John Spencer-Churchill, 11th Duke of Marlborough
John George Vanderbilt Henry Spencer-Churchill, 11th Duke of Marlborough, was a British peer. He was the elder son of The 10th Duke of Marlborough and his wife, The Hon. Alexandra Mary Hilda Cadogan, he was known as "Sunny" after his courtesy title of Earl of Sunderland. He was a relative of the Duke of Devonshire and a first cousin, twice removed, of the wartime Conservative Prime Minister, Sir Winston Churchill, he was a distant relative of Diana, Princess of Wales, as both belonged to the Spencer family, of the Vanderbilt family through his paternal grandmother, Consuelo Vanderbilt. His principal seat was Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, he was ranked 224th with an estimated wealth of £ 185 million. His death was announced on 16 October 2014 by Blenheim Palace, he was educated at Eton College and served seven years in the Life Guards, in which he achieved the rank of Captain. In 1972, on inheriting the Dukedom of Marlborough, he took over the management of Blenheim Palace and the Blenheim estate.
In order to fund the maintenance of the house, he opened it to visitors and as a film set, established a number of businesses, including a garden furniture company and a water bottling plant. He was active in a range of organisations, including the Thames and Chilterns Tourist Board and Oxford United Football Club, he served as Vice President of the Witney Conservative Association, the local party of David Cameron. Marlborough had a total of six children, two of whom died in infancy. Firstly, he married Susan Mary Hornby, daughter of Michael Charles St John Hornby and Nicolette Joan Ward, on 19 October 1951, they divorced in 1961 after having three children: John David Ivor Spencer-Churchill, Earl of Sunderland, a god-son of Princess Margaret Charles James Spencer-Churchill, 12th Duke of Marlborough he married Rebecca Few-Brown on 24 February 1990 and they were divorced in 1998. They have one son, he remarried Edla Griffiths in 2002. They have two children. Lady Henrietta Mary Spencer-Churchill she married Nathan Gelber in 1980 and they were divorced in 1989.
They have two sons. Secondly, on 23 October 1961, he married Athina Onassis, former wife of Aristotle Onassis, daughter of Stavros Livanos, they had no children. Thirdly, on 20 May 1972, he married Countess Rosita Douglas-Stjernorp, daughter of ambassador Count Carl Douglas-Stjernorp and Ottora Haas-Heye, they had three children and were divorced on 15 May 2008: Lord Richard Spencer-Churchill Lord Edward Albert Charles Spencer-Churchill Lady Alexandra Elizabeth Spencer-Churchill Finally, at the age of 82, Marlborough married Lily Mahtani November/3 December 2008 in the Private Chapel at Blenheim. She was the wife of Ratan Mahtani, a wealthy Indian expatriate businessman, by whom she had three children. There were no children from this marriage. Earl of Sunderland Marquess of Blandford His Grace The Duke of Marlborough Justice of the Peace Deputy Lieutenant of Oxfordshire Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John Spencer-Churchill, 11th Duke of Marlborough Duke of Marlborough on IMDb Cast of Branagh's Hamlet Elizabeth Sanderson.
"How a Persian beauty reunited the grumpy Duke with black sheep son he disinherited" Daily Mail 17 August 2008. The article online includes photographs of Jamie Spencer-Churchill, Marquess of Blandford, his second wife Edla, his elder son George. James Reginato. "Magnificent Obsession" Vanity Fair June 2011
Maria Callas, Commendatore OMRI was an American-born Greek soprano. She was one of the most influential opera singers of the 20th century. Many critics praised wide-ranging voice and dramatic interpretations, her repertoire ranged from classical opera seria to the bel canto operas of Donizetti and Rossini and further, to the works of Verdi and Puccini. Her musical and dramatic talents led to her being hailed as La Divina. Born in New York City to Greek immigrant parents, she was raised by an overbearing mother who had wanted a son. Maria received her musical education in Greece at age 13 and established her career in Italy. Forced to deal with the exigencies of 1940s wartime poverty and with near-sightedness that left her nearly blind onstage, she endured struggles and scandal over the course of her career, she turned herself from a heavy woman into a svelte and glamorous one after a mid-career weight loss, which might have contributed to her vocal decline and the premature end of her career. The press exulted in publicizing Callas's temperamental behavior, her supposed rivalry with Renata Tebaldi and her love affair with Greek shipping tycoon Aristotle Onassis.
Although her dramatic life and personal tragedy have overshadowed Callas the artist in the popular press, her artistic achievements were such that Leonard Bernstein called her "the Bible of opera" and her influence so enduring that, in 2006, Opera News wrote of her: "Nearly thirty years after her death, she's still the definition of the diva as artist—and still one of classical music's best-selling vocalists." The name on Callas's New York birth certificate is Sophie Cecilia Kalos. She was born at Flower Hospital, 1249 5th Avenue, Manhattan, on December 2, 1923, to Greek parents, George Kalogeropoulos and Elmina Evangelia "Litsa", although she was christened Maria Anna Cecilia Sofia Kalogeropoulos. Callas's father had shortened the surname Kalogeropoulos first to "Kalos" and subsequently to "Callas" in order to make it more manageable. George and Litsa were an ill-matched couple from the beginning. Litsa's father, Petros Dimitriadis, was in failing health when Litsa introduced George to her family.
Petros, distrustful of George, had warned his daughter. If you marry this man, I will never be able to help you". Litsa soon realized that her father was right; the situation was aggravated by George's philandering and was improved neither by the birth of a daughter, named Yakinthi, in 1917 nor the birth of a son, named Vassilis, in 1920. Vassilis's death from meningitis in the summer of 1922 dealt another blow to the marriage. In 1923, after realizing that Litsa was pregnant again, George made the unilateral decision to move his family to America, a decision which Yakinthi recalled was greeted with Litsa "shouting hysterically" followed by George "slamming doors"; the family left for New York in July 1923, moving first into an apartment in the ethnic Greek neighborhood of Astoria, Queens. Litsa was convinced. Maria was christened three years at the Archdiocesan Cathedral of the Holy Trinity in 1926; when Maria was 4, George Callas opened his own pharmacy, settling the family in Manhattan on 192nd Street in Washington Heights where Callas grew up.
Around the age of three, Maria's musical talent began to manifest itself, after Litsa discovered that her youngest daughter had a voice, she began pressing "Mary" to sing. Callas recalled, "I was made to sing when I was only five, I hated it." George was unhappy with his wife favoring their elder daughter, as well as the pressure put upon young Mary to sing and perform while Litsa was in turn embittered with George and his absences and infidelity and violently reviled him in front of their children. The marriage continued to deteriorate and, in 1937, Litsa decided to return to Athens with her two daughters. Callas's relationship with her mother continued to erode during the years in Greece, in the prime of her career, it became a matter of great public interest after a 1956 cover story in Time magazine which focused on this relationship and by Litsa's book My Daughter Maria Callas. In public, Callas blamed the strained relationship with Litsa on her unhappy childhood spent singing and working at her mother's insistence, saying, My sister was slim and beautiful and friendly, my mother always preferred her.
I was the ugly duckling and clumsy and unpopular. It is a cruel thing to make a child feel ugly and unwanted... I'll never forgive her for taking my childhood away. During all the years I should have been playing and growing up, I was making money. Everything I did for them was good and everything they did to me was bad. In 1957, she told Chicago radio host Norman Ross Jr. "There must be a law against forcing children to perform at an early age. Children should have a wonderful childhood, they should not be given too much responsibility."Biographer Nicholas Petsalis-Diomidis asserts that Litsa's hateful treatment of George in front of their
The Bois-de-Vaux Cemetery is the principal burial ground of Lausanne in Switzerland. Laid out by the architect Alphonse Laverrière between 1922 and 1951, the cemetery lies to the south of the town and has been designated as a cultural property of national importance. There is a long central avenue lined with two rows of lime trees, banks stocked with flowering plants, ponds with fish and water lilies, many benches, forty kilometres of hedges. Together with thousands of trees they provide homes for many different birds, while the other wildlife living in the hedges and undeveloped parts of the cemetery includes badgers, foxes and hedgehogs; the cemetery has enough room for 26,000 plots. When the city of Lausanne heard in 1929 that the American bishop Charles Brent had died in Lausanne and wished to be buried there, they offered a plot for his remains in the section of the Bois-de-Vaux cemetery reserved for distinguished foreigners. Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, area 18, plot 101 Charles Brent Pierre de Coubertin, area 9, plots 153-154 Alphonse Laverrière, area 1 Eugenia Livanos-Niarchos Coco Chanel, area 9, plot 130 Tina Onassis Niarchos Paul Robert, area 9, plot 127 Gloria Guinness Loel Guinness Pierre Dudan Stavros Niarchos Some members of the exiled Yugoslav royal family were buried here, but their remains were moved to the mausoleum at Oplenac, when permitted by the government in Belgrade: Prince Nicholas of Yugoslavia Prince Paul of Yugoslavia, former Regent of Yugoslavia, father of Prince Nicholas Princess Olga of Greece and Denmark, mother of Prince NicholasIn addition, the Queen Mother of Romania, a cousin and friend of Princess Olga, was buried in the cemetery in 1982, but her remains were due to be moved in 2018 to the Curtea de Argeș Cathedral in Romania: Helen of Greece and Denmark
Christina Onassis was an American-born Greek businesswoman and heiress to the Onassis fortune. She was the only daughter of Tina Onassis Niarchos. Christina Onassis, the only daughter of the Greek Argentine shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis and his first wife, Tina Onassis Niarchos, was born in New York City at LeRoy Sanitarium, her maternal grandfather was founder of the Livanos shipping empire. Onassis had Alexander, she and Alexander were raised and educated in France and England. She attended the Headington School in Oxford and Queen's College, London from 1968 to 1969. Christina's parents divorced in 1960, precipitated by her father's affair with opera singer Maria Callas, he married former First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy, widow of President John F. Kennedy, in 1968. Christina and Alexander distrusted Kennedy and never warmed to her. Christina's mother married Stavros Niarchos in 1971. Within a 29-month period, Christina lost her entire immediate family, her brother, died in a plane crash in Athens in 1973 at the age of 24, which devastated the family.
Her mother died of a suspected drug overdose in 1974. Following Alexander's death, her father's health began to deteriorate, he died in March 1975. After losing her father, Christina renounced her U. S. citizenship and donated the American portion of her holdings in her father's company to the American Hospital of Paris. Upon Alexander's death, Aristotle Onassis began grooming his daughter to take over the family business, she was sent to New York City to work in his office. After Aristotle's death, she inherited 55% of his fortune estimated to be worth $500 million; the remaining 45% funded a foundation established in Alexander's memory, the Alexander S. Onassis Foundation. After a legal settlement, Jacqueline Onassis received $26 million from the estate. Christina was the focus of her father's attention until his death, she carried the mantle of the Onassis shipping empire running the business after her father's death. Christina received considerable media attention for her lavish lifestyle, spending habits, turbulent personal life.
Despite her wealth, she was unhappy with her frequent weight battles and inability to find lasting love. She went on frequent crash diets and would lose large amounts of weight, but gained it back when she became depressed. Diagnosed with clinical depression at the age of 30, she was prescribed barbiturates and sleeping pills. Onassis became addicted and was hospitalized for overdosing on sleeping pills in the 1970s. Onassis had each ending in divorce, she wed her first husband, real estate developer Joseph Bolker, at age 20 in 1971. Bolker was a divorced father of 27 years her senior. Onassis's father disapproved and pressured her to divorce him; the marriage ended after nine months. Her second husband was Greek shipping and banking heir Alexander Andreadis, whom she married shortly after her father's death in 1975, they divorced after 14 months. Onassis's third husband was Russian shipping agent Sergei Kauzov, whom she married in 1978, they divorced the following year. Her fourth and final marriage was to French businessman Thierry Roussel in 1984.
Onassis and Roussel had a daughter, Athina, in 1985. They divorced after Onassis discovered that Roussel had fathered a child with his long-time mistress, Swedish model Marianne "Gaby" Landhage, during the marriage. On 19 November 1988, Christina's body was found by her maid in the bathtub of a mansion in Buenos Aires, where she had been staying. An autopsy found no evidence of suicide, drug overdose or foul play, but found that Onassis had died of a heart attack caused by acute pulmonary edema, she was 37 years old. A private, Greek Orthodox funeral was held for her on 20 November at a chapel on the Onassis-owned island of Skorpios, whereafter she was buried in the Onassis family plot in the Island of Skorpios Cemetery, alongside her father and brother. Onassis willed her fortune, worth an estimated $250 million at the time of her death, to her only child, Athina. Raised in Switzerland by her father, Thierry Roussel, his wife, Marianne "Gaby" Landhage, Athina gained control of half of the estate on her 18th birthday.
Musician Patty Griffin dedicated the song "Christina" to Onassis. The Spanish composer Joaquín Sabina dedicated a song to Onassis called "Pobre Cristina" on his 1990 album Mentiras Piadosas. Christina O, the Onassis family yacht, was named after Christina by her father. Sources Christina Onassis at Find a Grave
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
The Greeks or Hellenes are an ethnic group native to Greece, southern Albania, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age; until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, the Balkans and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization; the cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Alexandria and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of Cyprus.
The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church. Greeks have influenced and contributed to culture, exploration, philosophy, architecture, mathematics and technology, business and sports, both and contemporarily; the Greeks speak the Greek language, which forms its own unique branch within the Indo-European family of languages, the Hellenic. They are part of a group of classical ethnicities, described by Anthony D. Smith as an "archetypal diaspora people"; the Proto-Greeks arrived at the area now called Greece, in the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula, at the end of the 3rd millennium BC. The sequence of migrations into the Greek mainland during the 2nd millennium BC has to be reconstructed on the basis of the ancient Greek dialects, as they presented themselves centuries and are therefore subject to some uncertainties.
There were at least two migrations, the first being the Ionians and Aeolians, which resulted in Mycenaean Greece by the 16th century BC, the second, the Dorian invasion, around the 11th century BC, displacing the Arcadocypriot dialects, which descended from the Mycenaean period. Both migrations occur at incisive periods, the Mycenaean at the transition to the Late Bronze Age and the Doric at the Bronze Age collapse. An alternative hypothesis has been put forth by linguist Vladimir Georgiev, who places Proto-Greek speakers in northwestern Greece by the Early Helladic period, i.e. towards the end of the European Neolithic. Linguists Russell Gray and Quentin Atkinson in a 2003 paper using computational methods on Swadesh lists have arrived at a somewhat earlier estimate, around 5000 BC for Greco-Armenian split and the emergence of Greek as a separate linguistic lineage around 4000 BC. In c. 1600 BC, the Mycenaean Greeks borrowed from the Minoan civilization its syllabic writing system and developed their own syllabic script known as Linear B, providing the first and oldest written evidence of Greek.
The Mycenaeans penetrated the Aegean Sea and, by the 15th century BC, had reached Rhodes, Crete and the shores of Asia Minor. Around 1200 BC, the Dorians, another Greek-speaking people, followed from Epirus. Traditionally, historians have believed that the Dorian invasion caused the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization, but it is the main attack was made by seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern Mediterranean around 1180 BC; the Dorian invasion was followed by a poorly attested period of migrations, appropriately called the Greek Dark Ages, but by 800 BC the landscape of Archaic and Classical Greece was discernible. The Greeks of classical antiquity idealized their Mycenaean ancestors and the Mycenaean period as a glorious era of heroes, closeness of the gods and material wealth; the Homeric Epics were and accepted as part of the Greek past and it was not until the time of Euhemerism that scholars began to question Homer's historicity. As part of the Mycenaean heritage that survived, the names of the gods and goddesses of Mycenaean Greece became major figures of the Olympian Pantheon of antiquity.
The ethnogenesis of the Greek nation is linked to the development of Pan-Hellenism in the 8th century BC. According to some scholars, the foundational event was the Olympic Games in 776 BC, when the idea of a common Hellenism among the Greek tribes was first translated into a shared cultural experience and Hellenism was a matter of common culture; the works of Homer and Hesiod were written in the 8th century BC, becoming the basis of the national religion, ethos and mythology. The Oracle of Apollo at Delphi was established in this period; the classical period of Greek civilization covers a time spanning from the early 5th century BC to the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BC. It is so named because it set the standards by which Greek civilization would be judged in eras; the Classical period is described as the "Golden Age" of Greek civilization, and