Timur Timūr Gurkānī, sometimes spelled Taimur and best known as Amir Timur or Tamerlane, was a Turco-Mongol Persianate conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire in and around modern-day Iran and Central Asia, becoming the first ruler of the Timurid dynasty. As an undefeated commander, he is regarded as one of the greatest military leaders and tacticians in history. Timur is considered a great patron of art and architecture, as he interacted with intellectuals such as Ibn Khaldun and Hafiz-i Abru, he is credited with the invention of the Tamerlane chess variant, played on a larger 10×11 board. According to John Joseph Saunders, Timur was "the product of an Islamized and Iranized society", not steppe nomadic. Born into the Barlas confederation in Transoxiana on 9 April 1336, Timur gained control of the western Chagatai Khanate by 1370. From that base, he led military campaigns across Western and Central Asia, the Caucasus and southern Russia, emerged as the most powerful ruler in the Muslim world after defeating the Mamluks of Egypt and Syria, the emerging Ottoman Empire, the declining Delhi Sultanate of India.

From these conquests, he founded the Timurid Empire, but this empire fragmented shortly after his death. Timur was the last of the great nomadic conquerors of the Eurasian Steppe, his empire set the stage for the rise of the more structured and lasting Islamic Gunpowder Empires in the 16th and 17th centuries. Timur envisioned the restoration of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan and according to Gérard Chaliand, saw himself as Genghis Khan's heir. Though not a Borjigid or a descendant of Genghis Khan, he sought to invoke the legacy of the latter's conquests during his lifetime. According to Beatrice Forbes Manz, "in his formal correspondence Temur continued throughout his life to portray himself as the restorer of Chinggisid rights, he justified his Iranian and Ottoman campaigns as a re-imposition of legitimate Mongol control over lands taken by usurpers." To legitimize his conquests, Timur relied on Islamic symbols and language, referred to himself as the "Sword of Islam", patronized educational and religious institutions.

He converted nearly all the Borjigin leaders to Islam during his lifetime. Timur decisively defeated the Christian Knights Hospitaller at the Siege of Smyrna, styling himself a ghazi. By the end of his reign, Timur had gained complete control over all the remnants of the Chagatai Khanate, the Ilkhanate, the Golden Horde, attempted to restore the Yuan dynasty in China. Timur's armies were inclusively multi-ethnic and were feared throughout Asia and Europe, sizable parts of which his campaigns laid to waste. Scholars estimate that his military campaigns caused the deaths of 17 million people, amounting to about 5% of the world population at the time, he was the grandfather of the Timurid sultan and mathematician Ulugh Beg, who ruled Central Asia from 1411 to 1449, the great-great-great-grandfather of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire, which ruled all of the Indian subcontinent. Through his father, Timur claimed to be a descendant of Tumanay Khan, a male-line ancestor he shared with Genghis Khan.

Tumanay's great-great grandson Qarachar Noyan was a minister for the emperor who assisted the latter's son Chagatai in the governorship of Transoxiana. Though there are not many mentions of Qarachar in 13th and 14th century records Timurid sources emphasised his role in the early history of the Mongol Empire; these histories state that Genghis Khan established the "bond of fatherhood and sonship" by marrying Chagatai's daughter to Qarachar. Through his alleged descent from this marriage, Timur claimed kinship with the Chagatai Khans; the origins of Timur's mother, Tekina Khatun, are less clear. The Zafarnama states her name without giving any information regarding her background. Writing in 1403, Archbishop of Sultaniyya claimed that she was of lowly origins; the Mu'izz al-Ansab, written decades say that she was related to the Yasa'uri tribe, whose lands bordered that of the Barlas. Ibn Khaldun recounted that Timur himself described to him his mother's descent from the legendary Persian hero Manuchehr.

Ibn Arabshah suggested. The 18th century Books of Timur identify her as the daughter of'Sadr al-Sharia', believed to be referring to the Hanafi scholar Ubayd Allah al-Mahbubi of Bukhara. Timur was born in Transoxiana near the city of Kesh, some 80 kilometres south of Samarkand, part of what was the Chagatai Khanate, his name Temur means "Iron" in his mother-tongue. He was a member of the Barlas, a Mongolian tribe, turkified in many aspects, his father, Taraghai was described as a minor noble of this tribe. However, historian Beatrice Forbes Manz believes that Timur may have understated the social position of his father, so as to make his own successes appear more remarkable, she states that though he is not believed to have been powerful, Taraghai was reasonably wealthy and influential. This is shown by Timur returning to his birthplace following the death of his father in 1360, suggesting concern over his estate. Taraghai's social significance is further hinted at by Arabshah, who described him as a magnate in the court of Amir Husayn Qara'unas.

In addition to this, the father of the great Amir Hamid Kereyid of Moghulistan is stated as a friend of Taraghai's. Timurid dynastic histories claim that Timur was born on 8 April 1336, but most sour


Lavash is a soft, thin unleavened flatbread made in a tandoor and eaten all over the South Caucasus, Western Asia and the areas surrounding the Caspian Sea. Lavash is one of the most widespread types of bread in Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkey. In 2014, "Lavash, the preparation and appearance of traditional bread as an expression of culture in Armenia" was inscribed in the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. In 2016, making and sharing flatbread in communities of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkey was inscribed on the list as well; some modern food specialists claim that it originated in Armenia, whilst others state that it originated in Iran. In 2014, Lavash was described by the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity as "an expression of Armenian culture"; this decision led to protests in Azerbaijan, Iran and Kazakhstan as they claimed that the food was "regional", not "Armenian". Hrach Martirosyan tentatively connects Armenian լավաշ lavaš with dialectal լափ lapʿ, լուփ lupʿ, լովազ lovaz ‘palm, flat of the hand’, լափուկ lapʿuk, լեփուկ lepʿuk ‘flat, polished stone for playing’, լավազ lavaz ‘very thin’ and assumes derivation from Proto-Armenian *law- ‘flat’.

He remarks that semantically this is conceivable since this bread is flat and thin. Lavash is made with flour and salt; the thickness of the bread varies depending on. Toasted sesame seeds and/or. Traditionally the dough is rolled out flat and slapped against the hot walls of a clay oven. While quite flexible when fresh, lavash dries out and becomes brittle and hard; the soft form is easier to use. In Armenian villages, the dried lavash is stacked high in layers to be used and when the time comes to rehydrate the bread, it is sprinkled with water to make it softer again. In its dry form, left-over lavash is used in Iran to make quick meals after being rehydrated with water and cheese. In Armenia the dried bread is broken up into khash. In Armenia fresh lavash is used to make wraps with herbs and cheese. In Iran and middle-east lavash is used with kebabs to make dürüm wraps. According to the Encyclopedia International, "Common to all Armenians is their traditional unleavened bread, a staple in the Armenian diet."In Sabirabad District of Azerbaijan after a wedding when the bride comes into her new house, her mother-in-law puts lavash on her shoulder and says: "Let you come to the house of wealth, let your foot be lucky".

In the Novkhani settlement, after a funeral, it is customary for people to prepare kyulchya, which sometimes consists of halva wrapped up in lavash. Women baking lavash is a common theme. One such portrait by the famous Soviet-era painter Minas Minassian is displayed at the National Museum of Art in Yerevan. A print of the painting Armenian Ladies Baking Lavash by Armenian American artist Manuel Tolegian was selected by U. S. President Gerald Ford to hang in the White House Bicentennial Collection; the weekend open-air arts-and-crafts market in downtown Yerevan offers many lavash-related paintings and handiworks, with renditions of happy women making lavash having become a common sight. Barbari bread, a popular type of Iranian bread Chapati, an unleavened South Asian flatbread, made on a tava Lavaş cheese Markouk, an unleavened flatbread common in the Levant, made on a saj Matnakash, a traditional leavened Armenian bread Sangak, a type of leavened Iranian flatbread, made in an oven Taftan, a thicker leavened Iranian bread Tandoor Tandyr nan, a Central Asian leavened bread made in a tandoor Tortilla Lavash: Understanding Armenia's bread obsession On the Lavash Trail in Armenia Lavash in


Afro-Hondurans or Black Hondurans, are Hondurans of African descent. They descended from Africans, who were identified as Garifunas and Creole peoples; the Creole people were from Jamaica and other Caribbean islands, while the Garifuna people came from Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. They arrived in Honduras between the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to work on the export of bananas, on construction work. Afro-Honduran are Hondurans of African descent, they are estimated to be 3% population of the country. Those brought during colonial times mixed with Indians and Spanish, the Garifuna, the Bay Island Creoles. According to the CIA, the ethnic group makeup in Honduras are 90% mestizo, 7% Amerindian, 2% black, 1% white. One of the first African slaves who arrived in Honduras, Juan Bardales, participated in the Spanish conquest of the province in Trujillo. Shortly thereafter, Berdales was awarded with his freedom. In Honduras, slaves played an important role in the mining industry. Many of them came from Africa, from places like Angola or Senegambia, while others came from the Caribbean.

In 1542, 165 slaves came via 150 from Santo Domingo. In Honduras, were imported slaves Mandinka kangkurao of the Gambia River in Senegambia. By the mid-sixteenth century, between 1000 and 1500 enslaved blacks worked in the gold washings of Olancho, slaves who hailed from Africa. In Honduras, for 1590, arrived in Olancho and at Rio Guayape three hundred Africans for work in mining. A crew of Angolas worked in the businesses in San Miguel. Although many mulattoes and browns worked in Tegucigalpa for the same dates. Between 1750 and 1779, a larger group of African slaves and mondongos people, were taken to Honduras to build the military fort San Fernando de Omoa, the most important in the region. In 1796 300 "French black" from the French colony of Saint Domingue came to Trujillo, in the context of the conflict that gave rise to the independence of Haiti. In 1797, the British exported between 2,000 and 4,000 Black Caribs - mixture of Carib Indians and African Blacks - to the island o Roatán in Honduras, because they rebelled against them on the island St. Vincent.

After this, these Garifuna, as called themselves, migrated to Trujillo and from there, scattered along the coasts of all the Central American mainland until Costa Rica by the persecutions to which they were subjected by the Spanish authorities. Some of them were involved in the civil wars of the time. In the late eighteenth century records tell of significant percentages of blacks and mulattoes in Tegucigalpa, but at the end of the colonial period, slaves were mainly mulattoes. Between the late eighteenth and mid-nineteenth century, the British introduced black slaves from Jamaica, Cayman Island and Belize in Honduras. According to Luis Pedro Taracena, in these years, Tegucigalpa was populated by 80% mulattoes and this percentage was increasing over time, at least until 1815. During the twentieth century and browns were progressively neutralized under the category of "Ladino". According to historian Marbin Barahona, racial mixture enters blacks with whites and Amerindians occurred since the 1520s, due to the decline of the indigenous population, the Spanish immigration scanty and meager arrival of African slaves.

The recovery of the hegemony of silver and indigo, the prohibition of non-indigenous groups live in Indian villages and the population growth recorded in the same century, miscegenation among Amerindian and Spanish, not only increased at this time but concentrated in certain regions in the current Francisco Morazán Department, Choluteca and Comayagua departments. These departments attracted all kinds of mixed race, unlike the indigenous concentration departments west. In 1775, lived in San Fernando de Omoa between 300 and 400 Africans and about 75 white families, they remained there until the early nineteenth century. So, in the late eighteenth century, the Spanish origin population would have been a minority compared to the racially mixed populations; the Spanish Crown considered to Ladinos as those subjects of the Crown non-Hispanics, they learned the official languages of the empire or Vulgar Latin. In the Americas the Ladinos were identified as those groups nonwhites who were Amerindian or Spanish - speaking, including possibilities such as "black ladino," "mulatto Ladin", etc.

According to Barahona, Ladinos were the majority of the population in 1800. According to Linda Newton, if we use the census of 1804, the Indians were 50% of the population, making Ladinos in a group of between 40% and 45% of the population; because these days, most African - Hondurans were mulatto and browns. Although in the seventeenth century, had five categories in the census of Spanish America, "white", "Indians", "mestizos", "black" and "mulatto" in the eighteenth century, the last three categories alone in a bind: "Ladino". During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the Spanish authorities considered Honduran entire regions populated as mulatto, sambo or brown; such is the case of places like Olancho, Yoro and Atlántida, regions that could have remixed with whites and mestizos. It was in the early nineteenth century when slavery was abolished in Honduras and after 1820 the Afro-Hondurans were considered citizens and obtained the rights of any citizen to be excluded from the category of "free blacks" perh