Bulalô is a beef dish from the Philippines. It is a light colored soup that is made by cooking beef shanks and marrow bones until the collagen, Bulalo is native to the Southern Luzon region of the Philippines. It is called Kansi in Hiligaynon/Ilonggo while it is called Pochero in Cebu, many references have evolved regarding its origin. One of it says that this type of dish originated from Batangas where you find the many versions of Bulalo, other reference says that it actually came from Tagaytay in which there are a lot of cows
The chili pepper is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. In Australia, India, New Zealand, South Africa and in other Asian countries, the substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and several related chemicals, collectively called capsaicinoids. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, chilies were brought to Asia by Portuguese navigators during the 16th century. Worldwide, some 3.8 million hectares of land produce 33 million tons of chili peppers, India is the worlds biggest producer and exporter of chili peppers. Guntur in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh produces 30% of all the chilies produced in India, Andhra Pradesh as a whole contributes 75% of Indias chili exports. Chili peppers have been a part of the diet in the Americas since at least 7500 BCE. Bolivia is considered to be the country where the largest diversity of wild Capsicum peppers are consumed, upon their introduction into Europe, chilies were grown as botanical curiosities in the gardens of Spanish and Portuguese monasteries.
Chilies were cultivated around the globe after Indigenous people shared them with travelers, diego Álvarez Chanca, a physician on Columbus second voyage to the West Indies in 1493, brought the first chili peppers to Spain and first wrote about their medicinal effects in 1494. It was introduced in India by the Portuguese towards the end of 15th century, today chilies are an integral part of South Asian and Southeast Asian cuisines. There is a correlation between the chili pepper geographical dissemination and consumption in Asia and the presence of Portuguese traders, India. The chili pepper features heavily in the cuisine of the Goan region of India, Chili peppers journeyed from India, through Central Asia and Turkey, to Hungary, where they became the national spice in the form of paprika. To Japan, it was brought by the Portuguese missionaries in 1542, in 1995 archaeobotanist Hakon Hjelmqvist published an article in Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift claiming there was evidence for the presence of chili peppers in Europe in pre-Columbian times.
According to Hjelmqvist, archaeologists at a dig in St Botulf in Lund found a Capsicum frutescens in a layer from the 13th century, Hjelmqvist thought it came from Asia. Hjelmqvist said that Capsicum was described by the Greek Theophrastus in his Historia Plantarum, around the first century CE, the Roman poet Martialis mentioned Piperve crudum in Liber XI, XVIII, allegedly describing them as long and containing seeds. Green and red peppers, for example, are the same cultivar of C. annuum. In the same species are the jalapeño, the poblano, New Mexico, peppers are commonly broken down into three groupings, bell peppers, sweet peppers, and hot peppers. Most popular pepper varieties are seen as falling into one of these categories or as a cross between them, the substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and several related chemicals, collectively called capsaicinoids. Capsaicin is the component in pepper spray, a less-than-lethal weapon
Chicken as food
Chicken is the most common type of poultry in the world. In developed countries, chickens are usually subject to intensive farming methods, the modern chicken is a descendant of red junglefowl hybrids along with the grey junglefowl first raised thousands of years ago in the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent. Chicken as a meat has been depicted in Babylonian carvings from around 600 BC, Chicken was one of the most common meats available in the Middle Ages. It was eaten over most of the Eastern hemisphere and a number of different kinds of such as capons, pullets. It was one of the ingredients in the so-called white dish. In the United States in the 1800s, chicken was more expensive than other meats, Chicken consumption in the United States increased during World War II due to a shortage of beef and pork. In Europe, consumption of chicken overtook that of beef and veal in 1996, modern varieties of chicken such as the Cornish Cross, are bred specifically for meat production, with an emphasis placed on the ratio of feed to meat produced by the animal.
The most common breeds of chicken consumed in the US are Cornish, chickens raised specifically for food are called broilers. In the United States, broilers are typically butchered at a young age, modern Cornish Cross hybrids, for example, are butchered as early as 8 weeks for fryers and 12 weeks for roasting birds. Capons produce more and fattier meat, for this reason, they are considered a delicacy and were particularly popular in the Middle Ages. Main Breast, These are white meat and are relatively dry, Comprises two segments, The drumstick, this is dark meat and is the lower part of the leg, the thigh, dark meat, this is the upper part of the leg. Wing, Often served as a meal or bar food. Buffalo wings are a typical example, Comprises three segments, the drumette, shaped like a small drumstick, the middle flat segment, containing two bones, and the tip, sometimes discarded. Other Chicken feet, These contain relatively little meat, and are mainly for the skin. Although considered exotic in Western cuisine, the feet are common fare in other cuisines, especially in the Caribbean, organs such as the heart and liver may be included inside a butchered chicken or sold separately.
Head, Considered a delicacy in China, the head is split down the middle, Normally left in when a broiler carcass is processed, they are found in deep pockets on each side of the vertebral column. Neck, This is served in various Asian dishes and it is stuffed to make helzel among Ashkenazi Jews. Oysters, Located on the back, near the thigh, these small and testicles, These are commonly eaten in East Asia and some parts of South East Asia
The onion, known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable and is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium. This genus contains several other species variously referred to as onions and cultivated for food, such as the Japanese bunching onion, the onion. The name wild onion is applied to a number of Allium species and its ancestral wild original form is not known, although escapes from cultivation have become established in some regions. The onion is most frequently a biennial or a perennial plant, the onion plant has a fan of hollow, bluish-green leaves and its bulb at the base of the plant begins to swell when a certain day-length is reached. The bulbs are composed of shortened, underground stems surrounded by fleshy modified scale that envelop a central bud at the tip of the stem, in the autumn, the foliage dies down and the outer layers of the bulb become dry and brittle. The crop is harvested and dried and the onions are ready for use or storage, the crop is prone to attack by a number of pests and diseases, particularly the onion fly, the onion eelworm, and various fungi cause rotting.
Some varieties of A. cepa, such as shallots and potato onions, Onions are cultivated and used around the world. As a food item, they are served cooked, as a vegetable or part of a prepared savoury dish. They are pungent when chopped and contain certain chemical substances which irritate the eyes, the onion plant, known as the bulb onion or common onion, is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium. It was first officially described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1753 work Species Plantarum, a. cepa is known exclusively from cultivation, but related wild species occur in Central Asia. The most closely related species include A. vavilovii and A. asarense from Iran, however and Hopf state that there are doubts whether the A. vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop. The vast majority of cultivars of A. cepa belong to the common onion group and are referred to simply as onions. The Aggregatum group of cultivars includes both shallots and potato onions, the genus Allium contains a number of other species variously referred to as onions and cultivated for food, such as the Japanese bunching onion, Egyptian onion, and Canada onion.
The onion plant has grown and selectively bred in cultivation for at least 7,000 years. It is a plant, but is usually grown as an annual. Modern varieties typically grow to a height of 15 to 45 cm, the leaves are yellowish- to bluish green and grow alternately in a flattened, fan-shaped swathe. They are fleshy and cylindrical, with one flattened side and they are at their broadest about a quarter of the way up, beyond which they taper towards a blunt tip. The base of leaf is a flattened, usually white sheath that grows out of a basal disc
An hors doeuvre, appetizer, or starter is a small dish served before a meal. Some hors doeuvres are served cold, others hot, Hors doeuvres may be served at the dinner table as a part of the meal, or they may be served before seating. Formerly, hors doeuvres were served between courses, typically smaller than a main dish, it is often designed to be eaten by hand. Hors doeuvre in French means outside the work—that is, not part of the set of courses in a meal. Appetizer is a synonym for hors doeuvre, starter is sometimes used to denote an hors doeuvre, sometimes to denote more substantial courses, known in Europe and North America as entrées. A small number of historians believe that the tradition may have begun in Russia. However, it may be that the custom originated in China, possibly coming through Steppes, into Russia, France, the tradition may have reached Italy and the Balkan nations through Russia or Persia. Many national customs are related, including the Swedish smörgåsbord, Russian zakuska, Lebanese mezze, during the Roman Period the meal practice was to have two main courses which were supplemented before the meal with small amounts of fish, cheeses and even stuffed dormice.
These would be served at the start of the known as either gustatio or promulsis. The Greeks called the appetizer course propoma, during the Middle Ages formal French meals were served with entremets between the serving of plates. These secondary dishes could be either actual food dishes, or elaborate displays, in the 14th century, recipes for entremets were mostly made with meat, fish and vegetables. Along with this came elaborate silver and ceramic table displays as well as pièces montées, the entremets were placed between the other dishes within the main work of the meal. At about this time in the 17th century, smaller dishes began to be served by being placed outside the work of symmetrically placed dishes. These were known as hors doeuvre, Hors doeuvres were originally served as a canapé of small toasted bread with a savoury topping before a meal. In the French publication Les plaisirs de la table, Edouard Nignon stated that hors doeuvres originated in Asia and he went on to state that the French considered hors-doeuvres to be superfluous to a well cooked meal.
Service à la française continued in Europe until the early 19th century, after the 19th century the entremet would become almost exclusively a sweet dish or dessert with the British custom of the savoury being the only remaining tradition of the savoury entremet. The style of formal dining changed drastically in the 19th century, some traditional hors doeuvres would remain on the table throughout the meal. These included olives, nuts and radishes, the changing, contemporary hors doeuvres, sometimes called dainty dishes became more complicated in preparation
A debut novel is the first novel a novelist publishes. First-time novelists without a previous published reputation, such as publication in nonfiction, magazines, or literary journals, sometimes new novelists will self-publish their debut novels, because publishing houses will not risk the capital needed to market books by an unknown author to the public. Most publishers purchase rights to novels, especially debut novels, through literary agents, for this reason, literary communities have created awards that help acknowledge exceptional debut novels. The books film rights were purchased soon after by producer Scott Rudin. For similar reasons that advances are not very large—novels frequently dont sell well until the author gains a literary reputation. There are exceptions, YouTube star Zoella published her debut novel Girl Online in November 2014, the novel saw huge sales because she already had an established audience, and publishers were willing to run a large print run. By comparison, bestselling Fifty Shades of Grey sold 14,814 copies in its first week, or popular novels like Harry Potter and the Philosophers Stone, only receive small initial print runs.
Debut novels that do well will be reprinted as sales increase due to word of mouth popularity of the novels — publishers dont often run large marketing campaigns for debut novelists, there are numerous literary prizes for debut novels often associated with genre or nationality. These prizes are in recognition of the difficulties faced by debut novelists and bring attention to deserving works, often an authors first novel will not be as complex stylistically or thematically as subsequent works and often will not feature the authors typical literary characteristics. As examples, Astor points to J. R. R, instead of writing novels to begin their career, some authors will start with short stories, which can be easier to publish and allow authors to get started in writing fiction. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest attested usage of first novel is from 1876, the term is much older, with instances going back to at least 1800. The Oxford English Dictionary doesnt have an entry for debut novel, the earliest usage of debut novel in the Google Books database is 1930.
The Google Books Ngram Viewer shows it becoming more used after about 1980
The papaya, papaw, or pawpaw is the plant Carica papaya, one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the family Caricaceae. It is native to the tropics of the Americas, perhaps from southern Mexico and it was first cultivated in Mexico several centuries before the emergence of the Mesoamerican classical civilizations. The papaya is a small, sparsely branched tree, usually with a stem growing from 5 to 10 m tall. The lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne, the leaves are large, 50–70 cm in diameter, deeply palmately lobed, with seven lobes. All parts of the plant contain latex in articulated laticifers, unusually for such large plants, the trees are dioecious. The flowers are 5-parted and highly dimorphic, the flowers with the stamens fused to the petals. The female flowers have a superior ovary and five contorted petals loosely connected at the base and female flowers are borne in the leaf axils, the males in multiflowered dichasia, the female flowers is few-flowered dichasia.
The flowers are sweet-scented, open at night and are moth-pollinated, the fruit is a large berry about 15–45 cm long and 10–30 cm in diameter. It is ripe when it feels soft and its skin has attained an amber to orange hue, Papaya is native to Mexico and extends to South America and has become naturalized throughout the Caribbean Islands and several countries of Africa. Additional crops are grown in India, Malaysia, the Philippines, Papaya plants grow in three sexes, female, hermaphrodite. The male produces only pollen, never fruit, the female will produce small, inedible fruits unless pollinated. The hermaphrodite can self-pollinate since its flowers contain both male stamens and female ovaries, almost all commercial papaya orchards contain only hermaphrodites. Originally from southern Mexico, Central America, and northern South America, in cultivation, it grows rapidly, fruiting within three years. It is, highly frost-sensitive, limiting its production to tropical climates, temperatures below −2 °C are greatly harmful if not fatal.
In Florida and California, growth is limited to southern parts of the states. It prefers sandy, well-drained soil, as standing water will kill the plant within 24 hours and Brazil are the major producers of papaya, together providing 57% of the world total of 12.4 million tons in 2013. Gaining in popularity among tropical fruits worldwide, papaya is now ranked fourth in total tropical fruit production after bananas, global papaya production has grown significantly over the last few years, mainly as a result of increased production in India. Papaya has become an important agricultural export for developing countries, where export revenues of the fruit provide a livelihood for thousands of people, especially in Asia, Carica papaya was the first transgenic fruit tree to have its genome sequenced
The chicken is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl. It is one of the most common and widespread domestic animals, humans keep chickens primarily as a source of food, consuming both their meat and their eggs. From India, the chicken was imported to Lydia in western Asia Minor. In the UK and Ireland adult male chickens over the age of one year are known as cocks, whereas in America, Australia. Males less than a year old are cockerels, females over a year old are known as hens and younger females as pullets although in the egg-laying industry, a pullet becomes a hen when she begins to lay eggs at 16 to 20 weeks of age. In Australia and New Zealand, there is a generic term chook /ˈtʃʊk/ to describe all ages, the young are called chicks and the meat is called chicken. Chicken originally referred to domestic fowl. The species as a whole was called domestic fowl, or just fowl. This use of chicken survives in the phrase Hen and Chickens, sometimes used as a British public house or theatre name, the word chicken is sometimes erroneously construed to mean females exclusively, despite the term hen for females being in wide circulation.
In the Deep South of the United States chickens are referred to by the slang term yardbird, in the wild, they often scratch at the soil to search for seeds and even animals as large as lizards, small snakes or young mice. Chickens may live for five to ten years, depending on the breed, the worlds oldest chicken was a hen which died of heart failure at the age of 16 according to Guinness World Records. However, in some breeds, such as the Sebright chicken, the rooster has only slightly pointed neck feathers, the identification can be made by looking at the comb, or eventually from the development of spurs on the males legs. Adult chickens have a fleshy crest on their heads called a comb, or cockscomb, collectively and other fleshy protuberances on the head and throat are called caruncles. Both the adult male and female have wattles and combs, a muff or beard is a mutation found in several chicken breeds which causes extra feathering under the chickens face, giving the appearance of a beard.
Domestic chickens are not capable of long distance flight, although birds are generally capable of flying for short distances. Chickens may occasionally fly briefly to explore their surroundings, but generally do so only to flee perceived danger, Chickens are gregarious birds and live together in flocks. They have an approach to the incubation of eggs and raising of young. Individual chickens in a flock will dominate others, establishing an order, with dominant individuals having priority for food access
Binignit is a Visayan dessert soup from the central Philippines. The dish is made by Visayans with slices of sabá bananas, taro. It is comparable to various savoury guinataán dishes found in regions such as bilo-bilo. Binignit is called giná-tan in Bikolano, tabirák in Mindanao Cebuano, alpahor in Chavacano, ginettaán in Ilokano, the meat of a mature coconut is grated and the thick milk is extracted. Two cups of water are added to the coconut and a second extraction is made. This thin coconut milk extract is added to cubed kamote and ube, sliced ripe sabá and langka, young coconut meat strips are added. The mixture is brought to a boil, being stirred occasionally until done, just before removal from the flame, the thick coconut milk is added. The people of the island of Leyte usually include landang and anise. The vegetables and the pearl sago are cooked in a mixture of water, coconut milk and landang, the soup is usually cooked and eaten during Holy Week, especially during Good Friday when observant Catholics fast and avoid meat. A popular afternoon snack, it is best served when hot, others serve it chilled or even frozen, eating the dessert much like ice cream
The tomato is the edible fruit of Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant, which belongs to the nightshade family, Solanaceae. The species originated in Central and South America, the Nahuatl word tomatl gave rise to the Spanish word tomate, from which the English word tomato originates. Numerous varieties of tomato are widely grown in temperate climates across the world, with greenhouses allowing its production throughout the year, the plants typically grow to 1–3 meters in height and have a weak stem that often sprawls over the ground and vines over other plants. It is a perennial in its habitat, and grown as an annual in temperate climates. An average common tomato weighs approximately 100 grams and its use as a food originated in Mexico, and spread throughout the world following the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Tomato is consumed in diverse ways, including raw, as an ingredient in dishes, salads. While tomatoes are botanically fruits, they are considered culinary vegetables.
The word tomato comes from the Spanish tomate, which in turn comes from the Nahuatl word tomatl and it first appeared in print in 1595. The native Mexican tomatillo is tomate, meaning fat water or fat thing), when Aztecs started to cultivate the Andean fruit and red, they called the new species xitomatl. It first appeared in print in 1595, the scientific species epithet lycopersicum means wolf peach, and comes from German werewolf myths. The Italian word, pomodoro was borrowed into Polish, and via Russian, the usual pronunciations of tomato are /təˈmeɪtoʊ/ and /təˈmɑːtoʊ/. The words dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwins 1937 song Lets Call the Whole Thing Off and have become a symbol for nitpicking pronunciation disputes. In this capacity, it has become an American and British slang term. Or Its all the same to me, botanically, a tomato is a fruit, a berry, consisting of the ovary, together with its seeds, of a flowering plant. However, the tomato has a lower sugar content than other edible fruits.
Typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal, rather than at dessert, it is, in the US, considered a culinary vegetable. One exception is that tomatoes are treated as a fruit in home canning practices, they are acidic enough to process in a water bath rather than a pressure cooker as vegetables require. Tomatoes are not the food source with this ambiguity, bell peppers, green beans, avocados
Moringa oleifera is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Moringa, which is the only genus in the family Moringaceae. English common names include, drumstick tree, horseradish tree, ben oil tree and it can be used for water purification and hand washing, and is sometimes used in herbal medicine. Moringa derives from the Tamil word, referring to a twisted pod found in young fruit, M. oleifera is a fast-growing, deciduous tree that can reach a height of 10–12 m and trunk diameter of 45 cm. The bark has a colour and is surrounded by thick cork. Young shoots have purplish or greenish-white, hairy bark, the tree has an open crown of drooping, fragile branches and the leaves build up a feathery foliage of tripinnate leaves. The flowers are fragrant and bisexual, surrounded by five unequal, thinly veined, the flowers are about 1. 0-1.5 cm long and 2.0 cm broad. They grow on slender, hairy stalks in spreading or drooping flower clusters which have a length of 10–25 cm, flowering begins within the first six months after planting.
In seasonally cool regions, flowering only once a year between April and June. In more constant seasonal temperatures and with constant rainfall, flowering can happen twice or even all year-round, the fruit is a hanging, three-sided brown capsule of 20–45 cm size which holds dark brown, globular seeds with a diameter around 1 cm. The seeds have three whitish papery wings and are dispersed by wind and water, in cultivation, it is often cut back annually to 1–2 m and allowed to regrow so the pods and leaves remain within arms reach. The moringa tree is mainly in semiarid and subtropical areas. It tolerates a range of soil conditions, but prefers a neutral to slightly acidic. In waterlogged soil, the roots have a tendency to rot, Moringa is a sun- and heat-loving plant, thus does not tolerate freezing or frost. Moringa is particularly suitable for dry regions, as it can be grown using rainwater without expensive irrigation techniques, India is the largest producer of moringa, with an annual production of 1.1 to 1.3 million tonnes of fruits from an area of 380 km².
Moringa is grown in gardens in Odisha and as living fences in southern India and Thailand. In the Philippines and Indonesia, it is grown for its leaves which are used as food. Moringa is cultivated by the World Vegetable Center in Taiwan. In Haiti, it is grown as windbreaks and to reduce soil erosion