Timpani or kettledrums are musical instruments in the percussion family. A type of drum categorised as a semispherical drum, they consist of a membrane called a head stretched over a large bowl traditionally made of copper. Most modern timpani are pedal timpani and can be tuned and to specific pitches by skilled players through the use of a movable foot-pedal, they are played by striking the head with a specialized drum stick called a timpani stick or timpani mallet. Timpani evolved from military drums to become a staple of the classical orchestra by the last third of the 18th century. Today, they are used in many types of ensembles, including concert bands, marching bands, in some rock bands. Timpani is an Italian plural, the singular of, timpano. However, in English the term timpano is only in use by practitioners: several are more referred to collectively as kettledrums, temple drums, timp-toms, or timps, they are often incorrectly termed timpanis. A musician who plays timpani is a timpanist.

First attested in English in the late 19th century, the Italian word timpani derives from the Latin tympanum, the latinisation of the Greek word τύμπανον, "a hand drum", which in turn derives from the verb τύπτω, meaning "to strike, to hit". Alternative spellings with y in place of either or both i's—tympani, tympany, or timpany—are encountered in older English texts. Although the word timpani has been adopted in the English language, some English speakers choose to use the word kettledrums; the German word for timpani is Pauken. The Ashanti pair of talking drums are known as atumpan; the tympanum is mentioned, along with a faux name origin, in the Etymologiae of St. Isidore of Seville: Tympanum est pellis vel corium ligno ex una parte extentum. Est enim pars media symphoniae in similitudinem cribri. Tympanum autem dictum quod medium unde et margaritum medium tympanum dicitur; the tympanum is a hide stretched over one end of a wooden frame. It is half of a symphonia and it looks like a sieve; the tympanum is so named because it is a half, whence the half-pearl is called a tympanum.

Like the symphonia, it is struck with a drumstick. The reference comparing the tympanum to half a pearl is borrowed from Pliny the Elder; the basic timpano consists of a drum head stretched across the opening of a bowl made of copper or, in less expensive models, fiberglass or aluminum. In the Sachs–Hornbostel classification, this makes timpani membranophones; the head is affixed to a hoop. The counter hoop is held in place with a number of tuning screws called tension rods placed around the circumference; the head's tension can be adjusted by tightening the rods. Most timpani have six to eight tension rods; the shape and material of the bowl's surface help to determine the drum's timbre. For example, hemispheric bowls produce brighter tones. Modern timpani are made with copper due to its efficient regulation of internal and external temperatures relative to aluminum and fiberglass. Timpani come in a variety of sizes from about 33 inches in diameter down to piccoli timpani of 12 inches or less. A 33-inch drum can produce C2, specialty piccoli timpani can play up into the treble clef.

In Darius Milhaud's 1923 ballet score La création du monde, the timpanist must play F♯4. Each drum has a range of a perfect fifth, or seven semitones. Changing the pitch of a timpani by turning each tension rod individually is a laborious process. In the late 19th century, mechanical systems to change the tension of the entire head at once were developed. Any timpani equipped with such a system may be considered machine timpani, although this term refers to drums that use a handle connected to a spider-type tuning mechanism. By far the most common type of timpani used today are pedal timpani, which allows the tension of the head to be adjusted using a pedal mechanism; the pedal is connected to the tension screws via an assembly of either cast metal or metal rods called the spider. There are three types of pedal mechanisms in common use today: The ratchet clutch system uses a ratchet and pawl to hold the pedal in place; the timpanist must first disengage the clutch before using the pedal to tune the drum.

When the desired pitch is achieved, the timpanist must reengage the clutch. Because the ratchet engages in only a fixed set of positions, the timpanist must fine-tune the drum by means of a fine-tuning handle. In the balanced action system, a spring or hydraulic cylinder is used to balance the tension on the head so the pedal will stay in position and the head will stay at pitch; the pedal on a balanced action drum is sometimes called a floating pedal since there is no clutch holding it in place. The friction clutch or post and clutch system uses a clutch. Disengaging the clutch frees it from the post, allowing the pedal to move without restraint. Professional-level timpani have copper bowls; these drums can have one of two styles of pedals. The Dresden pedal is attached at the side nearest the timpanist and is operated by ankle moti

Bayside Shakedown (film)

Odoru daisosasen – The Movie is a 1998 Japanese film. The film was adapted from the 1997 television series; the film continues a few months after the end of the TV series. The main character Detective Sergeant Shunsaku Aoshima has worked his way back up into the investigative division of the Wangan Precinct of the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department, after being demoted back to patrol duty for insubordination. Shortly after the movie begins, a body is found floating in a river near the edge of the precinct's jurisdiction. However, in the spirit of the series, the main concern of the officers on the scene is getting to the body before their counterparts from the other precinct on the other side of the river get to it; the scene degenerates into a cross-river shouting match over bullhorns between the officers from the two precincts. The brass at Wangan Station turn out to be less than happy when their officers manage to recover the body as it would require a special investigation, which would drain more from the station's tight budget.

At the same time, the station is in an uproar as officers find that someone has been stealing the receipts for on the job expenses that they had intended to file for reimbursement. Things are further complicated when the Assistant Commissioner is kidnapped and the investigative team from Metropolitan Police headquarters moves into Wangan Station; the investigation is led by Superintendent Shinji Muroi. Having promised Aoshima that he would try to reform the bureaucratic mess within the police department and force the local and headquarters officers to work together as equals, Muroi finds that his promise hard to keep as his decisions are continuously overruled from above by superiors who insist on playing everything by the book, it becomes apparent that Muroi's superiors are setting him up to take the fall in the event the investigation fails. The stratification in the department becomes apparent when the investigators from headquarters delegate the most menial of tasks to the local officers, while receiving special treatment enjoying gourmet bentos while the locals are forced to dine on instant ramen.

The locals are forced to work multiple cases at the same time, find themselves berated by their superiors when mistakes are made. The film goes on to take on issues such as disaffected youth unable to differentiate between reality and video games, overprotective parents, strange internet subcultures. Yūji Oda as Sergeant Shunsaku Aoshima Toshirō Yanagiba as Superintendent Shinji Muroi Eri Fukatsu as Sergeant Sumire Onda Miki Mizuno as Yukino Kashiwagi Yūsuke Santamaria as Inspector Masayoshi Mashita Kyōko Koizumi as Manami Hyuga Chosuke Ikariya as Senior Inspector Heihachiro Waku Kenta Satoi as Section Chief Uozumi Toshio Kakei as Superintendent Shinjo Soichiro Kitamura as Chief Kanda Takehiko Ono as Division Chief Hakamada Satoru Saito as Assistant Chief Akiyama Masane Tsukayama as Shizuo Ikegami Odoru daisosasen - The Movie was released in Japan on 31 October 1998 with a 119 minute running time by Toho; the film was followed by the sequel Bayside Shakedown 2 in 2003. Odoru daisosasen – The Movie won several awards.

These included "Reader's Choice Award - Best Film" from Mainichi Film Concours, three Japanese Academy Awards for Best Supporting Actor, Best Sound, Most Popular Performer. | film name = | director = Katsuyuki Motohiro | producer = Chihiro Kameyama | writer = | screenplay = Ryoichi Kimizuka | story = | based on = Bayside Shakedown on IMDb Love HK Film's review

Fulbrook, Warwickshire

Fulbrook is a small parish and deserted village in Warwickshire, situated about 4 miles north-east of Stratford upon Avon. Population details can be found under Hampton Lucy. Fulbrook today consists of sheep-grazed fields on the banks of the River Avon. Ridge and furrow marks on the bank just down from the road are all that remains of medieval strip fields that once supported a village upon the site. Fulbrook was one of many villages first decimated by the Black Death in the 14th century, but doubly unfortunate in that its remaining tenants were forcibly evicted by the Duke of Bedford so that he could enclose it as a park for hunting. There are documented reports of a dramatic rise in highway crime on the surrounding roads soon after the eviction of the villagers; the Duke of Bedford built a castle on the site near a moated house belonging to a widow of noble birth, the moat of, still visible. Local records tell of fierce rivalry between, on the one side, the Duke of Bedford and the noble widow and, on the other, the Earl of Warwick: conflict which on occasions descended into violence between supporters of the two sides in the town of Warwick.

There was once a watermill, owned by an order of nuns from Coventry, there are records of graves found on the site. Excavations have destroyed all traces of the village. Brief description of the village video reading of a poem and photos inspired by fulbrook