Exomvourgo or Exobourgo is a mountain on the island of Tinos. It has an appearance, unlike the other mountains in the Cyclades and is the site of a ruined Venetian fortress. The walk up from Iera Kardia Iisou takes around 20 minutes, the former Exomvourgos municipality shares its name with the mountain. A large wall from an Ionian town dating from 1100 BC is sited southwest of Exomvourgo, in the fourth century BC the islands administrative centre moved back from Exomvourgo to the coast. Under Byzantine rule a fortress, named by the Venetians Castello di Santa Elena after a chapel on the summit, was built on the mountain, in 1390, after the death of Batholomew III Ghisi,1 the Venetian Republic assumed direct control and further fortified the mountain. The island fell to the Ottoman admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa in 1537 but was recaptured by the Venetians in 1538, the fortress was further expanded until it featured 600 m long ramparts and towers facing in all directions. In this era the town inside the castle had a population of 1000-2000 and contained 677 houses,5 churches and some storage areas and reservoirs.
In 1570 a force of 8,000 Ottoman troops and several cannons, commanded by Canum Pasha, besieged the mountain, further failed attempts to capture the fortress were made in 1655,1658,1661, and 1684. By 1700 the fortifications were not in a state and the fortress was only manned by 14 soldiers. Despite the fortress being regarded as unconquerable and seeming secure against the invaders the commander of the fortress negotiated terms, the terms allowed all the Venetians on the island to leave with the Greeks forced to stay. The Ottomans almost completely dismantled the fortress and the town inside it within a period of 3 days, the town on the mountain was previously known as Tinos with the current town of Tinos previously known as San Nicolò. The name Exomvourgo derives from the Greek exo apo to bourgo meaning outside the burg, the church of Iera Kardia Iisou is on the slopes of the mountain, it is now a Catholic monastery. This was finished in 1725 and dedicated to Saint Sofia, the Jesuits left the church and it fell into disrepair.
In 1895 the church was restored and renamed the Sacred Heart of Jesus, today the church is a site of pilgrimage and hosts visitors from around the world. 1. ^ Other references state this was after a period under George III
Rhodes is the largest of the Dodecanese islands in terms of land area and the island groups historical capital. Administratively the island forms a municipality within the Rhodes regional unit. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Rhodes, the city of Rhodes had 50,636 inhabitants in 2011. It is located northeast of Crete, southeast of Athens and just off the Anatolian coast of Turkey, Rhodes nickname is The island of the Knights, named after the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem, who once conquered the land. Historically, Rhodes was famous worldwide for the Colossus of Rhodes, the Medieval Old Town of the City of Rhodes has been declared a World Heritage Site. Today, it is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Europe, the island has been known as Ρόδος in Greek throughout its history. In addition, the island has been called Rodi in Italian, Rodos in Turkish, and Rodi or Rodes in Ladino. The island of Rhodes is shaped like a spearhead,79.7 km long and 38 km wide, with an area of approximately 1,400 square kilometres.
The city of Rhodes is located at the tip of the island, as well as the site of the ancient. The main air gateway is located 14 km to the southwest of the city in Paradisi, the road network radiates from the city along the east and west coasts. There are mineral-rich spring water used to give medicinal baths and the spa resorts offer various health treatments, Rhodes is situated 363 km east-south-east from the Greek mainland, and 18 km from the southern shore of Turkey. The interior of the island is mountainous, sparsely inhabited and covered with forests of pine, while the shores are rocky, the island has arable strips of land where citrus fruit, wine grapes, vegetables and other crops are grown. The Rhodian population of deer was found to be genetically distinct in 2005. In Petaloudes Valley, large numbers of tiger moths gather during the summer months, mount Attavyros, at 1,216 metres, is the islands highest point of elevation. Earthquakes include the 226 BC earthquake that destroyed the Colossus of Rhodes, one on 3 May 1481 which destroyed much of the city of Rhodes, and one on 26 June 1926.
On 15 July 2008, Rhodes was struck by a 6.3 magnitude earthquake causing minor damage to a few old buildings, Rhodes has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate. The island was inhabited in the Neolithic period, although remains of this culture. In the 16th century BC, the Minoans came to Rhodes, Greek mythology recalled a Rhodian race called the Telchines and associated the island of Rhodes with Danaus, it was sometimes nicknamed Telchinis
A trireme was an ancient vessel and a type of galley that was used by the ancient maritime civilizations of the Mediterranean, especially the Phoenicians, ancient Greeks and Romans. The trireme derives its name from its three rows of oars, manned with one man per oar. The early trireme was a development of the penteconter, an ancient warship with a row of 25 oars on each side, and of the bireme. The word dieres does not appear until the Roman period and it must be assumed the term pentekontor covered the two-level type. Triremes played a role in the Persian Wars, the creation of the Athenian maritime empire. The term is used to refer to medieval and early modern galleys with three files of oarsmen per side as triremes. Fragments from an 8th-century relief at the Assyrian capital of Nineveh depicting the fleets of Tyre and Sidon show ships with rams and they have been interpreted as two-decked warships, and as triremes. Modern scholarship is divided on the provenance of the trireme, Greece or Phoenicia, clement of Alexandria in the 2nd century, drawing on earlier works, explicitly attributes the invention of the trireme to the Sidonians.
According to Thucydides, the trireme was introduced to Greece by the Corinthians in the late 8th century BC, and the Corinthian Ameinocles built four such ships for the Samians. This was interpreted by writers and Diodorus, to mean that triremes were invented in Corinth, Thucydides meanwhile clearly states that in the time of the Persian Wars, the majority of the Greek navies consisted of penteconters and ploia makrá. Athens was at that time embroiled in a conflict with the island of Aegina. The first clash with the Persian navy was at the Battle of Artemisium, the decisive naval clash occurred at Salamis, where Xerxes invasion fleet was decisively defeated. After Salamis and another Greek victory over the Persian fleet at Mycale, the Ionian cities were freed, the predominance of Athens turned the League effectively into an Athenian Empire. The source and foundation of Athens power was her strong fleet, in addition, as it provided permanent employment for the citys poorer citizens, the fleet played an important role in maintaining and promoting the radical Athenian form of democracy.
Athenian maritime power is the first example of thalassocracy in world history, aside from Athens, other major naval powers of the era included Syracuse and Corinth. In the subsequent Peloponnesian War, naval battles fought by triremes were crucial in the balance between Athens and Sparta. Based on all archeological evidence, the design of trireme surely pushed the limits of the ancient world. After gathering the proper timbers and materials it was time to consider the fundamentals of the trireme design and these fundamentals included accommodations, propulsion and waterline, center of gravity and stability and feasibility
Nikiforos Lytras was a nineteenth-century Greek painter. He was born in Tinos, and trained in Athens at the School of Arts, in 1860 he won a scholarship to Royal Academy of Fine Arts of Munich. After completing these studies, he became a professor at the School of Arts in 1866 and he remained faithful to the precepts and principles of the Munich School, while paying greatest attention both to ethographic themes and portraiture. His most famous portrait was of the couple and Amalia. Nikiforos Lytras was a child of a marble sculptor. In 1850 to the age of eighteen years he went to Athens to study in the School of Arts and he studied painting with Ludwig Thiersch and Raffaelo Ceccoli. With his graduation in 1856 he started teaching there the course of elementary writing, in 1836 with a Greek government’s scholarship he went to Munich to study in the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. His teacher there was Karl von Piloty, in 1862 after King Otto was exiled the scholarship was no longer available to Lytra so the expenses undertook the ambassador of Greece in Vienna Simon Sinas.
In the summer of 1865 before his return to Greece he meets Nikolaos Gyzis in Munich, there they visited and studied a lot of art masterpieces. With his return in Athens Lytras became professor in the Athens School of Fine Arts in the department of Painting, Spyridon Vikatos was one of his pupils. In 1873 and for four years he travelled to Smyrna and Asia Minor, Munich, in 1879 he married Irene Kyriakidi daughter of a tradesman from Smyrna and they had six children. His son Nikolaos Lytras followed in his footsteps by studying at the Munich academy of Fine Arts. The nineteenth-century painters Ioannis Altamouras and Periklis Pantazis may be regarded as forerunners of this group, nikiforos Lytras died at the age of 72 in 1904, after a short illness that is believed to have been caused by his colours’ chemicals substances. After his death Georgios Jakobides took his place in Athens School of Fine Arts, during the period that Lytras was Piloty’s student he focused in history painting. His subjects were inspired from Greek Mythology and Greek history, after his return to Greece he started to paint portraits and every day life scenes.
Lytra’s paintings about everyday life correspond in the ideology of the class of the times. His trips in Minor Asia and Egypt enriched his paintings with dark skinned children, the last period of his life he painted many scenes about aging and the fear of death. Lytras was one of the most famous painters in Athens and he participated and honored in many exhibitions, at the Zappeion exhibitions, as well as in exhibitions in Paris and in Vienna
Xerxes I, called Xerxes the Great, was the fourth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia. He ruled from 486 BC until his assassination in 465 BC at the hands of Artabanus, Xerxes I is most likely the Persian king identified as Ahasuerus in the biblical Book of Esther. He is notable in Western history for his invasion of Greece in 480 BC. Like his predecessor Darius I, he ruled the empire at its territorial apex and his forces temporarily overran mainland Greece north of the Isthmus of Corinth until the losses at Salamis and Plataea a year reversed these gains and ended the second invasion decisively. Xerxes was born to Darius I and Atossa and Atossa were both Achaemenids as they were both descendants of Achaemenes. While Darius was preparing for war against Greece, a revolt spurred in Egypt in 486 BC due to heavy taxes. Under Persian law, the king was required to choose a successor before setting out on dangerous expeditions, when Darius decided to leave, Darius prepared his tomb at Naqsh-e Rustam and appointed Xerxes, his eldest son by Atossa, as his successor.
However, Darius could not lead the campaign due to his failing health, Xerxes was crowned and succeeded his father in October–December 486 BC when he was about 36 years old. Almost immediately, Xerxes crushed revolts in Egypt and Babylon that had broken out the year before, and appointed his brother Achaemenes as satrap over Egypt. In 484 BC, he outraged the Babylonians by violently confiscating and melting down the statue of Bel. This comes from the Daiva Inscriptions of Xerxes, lines 6-13, although Herodotus report in the Histories has created debate concerning Xerxess religious beliefs, modern scholars consider him a Zoroastrian. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, Xerxess first attempt to bridge the Hellespont ended in failure when a storm destroyed the flax, in retaliation, Xerxes ordered the Hellespont whipped three hundred times, and had fetters thrown into the water. Xerxess second attempt to bridge the Hellespont was successful, many smaller Greek states, took the side of the Persians, especially Thessaly and Argos.
Xerxes was victorious during the initial battles, Xerxes set out in the spring of 480 BC from Sardis with a fleet and army which Herodotus estimated was roughly one million strong along with 10,000 elite warriors named the Persian Immortals. More recent estimates place the Persian force at around 60,000 combatants, at the Battle of Thermopylae, a small force of Greek warriors led by King Leonidas of Sparta resisted the much larger Persian forces, but were ultimately defeated. According to Herodotus, the Persians broke the Spartan phalanx after a Greek man called Ephialtes betrayed his country by telling the Persians of another pass around the mountains. At Artemisium, large storms had destroyed ships from the Greek side and so the battle stopped prematurely as the Greeks received news of the defeat at Thermopylae, most of the Athenians had abandoned the city and fled to the island of Salamis before Xerxes arrived. A small group attempted to defend the Athenian Acropolis, but they were defeated, Xerxes burnt the city, leaving an archaeologically attested destruction layer, known as the Perserschutt
After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror, at the beginning of the 17th century the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries. With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, while the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, however, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian Empires. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent.
Starting before World War I, but growing increasingly common and violent during it, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks. The word Ottoman is an anglicisation of the name of Osman I. Osmans name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān, in Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti, the Turkish word for Ottoman originally referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, and subsequently came to be used to refer to the empires military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term Turk was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. In Western Europe, the two names Ottoman Empire and Turkey were often used interchangeably, with Turkey being increasingly favored both in formal and informal situations and this dichotomy was officially ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name.
Most scholarly historians avoid the terms Turkey and Turkish when referring to the Ottomans, as the power of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman, osmans early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River and it is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbours, due to the scarcity of the sources which survive from this period. One school of thought which was popular during the twentieth century argued that the Ottomans achieved success by rallying religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islam, in the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over Anatolia and the Balkans.
Osmans son, captured the northwestern Anatolian city of Bursa in 1326 and this conquest meant the loss of Byzantine control over northwestern Anatolia. The important city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in 1387, the Ottoman victory at Kosovo in 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe
The Fourth Crusade was a Western European armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III, originally intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. Instead, a sequence of events culminated in the Crusaders sacking the city of Constantinople, the intention of the crusaders was to continue to the Holy Land with promised Byzantine financial and military assistance. On 23 June 1203 the main fleet reached Constantinople. In August 1203, following clashes outside Constantinople, Alexios Angelos was crowned co-Emperor with crusader support, however, in January 1204, he was deposed by a popular uprising in Constantinople. In April 1204, they captured and brutally sacked the city, Byzantine resistance based in unconquered sections of the empire such as Nicaea and Epirus ultimately recovered Constantinople in 1261. Ayyubid Sultan Saladin had conquered most of the Frankish, Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, including the ancient city itself, the Kingdom had been established 88 years before, after the capture and sack of Jerusalem in the First Crusade.
The city was sacred to Christians and Jews, Saladin led a Muslim dynasty, and his incorporation of Jerusalem into his domains shocked and dismayed the Catholic countries of Western Europe. Legend has it that Pope Urban III literally died of the shock, the crusader states had been reduced to three cities along the sea coast, Tyre and Antioch. The Third Crusade reclaimed an extensive amount of territory for the Kingdom of Jerusalem, including the key towns of Acre and Jaffa, but had failed to retake Jerusalem. The crusade had marked by a significant escalation in long standing tensions between the feudal states of western Europe and the Byzantine Empire, centred in Constantinople. The experiences of the first two crusades had thrown into relief the vast cultural differences between the two Christian civilisations. For their part, the educated and wealthy Byzantines maintained a sense of cultural, organizational. Constantinople had been in existence for 874 years at the time of the Fourth Crusade and was the largest and most sophisticated city in Christendom.
Almost alone amongst major medieval urban centres, it had retained the civic structures, public baths, monuments, at its height, the city held an estimated population of about half a million people behind thirteen miles of triple walls. As a result, it was both a rival and a target for the aggressive new states of the west, notably the Republic of Venice. Crusaders seized the breakaway Byzantine province of Cyprus, rather than return it to the Empire, barbarossa died on crusade, and his army quickly disintegrated, leaving the English and French, who had come by sea, to fight Saladin. There they captured Sidon and Beirut, but at the news of Henrys death in Messina along the way, many of the nobles, deserted by much of their leadership, the rank and file crusaders panicked before an Egyptian army and fled to their ships in Tyre. Also in 1195, the Byzantine Emperor Isaac II Angelos was deposed in favour of his brother by a palace coup, ascending as Alexios III Angelos, the new emperor had his brother blinded and exiled
Nikolaos Gyzis was considered one of Greeces most important 19th-century painters. He was most famous for his work Eros and the Painter and it was auctioned in May 2006 at Bonhams in London, being last exhibited in Greece in 1928. He was the representative of the so-called Munich School, the major 19th-century Greek art movement. Gyzis was born in the village of Sklavochori, on the island of Tinos which has a long artistic history, as his family settled in Athens in 1850, he soon embarked on a study at the Athens School of Fine Arts. His studies there, formed the foundation of his artistic education, in 1865, having won a scholarship, he went to continue his studies at the Academy of Fine Arts, where he settled for the rest of his life. He was very soon incorporated into the German pictorial climate, and this is expressed in the painting News of Victory of 1871, which deals with the Franco-Prussian War, and the painting Apotheosis i Thriamvos tis Vavarias. From 1886 onward he was professor at the Academy of Fine Arts and his students included Ernst Oppler, Fritz Osswald, Anna May-Rychter and Stefan Popescu.
Towards the end of his life, in the 1890s, he took a turn toward more religious themes and his works are today exhibited at museums and private collections in Greece and elsewhere. Gysis painting The Secret School was depicted on the reverse of the Greek 200 drachmas banknote of 1996-2001
Pausanias was a Greek traveler and geographer of the 2nd century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. He is famous for his Description of Greece, a work that describes ancient Greece from his first-hand observations. This work provides crucial information for making links between classical literature and modern archaeology, andrew Stewart assesses him as, A careful, pedestrian writer. interested not only in the grandiose or the exquisite but in unusual sights and obscure ritual. He is occasionally careless, or makes unwarranted inferences, and his guides or even his own notes sometimes mislead him, yet his honesty is unquestionable, before visiting Greece, he had been to Antioch and Jerusalem, and to the banks of the River Jordan. In Egypt, he had seen the pyramids, while at the temple of Ammon, in Macedonia, he appears to have seen the alleged tomb of Orpheus in Libethra. Crossing over to Italy, he had something of the cities of Campania.
He was one of the first to write of seeing the ruins of Troy, Alexandria Troas, Pausanias Description of Greece is in ten books, each dedicated to some portion of Greece. He begins his tour in Attica, where the city of Athens, subsequent books describe Corinthia, Messenia, Achaea, Boetia and Ozolian Locris. He famously leaves out key portions of Greece such as Crete, the project is more than topographical, it is a cultural geography. Pausanias digresses from description of architectural and artistic objects to review the mythological and historical underpinnings of the society that produced them and his work bears the marks of his attempt to navigate that space and establish an identity for Roman Greece. He is not a naturalist by any means, though he does from time to comment on the physical realities of the Greek landscape. He notices the pine trees on the sandy coast of Elis, the deer and the boars in the oak woods of Phelloe. Pausanias is most at home in describing the art and architecture of Olympia.
Yet, even in the most secluded regions of Greece, he is fascinated by all kinds of depictions of gods, holy relics, Pausanias has the instincts of an antiquary. Some magnificent and dominating structures, such as the Stoa of King Attalus in the Athenian Agora or the Exedra of Herodes Atticus at Olympia are not even mentioned. While he never doubts the existence of the gods and heroes, he criticizes the myths. His descriptions of monuments of art are plain and unadorned and they bear the impression of reality, and their accuracy is confirmed by the extant remains. He is perfectly frank in his confessions of ignorance, when he quotes a book at second hand he takes pains to say so
Our Lady of Tinos
Our Lady of Tinos is the major Marian shrine in Greece. It is located in the town of Tinos on the island of Tinos, the complex is built around a miraculous icon which according to tradition was found after the Virgin appeared to the nun Pelagia and revealed to her the place where the icon was buried. The icon is widely believed to be the source of numerous miracles and it is by now almost completely encased in silver and jewels, and is commonly referred to as the Megalócharē or simply the Chárē Tēs. By extension the church is called the same, and is considered a protectress of seafarers. The icon was found on the very first days after the creation of the modern Greek State, henceforth Our Lady of Tinos was declared the patron saint of the Greek nation. The church, built in the Renaissance style, was inaugurated in 1830 and since it constitutes the major Christian pilgrimage in Greece, the church receives a vast number of donations in silver and gold votives each year, these are auctioned and used for charities.
The church is dedicated to the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary