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Tincture (heraldry)

Tincture is the limited palette of colours and patterns used in heraldry. The need to define and blazon the various tinctures is one of the most important aspects of heraldic art and design; the use of tinctures dates back to the formative period of European heraldry in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. The range of tinctures and the manner of depicting and describing them has evolved over time, as new variations and practices have developed; the basic scheme and rules of applying the heraldic tinctures dates back to the 12th century. The earliest surviving coloured heraldic illustrations, from the mid-thirteenth century, show the standardized usage of two metals, five colours, two furs. Since that time, the great majority of heraldic art has employed these nine tinctures. Over time, variations on these basic tinctures were developed with respect to the furs. Authorities differ as to whether these variations should be considered separate tinctures, or varieties of existing ones. Two additional colours appeared, were accepted by heraldic writers, although they remained scarce, were termed stains, from the belief that they were used to signify some dishonour on the part of the bearer.

The practice of depicting certain charges as they appear in nature, termed proper, was established in the seventeenth century. Other colours have appeared since the eighteenth century in continental heraldry, but their use is infrequent, they have never been regarded as heraldic, or numbered among the tinctures that form the basis of heraldic design; the frequency with which different tinctures have been used over time has been much observed, but little studied. There are some general trends of note, both with respect to the passage of time, noted preferences from one region to another. In medieval heraldry, gules was by far the most common tincture, followed by the metals argent and or, at least one of which appeared on the majority of arms. Among the colours, sable was the second most common, followed by azure. Vert, although present from the formative period of heraldic design, was scarce. Over time, the popularity of azure increased above that of sable, while gules, still the most common, became less dominant.

A survey of French arms granted during the seventeenth century reveals a distinct split between the trends for the arms granted to nobles and commoners. Among nobles, gules remained the most common tincture followed by or by argent and azure at nearly equal levels. Among commoners, azure was the most common tincture, followed by or, only by gules and sable, used more by commoners than among the nobility. Purpure is so scarce in French heraldry that some authorities do not regard it as a "real heraldic tincture". On the whole, French heraldry is known for its use of azure and or, while English heraldry is characterized by heavy use of gules and argent, unlike French heraldry, it has always made regular use of vert, occasional, if not extensive, use of purpure. German heraldry is known for its extensive use of or and sable. German and Nordic heraldry make use of purpure or ermine, except in mantling and the lining of crowns and caps. In fact, furs occur infrequently in Nordic heraldry; the colours and patterns of the heraldic palette are divided into three groups known as metals and furs.

The metals are or and argent, representing gold and silver although in practice they are depicted as yellow and white. Or derives its name from the Latin aurum, "gold", it may be depicted using either metallic gold, at the artist's discretion. Argent is derived from the Latin argentum, "silver". Although sometimes depicted as metallic silver or faint grey, it is more represented by white, in part because of the tendency for silver paint to oxidize and darken over time, in part because of the pleasing effect of white against a contrasting colour. Notwithstanding the widespread use of white for argent, some heraldic authorities have suggested the existence of white as a distinct heraldic colour. Five colours have been recognized since the earliest days of heraldry; these are: red. Gules is of uncertain derivation. Sable is named for a type of marten, known for its luxuriant fur. Azure comes through the Arabic lāzaward, from the Persian lāžavard both referring to the blue mineral lapis lazuli, used to produce blue pigments.

Vert is from Latin viridis, "green". The alternative name in French, sinople, is derived from the ancient city of Sinope in Asia Minor, famous for its pigments. Purpure is in turn from Greek porphyra, the dye known as Tyrian purple; this expensive dye, known from antiquity, produced a much redder purple than the modern heraldic colour. As a heraldic colour, purpure may have originated as a variation of gules. Two more tinctures were acknowledged by most heraldic authorities: sanguine or murrey, a dark red or mulberry colour.

Sergio Ortega

Sergio Ortega was a Chilean composer and pianist. Ortega was born in Chile, he studied composition with Roberto Falabella and with Gustavo Becerra-Schmidt in the National Conservatory at the Universidad de Chile. After graduating, he worked in the Institute of Musical Extension and was a sound engineer for six years in the University’s Experimental Theater, Teatro Antonio Varas. Ortega was a force for the leftist movement in Chile. Not only did he compose President Salvador Allende’s electoral theme song, "Venceremos", he was the author of the worldwide anthem of popular resistance, "¡El pueblo unido, jamás será vencido!". He was the composer of the anthems of the Partido Radical, the Juventudes Comunistas, the Central Única de Trabajadores, he turned Salvador Allende’s political plan, embodied in the texts of Julio Rojas, into an album of songs called Canto al Programa, performed by Inti-Illimani. Ortega composed some of the seminal works of the movement known as the Nueva Canción Chilena, a fusion of rhythms and styles with a social conscience.

In his work, one can find poems, operas and soundtracks. Among his most famous works are the songs "El monte y el río”, "Les deux mers”, a trilogy about the French Revolution. Ortega composed a fair number of songs for use in the theater, one of his last works being the opera of fellow communist Pablo Neruda's epic poem "Fulgor y muerte de Joaquín Murieta", he worked on a musical version of Neruda's Canto General with Gustavo Becerra, staged in 1970. In 1978, Ortega wrote a cantata of Neruda’s "Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme, 1810. Poema sonoro para el padre de mi patria", for the liberator of Chile. Ortega worked with his eldest son, Chanaral Ortega, on an operatic version of Pedro Páramo, the novel by Mexican writer Juan Rulfo. In 1969, Ortega became a professor of composition in the Conservatory. In his classes and master classes in composition took part: Gustavo Baez, Mirtru Escalona-Mijares, Christine Groult, Adolfo Kaplan, Sergey Kutanin, Arthur Lavilla, Clem Mounkala, Chanaral Ortega-Miranda, Martin Pavlovsky, Claire-Melanie Sinnhuber and others.

In 1970, he began to direct the University's TV station, Channel 9, which he continued until 1973. At the end of 1973, after the September 11 coup, Ortega fled to France, where he resided until his death. In 1978 Ortega visited the USSR, participated in the festival "Red carnation", he was given permission to return to Chile in 1983, did so several times. During his exile, Ortega directed L'Ecole Nationale de Musique, in France. Ortega died of cancer at the age of 65 on September 15, 2003 in Paris, four days after the 30th anniversary of the coup d’etat, his remains were repatriated to Chile. Sergio Ortega's official website

Cisna

Cisna is the main village of the Gmina Cisna in the Lesko County, in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship of south-eastern Poland. It lies in the Solinka valley in between the Bieszczady mountains; the village has been founded in 1552 by the Bals family. Jacek Fredro founded a blacksmith company here, that provided the area with agricultural instruments and stoves, his son Aleksander Fredro, a famous Polish poet and writer, was born here. In the years between 1890 and 1895, a narrow gauge railroad was built to Nowy Łupków and in 1904 extended to Kalnica. In the interbellum, Cisna was one of the principal villages in the Bieszczady and was well-known place to spend a holiday, growing to 60.000 inhabitants. The Second World War destroyed all of the village. Afterwards, between 1945 and 1947, fighting continued in the area between Polish and Soviet armies and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army; the village was burned by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army in 1946 and all villagers were moved out. Some people moved to the Gdańsk area of Poland.

Some people went to the Ukrainian SSR in 1946. 1921 - 166 Poles, 132 Rusyns, 118 Jews 2006 - 410 Poles European walking route E8 Prešov - Miháľov - Kurimka - Dukla - Iwonicz-ZdrójRymanów-Zdrój - PuławyTokarniaKamieńKomańcza - Cisna - Ustrzyki Górne - Tarnica - Wołosate. Komancza Republic