Tin Pan Alley

Tin Pan Alley was the collection of New York City music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 19th century and early 20th century. The name referred to a specific place: West 28th Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues in the Flower District of Manhattan. In 2019 the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission took up the question of preserving five buildings on the north side of the street as a Tin Pan Alley Historic District; the start of Tin Pan Alley is dated to about 1885, when a number of music publishers set up shop in the same district of Manhattan. The end of Tin Pan Alley is less clear cut; some date it to the start of the Great Depression in the 1930s when the phonograph and motion pictures supplanted sheet music as the driving force of American popular music, while others consider Tin Pan Alley to have continued into the 1950s when earlier styles of music were upstaged by the rise of rock & roll, centered on the Brill Building.

Various explanations have been advanced to account for the origins of the term "Tin Pan Alley". The most popular account holds that it was a derogatory reference by Monroe H. Rosenfeld in the New York Herald to the collective sound made by many "cheap upright pianos" all playing different tunes being reminiscent of the banging of tin pans in an alleyway. However, no article by Rosenfeld that uses the term has been found. Simon Napier-Bell quotes an account of the origin of the name published in a 1930 book about the music business. In this version, popular songwriter Harry von Tilzer was being interviewed about the area around 28th Street and Fifth Avenue, where many music publishers had offices. Von Tilzer had modified his expensive Kindler & Collins piano by placing strips of paper down the strings to give the instrument a more percussive sound; the journalist told von Tilzer, "Your Kindler & Collins sounds like a tin can. I'll call the article'Tin Pan Alley'." In any case, the name was attached by the fall of 1908, when The Hampton Magazine published an article titled "Tin Pan Alley" about 28th Street.

According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, "tin pan" was slang for "a decrepit piano", the term came to mean a "hit song writing business" by 1907. With time, the nickname came to describe the American music publishing industry in general; the term spread to the United Kingdom, where "Tin Pan Alley" is used to describe Denmark Street in London's West End. In the 1920s the street became known as "Britain's Tin Pan Alley" because of its large number of music shops. In the mid-19th century, copyright control of melodies was not as strict, publishers would print their own versions of the songs popular at the time. With stronger copyright protection laws late in the century, composers and publishers started working together for their mutual financial benefit. Songwriters would bang on the doors of Tin Pan Alley businesses to get new material; the commercial center of the popular music publishing industry changed during the course of the 19th century, starting in Boston and moving to Philadelphia and Cincinnati before settling in New York City under the influence of new and vigorous publishers which concentrated on vocal music.

The two most enterprising New York publishers were Willis Woodard and T. B. Harms, the first companies to specialize in popular songs rather than hymns or classical music; these firms were located in the entertainment district, which, at the time, was centered on Union Square. Witmark was the first publishing house to move to West 28th Street as the entertainment district shifted uptown, by the late 1890s most publishers had followed their lead; the biggest music houses established themselves in New York City, but small local publishers – connected with commercial printers or music stores – continued to flourish throughout the country, there were important regional music publishing centers in Chicago, New Orleans, St. Louis, Boston; when a tune became a significant local hit, rights to it were purchased from the local publisher by one of the big New York firms. The song publishers who created Tin Pan Alley had backgrounds as salesmen; the background of Isadore Witmark was selling water filters.

Leo Feist had sold corsets, Joe Stern and Edward B. Marks had sold buttons, respectively; the music houses in lower Manhattan were lively places, with a steady stream of songwriters and Broadway performers, "song pluggers" coming and going. Aspiring songwriters came to demonstrate tunes; when tunes were purchased from unknowns with no previous hits, the name of someone with the firm was added as co-composer, or all rights to the song were purchased outright for a flat fee. An extraordinary number of Jewish East European immigrants became the music publishers and songwriters on Tin Pan Alley – the most famous being Irving Berlin. Songwriters who became established producers of successful songs were hired to be on the staff of the music houses. "Song pluggers" were pianists and singers who represented the music publishers, making their living demonstrating songs to promote sales of sheet music. Most music stores had song pluggers on staff. Other pluggers were employed by the publishers to travel and familiarize the public with their new publications.

Among the ranks of song pluggers were Harry Warren, Vincent Youmans and Al Sherman. A more aggressive form of song pluggin

Odo II, Count of Blois

Odo II was the Count of Blois, Chartres, Châteaudun and Tours from 1004 and Count of Troyes and Meaux from 1022. He twice tried to make himself a king: first in Italy after 1024 and in Burgundy after 1032. Odo II was the son of Odo I of Bertha of Burgundy, he was the first to unite Blois and Champagne under one authority although his career was spent in endless feudal warfare with his neighbors and suzerains, many of whose territories he tried to annex. About 1003/4 he married a daughter of Richard I of Normandy. After her death in 1005, as she had no children, Richard II of Normandy demanded a return of her dowry: half the county of Dreux. Odo refused and the two warred over the matter. King Robert II, who had married Odo's mother, imposed his arbitration on the contestants in 1007, leaving Odo in possession of the castle Dreux while Richard II kept the remainder of the lands. Odo married a second wife, daughter of William IV of Auvergne. Defeated by Fulk III, Count of Anjou, Herbert I, Count of Maine, at the Battle of Pontlevoy in July 1016, he tried to overrun the Touraine.

After the death of his cousin Stephen I in 1019/20, without heirs he seized Troyes and all of Champagne for himself without royal approval. From there he attacked Ebles, the archbishop of Reims, Theodoric I, Duke of Lorraine. Due to an alliance between the king and the Emperor Henry II he was forced to relinquish the county of Rheims to the archbishop, he was offered the crown of Italy by the Lombard barons, but the offer was retracted in order not to upset relations with the king of France. In 1032, he invaded the Kingdom of Burgundy on the death of Rudolph III, he retreated in the face of a coalition of the Emperor Conrad II and the new king of France, Henry I. He died in combat near Bar-le-Duc during another attack on Lorraine. By his second wife, Ermengarde of Auvergne, Odo had three children: Theobald III, who inherited the county of Blois and most of his other possessions. Stephen II, who inherited the counties of Meaux and Troyes in Champagne. Bertha, who married first Alan III, Duke of Brittany, second Hugh IV, Count of Maine


Dombrád is a town in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, in the Northern Great Plain region of eastern Hungary. The name comes from a Slavic personal name, compare with Czech Domorád, Domorod or Serbo-Croatian Domorad, it has a population of 4015 people. The town has become famous on the internet as it is the home of two of the most famous Football Freestylers in the world Sűrü Fx Tamás and Roland Rocco Karászi. Many Freestylers are stunned at the extreme level of the two legends from this obscure Hungarian village. Palle famously said "there is something amazing in the water of Dombrad, i should like to drink it"; the streets of Dombrad have been viewed by millions on the web due to these incredible guys. Many have said that "Fx is the king"