click links in text for more info


Tindouf is the main town, a commune in Tindouf Province, close to the Mauritanian, Western Saharan and Moroccan borders. The commune has population of around 160,000 but the census and population estimates do not count the Sahrawi refugees making the population as of the 2008 census 45,966, up from 25,266 in 1998, an annual population growth rate of 6.3%. The region is considered of strategic significance, it houses Algerian military bases and an airport with regular flights to Algiers as well as to other domestic destinations. The settlement of Garet Djebilet lies within the municipal territory of Tindouf near the border with Mauritania. Since 1975, it contains several Sahrawi refugee camps operated by the Polisario Front, a national liberation movement seeking the self-determination of Western Sahara; the town of Tindouf was built near an isolated Saharan oasis in 1852 by members of the Tajakant tribe, but sacked and destroyed by the Reguibat, another Sahrawi tribe in 1895, the Tajakant tribe were expelled from the region.

It remained deserted until French troops arrived in the area in 1934. Since Algerian independence in 1962, the town has been deliberately built up because of its importance as a last outpost before the Moroccan and Mauritanian borders. In 1963, the area was the scene of fighting between Algerian and Moroccan forces laying claim to western Algeria, in the Sand War; the region has since been militarized, increasing its relevance. Since the mid-70s, the Tindouf region served as base for the Polisario Front, a Sahrawi nationalist organization fighting for Western Sahara's independence; the Polisario Front is headquartered in self-administered refugee camps south of the city, which filled up as Moroccan and Mauritanian forces conquered Western Sahara in 1975. During the war years of 1975–1990, Polisario forces struck in Western Sahara and southern Morocco, using the Tindouf region as their rear base area, with Algerian protection and support. Since 1990 the area has been quiet, although the refugee community remains in Algeria, pending a UN-sponsored peace process and a referendum on independence.

Tindouf has a population of 47,965, though this figure is of questionable authenticity, given the fact that the exact number is a sensitive issue due to the Sahrawi refugees, who are excluded from the estimate. Tindouf has a hot desert climate, with hot summers and warm winters. There is little rain for most of the year concentrated in February and —associated with the West African Monsoon— by September–October; the region can be hit by rare events of heavy rain, such as in February 2006 or October 2015. Summer daytime temperatures approach 45 °C with blazing sunshine, while winter nighttime temperatures can sometimes drop to 5 °C or less. 6.1% of the population has a tertiary education, another 18.8% has completed secondary education. The overall literacy rate is 75.0%, is 79.7% among males and 70.1% among females. The commune is composed of five localities: Tindouf-ville Garet Djebilet Aouinet Bélagraa Chenachène Oum El Achar Tindouf travel guide from Wikivoyage Media related to Tindouf at Wikimedia Commons

Technological momentum

Technological momentum is a theory about the relationship between technology and society over time. The term, considered a fourth technological determinism variant, was developed by the historian of technology Thomas P. Hughes; the idea is that relationship between technology and society is reciprocal and time-dependent so that one does not determine the changes in the other but both influence each other. Hughes's thesis is a synthesis of two separate models for how society interact. One, technological determinism, claims that society itself is modified by the introduction of a new technology in an irreversible and irreparable way—for example, the introduction of the automobile has influenced the manner in which American cities are designed, a change that can be seen when comparing the pre-automobile cities on the East Coast to the post-automobile cities on the West Coast. Technology, under this model, self-propagates as well—there is no turning back once the adoption has taken place, the existence of the technology means that it will continue to exist in the future.

The other model, social determinism, claims that society itself controls how a technology is used and developed—for example, the rejection of nuclear power technology in the USA amid the public fears after the Three Mile Island incident. Technological momentum adds time as the unifying factor. In Hughes's theory, when a technology is young, deliberate control over its use and scope is possible and enacted by society. However, as a technology matures, becomes enmeshed in the society where it was created, its own deterministic force takes hold, achieving technological momentum in the process. According to Hughes this inertia, the case for large technological systems with their technological and social components, makes them difficult to influence and steer as they start to go more on their own way, assuming deterministic traits in the process. In other words, Hughes's says that the relationship between technology and society always starts with a social determinism model, but evolves into a form of technological determinism over time and as its use becomes more prevalent and important.

Since its introduction by Hughes, the technological momentum concept has been applied by a number of other historians of technology. For instance, it is considered an effective approach to reconciling the opposite perspectives of the autonomy of technology and the social and political motivations behind technological choices, it is able to describe how and politically conditioned technological institutions become independent and autonomous over time. Thomas P. Hughes, "Technological momentum," in Albert Teich, ed. Technology and the Future, 8th edn. 2000. Thomas P. Hughes, "Technological momentum," in Merritt Roe Smith and Leo Marx, ed. Does Technology Drive History?: The Dilemma of Technological Determinism, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1994, pp. 101–113 Thomas Parke Hughes, "Technological Momentum in History: Hydrogenation in Germany 1898-1933", Past and Present, No. 44, pp. 106–132


Grobda is a multi-directional shooter game, released by Namco in 1984. It runs on Namco Super Pac-Man hardware but with a video system like that used in Mappy and The Tower of Druaga, it uses a DAC for the "Get Ready" speech sample at the start of each round, it is a spin-off from Xevious. The player must take control of Grobda, a screw-propelled tank trapped in an arena filled with numerous indestructible obstacles and several enemy tanks; when an enemy tank is killed, it will cause an explosion, any other enemies that happen to be in the blast radius at the time will suffer the same fate. But if Grobda is too close to the explosion, it will be killed. Grobda has a shield that offers temporary protection from enemy fire, but this will soon disappear if it is under attack or shot; each round is called a "battling", there are a total of ninety-nine in the game. If all ninety-nine battlings are cleared, the game's high score table will show that the player has cleared one hundred battlings, if the arcade operator has set the game's "round select" DIP switch setting to "on", the player will have the option of starting the game on any battling he or she wants.

In 1985 it was ported to the NEC pc8801. The game was ported to the Sony PlayStation as part of Namco Museum Volume 2 and Namco Museum Battle Collection, the latter of which includes a more accurate port, it was ported to the Wii, through the Virtual Console in Japan on November 10, 2009 and through the Namco Museum Megamix compilation in North America on November 16, 2010, the latter of which includes an updated "Remix" version of the game entitled Grobda Remix. In 1998, Allgame labeled Grobda as "A refreshing departure from slower, more methodical tank shooters such as Combat and Armor Ambush", praising its fast-paced gameplay but criticizing its high-difficulty level. In a 2014 retrospective review, Hardcore Gaming 101 said that the game was a lot simpler in gameplay compared to Xevious, felt mixed towards the games difficulty level. Grobda at the Killer List of Videogames

Incilius leucomyos

Incilius leucomyos is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to the Atlantic versant of the north-central Honduras. Adult males measure 51–68 mm and females 55–96 mm in snout–vent length; the body is robust and the head is wider than it is long. The snout has a protruding tip in dorsal view; the tympanum is distinct but comparatively small. The canthal, supra-orbital, post-orbital, supra-tympanic, parietal crests are all well-developed; the parotoid glands are sub-triangular. The limbs are long; the fingers are slender and without enlarged tips and webbing. The toes are long and slender but have some webbing. Skin is dorsally rugose and ventrally granular to granular; the dorsal coloration is yellow ocher but with buff mid-dorsal area. There is a rust-brown inter-ocular bar, rust-colored crests, pale rust-colored post-ocular blotches, its natural habitats are lowland moist forests as well as premontane and lower montane wet forests. The tadpoles develop in streams, it is threatened by habitat loss caused by landslides as well as from farming and human settlements.

It occurs in some protected areas, including the La Muralla and Pico Bonito National Parks

Denis Shafikov

Denis Fuatovich Shafikov is a Russian professional boxer. He held the European super-lightweight title from 2011 to 2013, has challenged three times for the IBF lightweight title. In November 2017, Shafikov was ranked within the world's top ten active lightweights by The Ring magazine, the Transnational Boxing Rankings Board, BoxRec. Born into a Russian-Bashkir family, Shafikov did not take a liking to boxing when trying out different sports in childhood, he nonetheless began his amateur boxing career at 13 years old, in which he had "about 90 amateur fights and lost only 6 of them." His decision to turn professional was based on wanting to earn money for his family, rather than medals. Shafikov has been trained by Abel Sanchez since 2015, he made his professional debut on 30 November 2003, winning a four-round unanimous decision over Pavel Lyakhov, who debuted. For the next eleven years, Shafikov would remain undefeated while fighting in Finland, having moved there in 2007. On 29 October 2010, he fought to a majority draw against Brunet Zamora, with the regional WBA Inter-Continental light-welterweight title on the line.

A year on 23 September 2011, Shafikov won his first major regional championship—the European light-welterweight title—by forcing veteran contender Giuseppe Lauri to retire in his corner. Two successful defences of the title were made in 2012: the first was against Lee McAllister on 25 February, which ended in an eighth-round corner retirement; the second was a rematch with Zamora on 31 May. On 22 February 2014, Shafikov travelled to Macau to face IBF lightweight champion Miguel Vázquez. In what was described as a "lightweight title fight that sucked the air out of venue" due to "clinching and lots of other matters that don't quite reflect actual fighting", Vázquez went on to hand Shafikov his first professional loss in a lacklustre unanimous decision; the following year, on 18 December, Shafikov received another opportunity to fight for the vacant IBF lightweight title, this time against Rances Barthelemy, but lost again via unanimous decision. Shafikov returned on 2 July 2016 in emphatic style, beating down and stopping undefeated lightweight prospect Jamel Herring in the tenth and final round.

On 30 June 2017, in his third world title challenge, Shafikov lost a competitive unanimous decision against IBF lightweight champion Robert Easter Jr. in a hard-hitting slugfest. Despite his nickname of "Genghis Khan", Shafikov is of Bashkir rather than Mongol ethnicity; the nickname was given to him by his Finnish promoter Pekka Mäki, with Shafikov saying that he wants to "conquer the world as Genghis Khan did." His favourite boxers include Manny Pacquiao. Professional boxing record for Denis Shafikov from BoxRec Denis Shafikov profile at Top Rank

Kundan (film)

Kundan is a 1955 Indian Hindi-language social drama film produced and directed by Sohrab Modi for Minerva Movietone. The Screenplay was with dialogues by Munshi Abdul Baqui and Pandit Sudarshan; the music was composed with lyrics by Shakeel Badayuni. Nimmi's dual role in the film as mother and daughter was acclaimed critically, while Ulhas won a nomination in the Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor category; the film co-starred Sohrab Modi, Sunil Dutt, Murad, Baby Naaz, Kumkum, Om Prakash and Manorama. Based on Victor Hugo's Les Misérables, the film had Modi playing a poverty-stricken young man who gets into trouble with the police for stealing a loaf of bread. Over the years, he avoids a policeman, on his trail as he is trying to live an honest life; the film starts with Kundan stealing a loaf of bread from a kitchen and running home with it to feed his young niece Radha, ailing mother. He is arrested, in court he says that he had tried to find work, in the end was forced to steal; the judge sentences him to two years in prison.

His niece visits him in jail telling him of his mother's death. Kundan is caught, he is imprisoned for a further five years for trying to escape. The second time he tries to do so, he gets an additional seven years. Kundan spends a total of fourteen years in prison doing hard labour. Radha is married to Gopal and they have a baby girl Uma. Gopal, in bad company, a crook get her to part with all her jewellery and he disappears with it. Radha and her baby find refuge with a tea-stall owner and his wife ), who employ her to work for them for minimal wages. Kundan, on release from jail, sets out to find Radha, he has been told by the jail authorities, including Inspector Sher Singh, a devout policeman, to keep them informed about his whereabouts and to present himself at the police station. When he returns to his locality, he is unable to find Radha, the neighbours drive him away, calling him a dacoit. Kundan, on being turned away by everyone finds a saviour in Gurudev, a priest, who helps him find himself and introduces him to making pottery and earning money.

Kundan meets up with Radha and Uma. Radha dies from an illness and Kundan brings up Uma. Inspector Sher Singh meanwhile, is after him all the time. A grown Uma meets a freedom fighter involved in the Quit India Movement against the British. Amrit and Uma fall in love. In a fight between the revolutionaries and the police, Sher Singh is imprisoned by them, but subsequently let free by Kundan. Amrit gets injured and Singh tries to arrest him. Kundan escapes through a drainage with Amrit; when the Inspector comes looking for them again, there is a confrontation between Kundan and the Inspector while Amrit lies wounded. Kundan tells Sher Singh that he will give himself up to the police if he allows Amrit to get treatment. Sher Singh waits as the doctor attends him; when Amrit recovers, Kundan goes down to find a note written by the Inspector, in which he states that he's letting two people wanted by the police to go free, hence his only salvation for not doing his duty is to kill himself. Kundan manages to see the Inspector jumping into the river.

Amrit and Uma are reunited with a repentant Gopal asking Kundan's forgiveness. Sohrab Modi as Kundan Nimmi as Radha/Uma Pran as Gopal, Radha's husband Ulhas as Inspector Sher Singh Sunil Dutt as Amrit Murad as Gurudev Kumkum Om Prakash as Uma's foster father Naaz as young Radha/Uma Manorama as Uma's foster mother Roopmala Khwaja Sabir Dar Kashmiri Shakeel Noorani Saadat Ali Modi had Art Director Rusi K. Banker design similar underground drainage sets, as in the sets of the film Les Misérables; the crew included: Director: Sohrab Modi Producer: Sohrab Modi Screenplay: Pandit Sudarshan Dialogue: Munshi Abdul Baqui, Pandit Sudarshan Cinematographer: M. N. Malhotra, Bhandare Editor: P. Bhalchandra Art Director: Rusi K. Banker Costumes Designer: D. Aradhaye, M. V. Dubashi Audiographer: M. Eduljee Studio: Minerva Movietone Colour Consultant: Aba Joshi, D. Shirdhankar Make Up: Rajaram Saranjame Choreography: Morey Music Director Ghulam Mohammed Lyrics: Shakeel Badayuni Ulhas was nominated for Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor.

The film had music directed by Ghulam Mohammed, with the lyrics written by Shakeel Badayuni. The playback singers were Mohammed Rafi, Lata Mangeshkar, Manna Dey, Geeta Dutt, S. D. Batish, Mubarak Begum and Sudha Malhotra. Kundan on IMDb Songs at Muvyz, Inc