburn's Pulitzer Prize-winning play Proof; the plot alternates between events following the death of Robert, a brilliant mathematician whose genius was undone by crippling mental illness, flashbacks revealing the life he shared with his daughter Catherine. Catherine is a mathematician, but she struggles with living in her father's shadow, with balancing her demanding studies with caring for her father and with the fear that she may have inherited his mental illness. At home, Robert clings to sanity by bombarding Catherine with complex mathematical problems. In the opening scene Robert startles Catherine, he gives her a bottle of champagne for her birthday, they chat for a while about the nature of insanity, ending with the revelation that Robert died last week and his funeral is tomorrow. Awakened from this dream, Catherine realizes that Hal, a former graduate student of Robert's, is still upstairs, reading through Robert's books.
Robert filled many notebooks with meaningless notes. Hal believes that Robert's genius may have withstood his illness, clues to that genius might lie among the gibberish of his notebooks; when Hal comments on the vast amount of work Robert did, a suspicious Catherine searches Hal's backpack. Though Catherine finds nothing in Hal's bag, a notebook falls out of his coat, he explains that he wanted to give the notebook as a birthday present because it "had something written in it about her, not math, her". Hal is forced giving the notebook as intended, when Catherine calls the police; the next day, for the funeral, Catherine's sister Claire arrives in town. A huge contrast to the unkempt Catherine, Claire is an overly put together, neurotic New Yorker. Relations between the sisters are tense, Catherine cannot stand her sister's constant harping on matters of appearance. Catherine is upset that Claire didn't care for her father as much as Catherine did in his final years. At the funeral, Catherine expresses her frustration with the many people there.
She interrupts the string quartet with an impromptu speech, berating everyone for not being there for her father while he was alive. She describes his descent into insanity, that at one time he would borrow piles of books believing that aliens were sending him messages encoded in their Dewey Decimal codes, she ends by saying she's glad her father walks out of the church mid-funeral. Claire decides to sell Robert's house back to the university and wants Catherine to come with her to New York, it becomes evident that Claire suspects that Catherine may be struggling with mental illnesses, as their father had. A wake held at the house the night. Hal chats up Catherine. Softening up to Hal, Catherine sleeps with him. Afterwards, she gives him a key to her father's desk. In flashbacks, Robert is shown invigorated, believing he has seen the beginnings of a new mathematical proof that will prove his triumph over mental illness. In the present, Hal finds a notebook in Robert's desk, which itself contains a lengthy but very important proof.
He is excited and shows the discovery to Catherine and Claire. He asks Catherine why she did not tell him about it, she tells him. Catherine claims the work is hers and not her father's despite evidence to the contrary. Neither Hal nor Claire believe Catherine. Hal believes the mathematics of the proof are beyond Catherine, while Claire suspects that Catherine is suffering the onset of mental illness. Catherine says she can't describe the proof without the notebook because it "is not a muffin recipe". Hal decides to take it to the math department the next day to verify the proof's accuracy, he returns as Claire and Catherine are leaving, with news that the math department believes the proof to be valid. Hal tells Claire that he doesn't think that her father wrote the proof because it employs newer mathematics and wants Catherine to explain it to him sometime. Catherine remains stung by his earlier lack of trust, the sisters leave for the airport. At the airport, Catherine has another flashback, it is revealed that, while living together, her father challenged her to work on math, which she does completing a proof, which she describes in one of the many notebooks in the house.
Catherine goes to tell her father about the breakthrough, but he insists she read aloud the proof that he is working on. To Catherine's disappointment, Robert's notebook contains not a proof, but a rambling and desperate observation of the passage of the seasons, that the year is divided into months of cold, months of warmth and months of indeterminate temperature, that the future of heat is the future of cold, that the future of cold is infinite, that he will never be as cold as he will be in the future. Reading her father's work, Catherine realizes. A dispirited Catherine leaves her notebook in Robert's desk, where Hal will find it. Catherine has begun to come to terms with herself, aided by Hal's confidence in her, she decides that she runs out of the airport. She returns to University of Chicago, the film ends with her and Hal meeting up on campus and discussing the proof. Gwyneth Paltrow
The dignity of Knight Bachelor is the basic and lowest rank of a man, knighted by the monarch but not as a member of one of the organised orders of chivalry. Knights Bachelor are the most ancient sort of British knight, but Knights Bachelor rank below knights of chivalric orders. There is no female counterpart to Knight Bachelor; the lowest knightly honour that can be conferred upon a woman is Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, one rank higher than Knight Bachelor. Foreigners are not created Knights Bachelor. Knighthood is conferred for public service, it is possible to be a Knight Bachelor and a junior member of an order of chivalry without being a knight of that order. For instance, Sir Ian Holm, Sir Michael Gambon, Sir Derek Jacobi, Sir Anthony Hopkins, Sir Elton John, Sir Michael Caine, Sir Barry Gibb and Sir Ian McKellen are Commanders of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire. None of them would be entitled to use the honorific "Sir" by virtue of their membership of the order alone, but as they are all Knights Bachelor, they are entitled to preface their names with that title.
Like other knights, Knights Bachelor are styled "Sir". Since they are not knights of any order of chivalry, there is no post-nominal associated with the honour; when the style "Sir" is awkward or incomplete due to a subsequent appointment, recipients may sometimes use the word "Knight" or "Kt" after their name in formal documents to signify that they have the additional honour. This style is adopted by Knights Bachelor who are peers, baronets or knights of the various statutory orders; until 1926 knights bachelor had no insignia which they could wear, but in that year King George V issued a warrant authorising the wearing of a badge on all appropriate occasions. The knights bachelor badge may be worn on all such occasions upon the left side of the coat or outer garment of those upon whom the degree of knight bachelor has been conferred. Measuring 2 3⁄8 inches in length and 1 3⁄8 inches in width, it is described in heraldic terms as follows: Upon an oval medallion of vermilion, enclosed by a scroll a cross-hilted sword belted and sheathed, pommel upwards, between two spurs, rowels upwards, the whole set about with the sword belt, all gilt.
In 1974, Queen Elizabeth II issued a further warrant authorising the wearing on appropriate occasions of a neck badge smaller in size, in miniature. In 1988 a new certificate of authentication, a knight's only personal documentation, was designed by the College of Arms; the Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor was founded for the maintenance and consolidation of the Dignity of Knights Bachelor in 1908, obtained official recognition from the Sovereign in 1912. The Society keeps records of all Knights Bachelor, in their interest. Bachelor Knight banneret Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood British honours system: Knighthood Insignia of knights bachelor—Website of the Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor The UK Honours System—Website UK Government Debrett's Media related to Knights Bachelor at Wikimedia Commons