William Erwin Eisner was an American cartoonist and entrepreneur. He was one of the earliest cartoonists to work in the American comic book industry, his series The Spirit was noted for its experiments in content and form. In 1978, he popularized the term "graphic novel" with the publication of his book A Contract with God, he was an early contributor to formal comics studies with Sequential Art. The Eisner Award was named in his honor, is given to recognize achievements each year in the comics medium. Eisner's father Shmuel "Samuel" Eisner was born March 6, 1886, in Kolomyia, Austria-Hungary, was one of eleven children, he aspired to be an artist, as a teenager painted murals for rich patrons and Catholic churches in Vienna. To avoid conscription in the army, he moved to New York before the outbreak of World War I. There he found getting work difficult, he made what living he could painting backdrops for the Jewish theater. Eisner's mother, Fannie Ingber, was born to Jewish parents from Romania April 25, 1891, on a ship bound for the US.
Her mother died on her tenth birthday, was followed by her father. An older stepsister thereafter raised her and kept her so busy with chores that she had little time for socializing or schooling. Family introduced Fannie, who were distant relatives, they had three children: son Will Erwin, born on his father's birthday in 1917. Eisner was born in New York City, he grew up poor, the family moved frequently. Young Eisner got into physical confrontations when subjected to antisemitism from his schoolmates, his family were not orthodox followers of Judaism. Young Eisner was tall and of sturdy lacked athletic skills, he was a voracious consumer of pulp magazines and film, including avant-garde films such as those by Man Ray. To his mother's disappointment, Eisner had his father's interest in art, his father encouraged him by buying him art supplies. Eisner's mother berated his father for not providing the family a better income, as he went from one job to another. Without success he tried his hand at such ventures as a furniture retailer and a coat factory.
The family situation was dire following the Wall Street Crash of 1929 that marked the beginning of the Great Depression. In 1930, the situation was so desperate that Eisner's mother demanded that he, at thirteen, find some way to contribute to the family's income, he entered working life selling newspapers on street corners, a competitive job where the toughest boys fought for the best locations. Eisner attended DeWitt Clinton High School. With influences that included the early 20th-century commercial artist J. C. Leyendecker, he drew for the school newspaper, the literary magazine and the yearbook, did stage design, leading him to consider doing that kind of work for theater. Upon graduation, he studied under Canadian artist George Brandt Bridgman for a year at the Art Students League of New York. Contacts made there led to a position as an advertising writer-cartoonist for the New York American newspaper. Eisner drew $10-a-page illustrations for pulp magazines, including Western Sheriffs and Outlaws.
In 1936, high-school friend and fellow cartoonist Bob Kane, of future Batman fame, suggested that the 19-year-old Eisner try selling cartoons to the new comic book Wow, What A Magazine! "Comic books" at the time were tabloid-sized collections of comic strip reprints in color. By 1935, they had begun to include occasional new comic strip-like material. Wow editor Jerry Iger bought an Eisner adventure strip called Captain Scott Dalton, an H. Rider Haggard-styled hero who traveled the world after rare artifacts. Eisner subsequently wrote and drew the pirate strip "The Flame" and the secret agent strip "Harry Karry" for Wow as well. Eisner said that on one occasion a man who Eisner described as "a Mob type straight out of Damon Runyon, complete with pinkie ring, broken nose, black shirt, white tie, who claimed to have "exclusive distribution rights for all Brooklyn" asked Eisner to draw Tijuana bibles for $3 a page. Eisner said. Wow lasted four issues. After it ended and Iger worked together producing and selling original comics material, anticipating that the well of available reprints would soon run dry, though their accounts of how their partnership was founded differ.
One of the first such comic-book "packagers", their partnership was an immediate success, the two soon had a stable of comics creators supplying work to Fox Comics, Fiction House, Quality Comics, others. Turning a profit of $1.50 a page, Eisner claimed that he "got rich before I was 22," detailing that in Depression-era 1939 alone, he and Iger "had split $25,000 between us", a considerable amount for the time. Among the studio's products was a self-syndicated Sunday comic strip, Hawks of the Sea, that reprinted Eisner's old strip Wow, What A Magazine! Feature "The Flame" and continued it with new material. Eisner's original work crossed the Atlantic, with Eisner
"À Suivre" or "A SUIVRE" was a Franco-Belgian comics magazine published from February 1978 to December 1997 by the Casterman publishing house. Along with the comic book magazines Spirou, Tintin and Metal Hurlant, it is considered to have been one of the major vehicles for the development of Franco-Belgian comics during the 20th century. À Suivre was established by Casterman publishing house in 1978. The magazine was published on a monthly basis, it presented the work of major European comic book artists including Hugo Pratt, Jean-Claude Forest, Alexandro Jodorowsky, Milo Manara, Jean Giraud, Jacques Tardi, François Bourgeon, F'Murr, Ted Benoît, Guido Crepax, Vittorio Giardino, François Schuiten, Benoît Sokal and François Boucq. It was pioneer in introducing graphic novels. At the early 1990s À Suivre was printed in full color. List of magazines in Belgium
Dany, pseudonym for Daniel Henrotin is a Belgian comic book artist, best known for Olivier Rameau and Ça vous intéresse?. Daniel Henrotin was born in Marche-en-Famenne in 1943. After studying at the Art School of Liège, he started working as a comics artist in 1966, as an assistant for Mitteï, an artist working for Tintin magazine. Dany worked there for a year and had to leave in order to do his military service. Afterwards, he started collaborating directly on Tintin magazine with illustrations and short stories, worked in the studio of Greg, the editor-in-chief of the magazine. Greg wrote a poetic story about Olivier Rameau and the people of Dreamland, it marked the debut of Dany's first successful and longest running series. Dreamland is similar to the worlds of L. Frank Baum's Oz and Lewis Carroll's Alice and Dany drew an adaptation of Alice shortly after starting the Olivier Rameau series. Much of Dany's early work was drawn in a comical style, but in the late 1970s he produced more realistic drawings while in collaboration with writer Jean Van Hamme.
This included Histoire sans héros in 1977, a one-shot adventure story about the survivors of a plane crash trying to find a way out of a dense South American jungle. It reached a wide audience. Dany and Van Hamme came up with a series called Arlequin, the adventures of a freelance secret agent and master of disguise made in the spirit of The Persuaders!, popular in continental Europe. Meanwhile and Dany would collaborate on some other short-lived series, in the 1990s Greg wrote the final two stories of Bernard Prince for Dany after Hermann had quit the series.. But his main commercial success came in 1990 when he started a series of erotic joke comics with Ça vous intéresse?. The series was an instant success, many artists and writers have collaborated on the books and multimedia that have followed since. 1971: Prix Saint-Michel, Humour Award, for Olivier Rameau 2007: Prix Saint-Michel, Best Artwork 2011: Prix Diagonale Red Ears Footnotes Dany official site Dany site on Éditions Joker Dany biography on Labiek Comiclopedia Dany biography fan site
Georges Prosper Remi, known by the pen name Hergé, was a Belgian cartoonist. He is best known for creating The Adventures of Tintin, the series of comic albums which are considered one of the most popular European comics of the 20th century, he was responsible for two other well-known series, Quick & Flupke and The Adventures of Jo, Zette and Jocko. His works were executed in his distinct ligne claire drawing style. Born to a lower middle-class family in Etterbeek, Hergé began his career by contributing illustrations to Scouting magazines, developing his first comic series, The Adventures of Totor, for Le Boy-Scout Belge in 1926. Working for the conservative Catholic newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle, he created The Adventures of Tintin in 1929 on the advice of its editor Norbert Wallez. Revolving around the actions of boy reporter Tintin and his dog Snowy, the series' early installments – Tintin in the Land of the Soviets, Tintin in the Congo, Tintin in America – were designed as conservative propaganda for children.
Domestically successful, after serialisation the stories were published in book form, with Hergé continuing the series and developing both the Quick & Flupke and Jo, Zette and Jocko series for Le Vingtième Siècle. Influenced by his friend Zhang Chongren, from 1934 Hergé placed far greater emphasis on conducting background research for his stories, resulting in increased realism from The Blue Lotus onward. Following the German occupation of Belgium in 1940, Le Vingtième Siècle was closed but Hergé continued his series in Le Soir, a popular newspaper controlled by the Nazi administration. After the Allied liberation of Belgium in 1944, Le Soir was shut down and its staff – including Hergé – accused of having been collaborators. An official investigation was launched, while no charges were brought against Hergé, in subsequent years he faced accusations of having been a traitor and collaborator. With Raymond Leblanc he established Tintin magazine in 1946, through which he serialised new Adventures of Tintin stories.
As the magazine's artistic director, he oversaw the publication of other successful comics series, such as Edgar P. Jacobs' Blake and Mortimer. In 1950 he established Studios Hergé as a team to aid him in his ongoing projects. Amid personal turmoil following the collapse of his first marriage, he produced Tintin in Tibet, his personal favourite of his works. In years he became less prolific, unsuccessfully attempted to establish himself as an abstract artist. Hergé's works have been acclaimed for their clarity of draughtsmanship and meticulous, well-researched plots, they have been the source of a wide range of adaptations, in theatre, television and computer gaming. He remains a strong influence on the comic book medium in Europe. Celebrated in Belgium, a Hergé Museum was established in Louvain-la-Neuve in 2009. Georges Prosper Remi was born on 22 May 1907 in his parental home in Etterbeek, Brussels, a central suburb in the capital city of Belgium, his was a lower middle-class family. His Walloon father, Alexis Remi, worked in a confectionery factory, whilst his Flemish mother, Elisabeth Dufour, was a housewife.
Married on 18 January 1905, they moved into a house at 25 rue Cranz, where Hergé was born, although a year they moved to a house at 34 rue de Theux. His primary language was his father's French, but growing up in the bilingual Brussels, he learned Dutch, developing a Marollien accent from his maternal grandmother. A younger brother, was born five years after Hergé. Like most Belgians, his family belonged to the Roman Catholic Church, though they were not devout, he characterised his life in Etterbeek as dominated by a monochrome grey, considering it boring. Biographer Benoît Peeters suggested that this childhood melancholy might have been exacerbated through being sexually abused by a maternal uncle. Remi developed a love of cinema, favouring Winsor McCay's Gertie the Dinosaur and the films of Charlie Chaplin, Harry Langdon and Buster Keaton. Although not a keen reader, he enjoyed the novels of British and American authors, such as Huckleberry Finn, Treasure Island, Robinson Crusoe and The Pickwick Papers, as well as the novels of Frenchman Alexandre Dumas.
Drawing as a hobby, he sketched out scenes from daily life along the edges of his school books. Some of these illustrations were of German soldiers, because his four years of primary schooling at the Ixelles Municipal School No. 3 coincided with the First World War, during which Brussels was occupied by the German army. In 1919, his secondary education began at the secular Place de Londres in Ixelles, but in 1920 he was moved to Saint-Boniface School, an institution controlled by the archbishop where the teachers were Roman Catholic priests. Remi proved a successful student, he completed his secondary education in July 1925 as the top of his class. Aged 12, Remi joined the Boy Scout brigade attached to Saint-Boniface School, becoming troop leader of the Squirrel Patrol and earning the name "Curious Fox". With the Scouts, he travelled to summer camps in Italy, Switzerland and Spain, in the summer of 1923 his troop hiked 200 miles across the Pyrenees, his experiences with Scouting would have a significant influence on the rest of his life, sparking his love of camping and the natural world, providing him with a moral compass that stressed personal loyalty and keep
Chick Bill is a Franco-Belgian humorous Western comic book series created by Tibet. It was first published in 1953 in the Franco-Belgian comics magazines Ons Volkske and Chez Nous Junior, began serial publication on October 19, 1955 in Tintin magazine under the title Les aventures de Chick Bill le cow-boy. 70 books of the series were published, it lasted until Tibet's death in 2010. Tibet wrote many of the scripts as well as drawing all the episodes, but various stories were written by André-Paul Duchâteau and Greg and one episode was scripted by René Goscinny. Frank Brichau was credited as co-illustrator for the last two books; the series follows the adventures of Chick Bill, a young cowboy who lives in Arizona, helping people in need and righting wrongs. His companions include an Indian child called Little Poodle, a gruff sheriff called Dog Bull and the latter's bumbling and dim-witted deputy, Kid Ordinn. Chick Bill and Little Poodle act as the series' heroes while Dog Bull and Kid Ordinn are the comic relief characters.
Kid Ordinn is the series' antihero and the real protagonist of many episodes. In the first Chick Bill adventures, the characters were portrayed as anthropomorphic animals, rendered in a manner similar to the Disney style and directed at a younger audience, before the series evolved to feature human characters; this change was made when the series began publication in Tintin, at the request of Hergé, the magazine's artistic supervisor. Footnotes Tamil Comics Ulagam Chick Bill Complete Story Index With Cover Gallery in India
Hugo Eugenio Pratt was an Italian comic book creator, known for combining strong storytelling with extensive historical research on works such as Corto Maltese. He was inducted into the Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame in 2005. In 1946 Hugo Pratt became part of the so-called Group of Venice with Fernando Carcupino, Dino Battaglia and Damiano Damiani. Born in Rimini, Italy to Rolando Pratt and Evelina Genero, Hugo Pratt spent most of his childhood in Venice in a cosmopolitan family environment, his paternal grandfather Joseph was of English origin, his maternal grandfather was of Marrano descent, his grandmother was of Turkish origin. He was related to actor Boris Karloff. In 1937, Pratt moved with his mother to Abyssinia, joining his father, working there following the conquest of that country by Benito Mussolini's Italy. Pratt's father, a professional Italian soldier, was captured in 1941 by British troops and in late 1942, died from disease as a prisoner of war; the same year, Hugo Pratt and his mother were interned in a prison camp at Dirédaoua, where he would buy comics from guards, was sent back to Italy by the Red Cross.
After the war, Pratt moved to Venice. Pratt joined the'Venice Group' with other Italian cartoonists, including Alberto Ongaro and Mario Faustinelli, their magazine Asso di Picche, launched in 1945 as Albo Uragano, concentrated on adventure comics. The magazine scored some success and published works including Dino Battaglia, his character Asso di Picche was a success in Argentina, where Pratt was invited in 1949. In the late 1940s, he moved to Buenos Aires where he worked for Argentine publisher Editorial Abril and met Argentine comics artists like Alberto Breccia and Solano López; the passage to Editorial Frontera saw the publication of some of his most important early series. These included Sgt. Kirk and Ernie Pike, written by Héctor Germán Oesterheld. Pratt taught drawing in the Escuela Panamericana de Arte directed by Enrique Lipszyc, he travelled to South American destinations like the Amazon and Mato Grosso. During that period he produced his first comic book as a complete author, both writing and illustrating Anna della jungla, followed by the similar Capitan Cormorant and Wheeling.
The latter was completed after his return to Italy. From the summer of 1959 to the summer of 1960, Pratt lived in London where he drew a series of war comics for Fleetway Publications, with British scriptwriters, he returned to Argentina, despite the harsh economic times there. From there, he moved again to Italy in 1962 where he started a collaboration with the children's comic book magazine Il Corriere dei Piccoli, for which he adapted several classics of adventure literature, including Treasure Island and Kidnapped by Robert Louis Stevenson. In 1967, Pratt met Florenzo Ivaldi. In the first issue, Pratt's most famous story was published: Una ballata del mare salato, which introduced his best known character, Corto Maltese. Corto's series continued three years in the French magazine Pif gadget. Due to his rather mixed family ancestry, Pratt had learned snippets of things like kabbalism and lots of history. Many of his stories are placed in real historical eras and deal with real events: the 1755 war between French and British colonists in Ticonderoga, colonial wars in Africa and both World Wars, for example.
Pratt did exhaustive research for factual and visual details, some characters are real historical figures or loosely based on them, like Corto's main friend/enemy, Rasputin. Many of the minor characters cross over into other stories in a way that places all of Pratt’s stories into the same continuum. Pratt's main series in the second part of his career include Gli scorpioni del deserto and Jesuit Joe, he wrote stories for his friend and pupil Milo Manara for Tutto ricominciò con un'estate indiana and El Gaucho. From 1970 to 1984, Pratt lived in France where Corto Maltese, a psychologically complex character resulting from the travel experiences and the endless inventive capacity of his author, became the main character of a comics series. Published from 1970 to 1973 by the magazine Pif gadget, it brought him much popular and critical success. Published in album format, this series was translated into fifteen languages. From 1984 to 1995 Pratt lived in Switzerland where the international success that Corto Maltese sparked continued to grow.
In France, most of his pre-Corto Maltese works were published in several album editions by publishers such as Casterman and Humanoides Associés. A wanderer by nature, Hugo Pratt continued to travel from Canada to Patagonia, from Africa to the Pacific area, he died of bowel cancer on 20 August 1995. Pratt has cited authors like Robert Louis Stevenson, James Oliver Curwood, Zane Grey, Kenneth Roberts, Joseph Conrad, Fenimore Cooper, Herman Melville and Jack London as influences, along with cartoonists Lyman Young, Will Eisner, Milton Caniff. On Friday, July 15, 2005, at San Diego Comic-Con's 17th Annual Will Eisner Comic Industry Awards, he was one of four professionals that year inducted into the Comic Book Hall of Fame. One of the series created by Pratt, entitled "The Scorpions of the Desert" in English, has been continued after Pratt's death. In 2005 a sixth volume in this series was released, drawn by Pierre Wazeem and entitled "Le chemin de fièvre". A seventh album was scheduled by the French publishers Casterman for release in March 2
The Spirit is a fictional masked crimefighter created by cartoonist Will Eisner. He first appeared June 2, 1940, as the main feature of a 16-page, tabloid-sized, newsprint comic book insert distributed in the Sunday edition of Register and Tribune Syndicate newspapers. "The Spirit Section", as the insert was popularly known, continued until October 5, 1952. It included two other four-page strips, plus filler material. Eisner was the editor, but wrote and drew most entries—after the first few months, he had the uncredited assistance of writer Jules Feiffer and artists Jack Cole and Wally Wood, though Eisner's singular vision for the strip was a unifying factor; the Spirit chronicles the adventures of a masked vigilante who fights crime with the blessing of the city's police commissioner Dolan, an old friend. Despite the Spirit's origin as detective Denny Colt, his real identity was unmentioned again, for all intents and purposes he was "the Spirit"; the stories are presented in a wide variety of styles, from straightforward crime drama and noir to lighthearted adventure, from mystery and horror to comedy and love stories with hybrid elements that twisted genre and reader expectations.
From the 1960s to 1980s, a handful of new Eisner Spirit stories appeared in Harvey Comics and elsewhere, Warren Publishing and Kitchen Sink Press variously reprinted the newspaper feature in black-and-white comics magazines and in color comic books. In the 1990s and 2000s, Kitchen Sink Press and DC Comics published new Spirit stories by other writers and artists. In 2011, IGN ranked The Spirit 21st in the Top 100 Comic Book Heroes of all time. In late 1939, Everett M. "Busy" Arnold, publisher of the Quality Comics comic-book line, began exploring an expansion into newspaper Sunday supplements, aware that many newspapers felt they had to compete with the burgeoning new medium of American comic books, as exemplified by the Chicago Tribune Comic Book, premiering two months before The Spirit Section. Arnold compiled a presentation piece with existing Quality Comics material. An editor of The Washington Star liked George Brenner's comic-book feature "The Clock", but not Brenner's art, was favorably disposed toward a Lou Fine strip.
Arnold, concerned over the meticulous Fine's slowness and his ability to meet deadlines, claimed it was the work of Eisner, Fine's boss at the Eisner & Iger studio, from which Arnold bought his outsourced comics work. In "late'39, just before Christmas time", Eisner recalled in 1979, "Arnold came to me and said that the Sunday newspapers were looking for a way of getting into this comic book boom". In a 2004 interview, Eisner elaborated on that meeting: "Busy" invited me up for lunch one day and introduced me to Henry Martin, who said, "The newspapers in this country the Sunday papers, are looking to compete with comics books, they would like to get a comic-book insert into the newspapers"... Martin asked if I could do it... It meant that I'd have to leave Iger was making money. A hard decision. Anyway, I agreed to do the Sunday comic book and we started discussing the deal was that we'd be partners in the "Comic Book Section", as they called it at that time. Eisner negotiated an agreement with the syndicate in which Arnold would copyright The Spirit, but, "Written down in the contract I had with'Busy' Arnold — and this contract exists today as the basis for my copyright ownership — Arnold agreed that it was my property.
They agreed that if we had a split-up in any way, the property would revert to me on that day that happened. My attorney went to'Busy' Arnold and his family, they all signed a release agreeing that they would not pursue the question of ownership." This would include the eventual backup features, "Mr. Mystic" and "Lady Luck." Selling his share of their firm to Iger, who would continue to package comics as the S. M. Iger Studio and as Phoenix Features through 1955, for $20,000, Eisner left to create The Spirit. "They gave me an adult audience", Eisner said in 1997, "and I wanted to write better things than superheroes. Comic books were a ghetto. I sold my part of the enterprise to my associate and began The Spirit, they wanted a costumed character. They asked me, and I put a mask on him and said,'Yes, he has a costume!'"The character and the types of stories Eisner would tell, Eisner said in 1978, derived from his desire...to do short stories. I always regarded comics as my medium. Creating a detective character would... provide me with the most viable vehicle for the kind of stories I could best tell.
The syndicate people weren't in full agreement with me... N my first discussion with'Busy' Arnold, his thinking centered around a superhero kind of character—a costumed character. O one evening, around three in the morning, I was still working, trying to find it—I only had about a week-and-a-half or two weeks in which to produce the first issue, the whole deal was done in quite a rush—and I came up with an outlaw hero, suitable, I felt, for an adult audience; the character's name, he said in that interview, came from Arnold: "When'Busy' Arnold called, he suggested a kind of ghost or some kind of metaphysical character. He said,'How about a thing called the Ghost?' and I said,'Naw, that's not any good,' and he said,'W