William Ballard Doggett was an American jazz and rhythm and blues pianist and organist. He is best known for his compositions "Honky Tonk" and "Hippy Dippy", variously working with the Ink Spots, Johnny Otis, Wynonie Harris, Ella Fitzgerald, Louis Jordan. Doggett was born in Philadelphia, his mother, a church pianist, introduced him to music. By the time he was fifteen, he had joined a Philadelphia area combo, playing local theaters and clubs while attending high school. Doggett sold his band to Lucky Millinder, worked during the 1930s and early 1940s for Millinder, Frank Fairfax and arranger Jimmy Mundy. In 1942 he was hired as the Ink Spots' arranger. Toward the end of 1947, he replaced Wild Bill Davis as the pianist for Louis Jordan's Tympany Five, it was in Jordan's group. In 1950 he is reputed to have written one of Jordan's biggest hits, "Saturday Night Fish Fry", for which Jordan claimed the writing credit. In 1951, Doggett began recording for King Records, his best known recording is "Honky Tonk", a rhythm and blues hit of 1956 which sold four million copies, which he co-wrote with Billy Butler.
The track topped the US Billboard R&B chart for over two months. He won the Cash Box award for best rhythm and blues performer in 1957, 1958, 1959, he arranged for many bandleaders and performers, including Louis Armstrong, Count Basie, Ella Fitzgerald, Lionel Hampton. As a jazz player Doggett started in swing music and played soul jazz, his bands included saxophonists Red Holloway, Clifford Scott, Percy France, David "Bubba" Brooks, Clifford Davis, Floyd "Candy" Johnson. His biggest hits, "Honky Tonk" and "Slow Walk" featured saxophonist Clifford Scott, he continued to arrange until he died, aged 80, of a heart attack in New York City. Bill Doggett: His Organ And Combo, Volume 1 King 295-82 Bill Doggett: His Organ And Combo, Volume 2 King 295-83 All Time Christmas Favorites King 295-89 Sentimentally Yours King 295-102 Moon Dust King 395-502 Hot Doggett King 395-514 As You Desire Me King 395-523 Everybody Dance The Honky Tonk King 395-531 Dame Dreaming With Bill Doggett King 395-532 A Salute To Ellington King 533 The Doggett Beat For Dancing Feet King 557 Candle Glow King 563 Swingin' Easy King 582 Dance Awhile With Doggett King 585 12 Songs Of Christmas King 600 Hold It!
King 609 High And Wide King 633 Big City Dance Party King 641 Bill Doggett On Tour King 667 For Reminiscent Lovers, Romantic Songs By Bill Doggett King 706 Back With More Bill Doggett King 723 The Many Moods Of Bill Doggett King 778 Bill Doggett Plays American Songs, Bossa Nova Style King 830 Impressions King 868 The Best Of Bill Doggett King 908 Bonanza Of 24 Songs King 959 Take Your Shot King 1041 Honky Tonk Popcorn King 1078 The Nearness Of You King 1097 Ram-Bunk-Shush King 1101 Sentimental Mood King 1104 Soft King 1108 14 Original Greatest Hits King-Starday 5009 Charles Brown: PLEASE COME HOME FOR CHRISTMAS King-Starday 5019 3,046 People Danced'Til 4 A. M. To Bill Doggett Warner Bros. WS-1404 The Band With The Beat! Warner Bros. WS-1421 Bill Doggett Swings Warner Bros. WS-1452 Rhythm Is My Business Verve V6-4056 Oops! The Swinging Sounds Of Bill Doggett Columbia CL-1814/CS-8614 Prelude To The Blues Columbia CL-1942/CS-8742 Finger-Tips Columbia CL-2082/CS-8882 Wow! ABC-Paramount S-507 Honky Tonk A-La-Mod!
Roulette SR-25330 The Right Choice After Hours/Ichiban 4112 - note: this is Doggett's last recorded album of original material. Gon' Doggett Charly R&B CRB-1094 Leaps And Bounds Charly R&B CD-281 The EP Collection See For Miles SEECD-689 Honky Tonk: The Very Best Of Bill Doggett Collectables 2876 The Chronological Bill Doggett 1952-1953 Classics'Blues & Rhythm Series' 5097 The Chronological Bill Doggett 1954 Classics'Blues & Rhythm Series' 5175 With Coleman HawkinsThe Hawk Talks Chicago Blues Festival History of Rock Bill Doggett at Find a Grave
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700, in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard, a row of keys that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings; the word piano is a shortened form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument, which in turn derives from gravicembalo col piano e forte and fortepiano. The Italian musical terms piano and forte indicate "soft" and "loud" in this context referring to the variations in volume produced in response to a pianist's touch or pressure on the keys: the greater the velocity of a key press, the greater the force of the hammer hitting the strings, the louder the sound of the note produced and the stronger the attack; the name was created as a contrast to harpsichord, a musical instrument that doesn't allow variation in volume. The first fortepianos in the 1700s had smaller dynamic range.
An acoustic piano has a protective wooden case surrounding the soundboard and metal strings, which are strung under great tension on a heavy metal frame. Pressing one or more keys on the piano's keyboard causes a padded hammer to strike the strings; the hammer rebounds from the strings, the strings continue to vibrate at their resonant frequency. These vibrations are transmitted through a bridge to a soundboard that amplifies by more efficiently coupling the acoustic energy to the air; when the key is released, a damper stops the strings' vibration, ending the sound. Notes can be sustained when the keys are released by the fingers and thumbs, by the use of pedals at the base of the instrument; the sustain pedal enables pianists to play musical passages that would otherwise be impossible, such as sounding a 10-note chord in the lower register and while this chord is being continued with the sustain pedal, shifting both hands to the treble range to play a melody and arpeggios over the top of this sustained chord.
Unlike the pipe organ and harpsichord, two major keyboard instruments used before the piano, the piano allows gradations of volume and tone according to how forcefully a performer presses or strikes the keys. Most modern pianos have a row of 88 black and white keys, 52 white keys for the notes of the C major scale and 36 shorter black keys, which are raised above the white keys, set further back on the keyboard; this means that the piano can play 88 different pitches, going from the deepest bass range to the highest treble. The black keys are for the "accidentals". More some pianos have additional keys. Most notes have three strings, except for the bass; the strings are sounded when keys are pressed or struck, silenced by dampers when the hands are lifted from the keyboard. Although an acoustic piano has strings, it is classified as a percussion instrument rather than as a stringed instrument, because the strings are struck rather than plucked. There are two main types of piano: the upright piano.
The grand piano is used for Classical solos, chamber music, art song, it is used in jazz and pop concerts. The upright piano, more compact, is the most popular type, as it is a better size for use in private homes for domestic music-making and practice. During the 1800s, influenced by the musical trends of the Romantic music era, innovations such as the cast iron frame and aliquot stringing gave grand pianos a more powerful sound, with a longer sustain and richer tone. In the nineteenth century, a family's piano played the same role that a radio or phonograph played in the twentieth century. During the nineteenth century, music publishers produced many musical works in arrangements for piano, so that music lovers could play and hear the popular pieces of the day in their home; the piano is employed in classical, jazz and popular music for solo and ensemble performances and for composing and rehearsals. Although the piano is heavy and thus not portable and is expensive, its musical versatility, the large number of musicians and amateurs trained in playing it, its wide availability in performance venues and rehearsal spaces have made it one of the Western world's most familiar musical instruments.
With technological advances, amplified electric pianos, electronic pianos, digital pianos have been developed. The electric piano became a popular instrument in the 1960s and 1970s genres of jazz fusion, funk music and rock music; the piano was founded on earlier technological innovations in keyboard instruments. Pipe organs have been used since Antiquity, as such, the development of pipe organs enabled instrument builders to learn about creating keyboard mechanisms for sounding pitches; the first string instruments with struck strings were the hammered dul
Swing music, or swing, is a form of popular music developed in the United States that dominated in the 1930s and 1940s. The name swing came from the'swing feel' where the emphasis is on the off–beat or weaker pulse in the music. Swing bands featured soloists who would improvise on the melody over the arrangement; the danceable swing style of big bands and bandleaders such as Benny Goodman was the dominant form of American popular music from 1935 to 1946, a period known as the swing era. The verb "to swing" is used as a term of praise for playing that has a strong groove or drive. Notable musicians of the swing era include Louis Armstrong, Louis Prima, Larry Clinton, Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Benny Goodman, Artie Shaw, Glenn Miller, Woody Herman, Tommy Dorsey, Jimmy Dorsey, Harry James, Louis Jordan, Cab Calloway. Swing has roots in the 1920s as larger dance music ensembles began using new styles of written arrangements incorporating rhythmic innovations pioneered by Louis Armstrong and Earl Hines.
A typical song played in swing style would feature a strong, anchoring rhythm section in support of more loosely tied wind and brass. The most common style consisted of theme choruses and choruses with improvised solos within the framework of his bandmates playing support. Swing music began to decline in popularity during World War II because of several factors. Swing influenced the styles of traditional pop music, jump blues, bebop jazz. Swing music saw a revival in the late 1950s and 1960s with the resurgent Count Basie and Duke Ellington orchestras, with pop vocalists such as Frank Sinatra and Nat King Cole. Swing blended with other genres to create new music styles. In country music, artists such as Jimmie Rodgers, Moon Mullican and Bob Wills introduced many elements of swing along with blues to create a genre called western swing. Gypsy swing is Lang's jazz violin swing. Swing revivals have occurred periodically from the late 1960s to the 2000s. In the late-1980s a trendier, more urban-styled swing-beat emerged called new jack swing, spearheaded by Teddy Riley.
In the late 1990s and into the 2000s there was a swing revival, led by Squirrel Nut Zippers, Brian Setzer, Big Bad Voodoo Daddy, Lavay Smith. In Canada, some of the early 2000s records by The JW-Jones Blues Band included swing revival elements. Developments in dance orchestra and jazz music during the 1920s both contributed to the development of the 1930s swing style. Starting in 1923, the Fletcher Henderson Orchestra featured innovative arrangements by Don Redman that featured call-response interplay between brass and reed sections, interludes arranged to back up soloists; the arrangements had a smoother rhythmic sense than the ragtime-influenced arrangements that were the more typical "hot" dance music of the day. In 1924 Louis Armstrong joined the Henderson band, lending impetus to an greater emphasis on soloists; the Henderson band featured Coleman Hawkins, Benny Carter, Buster Bailey as soloists, who all were influential in the development of swing era instrumental styles. During the Henderson band's extended residency at the Roseland Ballroom in New York, it became influential on other big bands.
Duke Ellington credited the Henderson band with being an early influence when he was developing the sound for his own band. In 1925 Armstrong left the Henderson band and would add his innovations to New Orleans style jazz to develop Chicago style jazz, another step towards swing. Traditional New Orleans style jazz was based on a two-beat meter and contrapuntal improvisation led by a trumpet or cornet followed by a clarinet and trombone in a call-response pattern; the rhythm section consisted of a sousaphone and drums, sometimes a banjo. By the early 1920s guitars and pianos sometimes substituted for the banjo and a string bass sometimes substituted for the sousaphone. Use of the string bass opened possibilities for 4/4 instead of 2/4 time at faster tempos, which increased rhythmic freedom; the Chicago style released the soloist from the constraints of contrapuntal improvisation with other front-line instruments, lending greater freedom in creating melodic lines. Louis Armstrong used the additional freedom of the new format with 4/4 time, accenting the second and fourth beats and anticipating the main beats with lead-in notes in his solos to create a sense of rhythmic pulse that happened between the beats as well as on them, i.e. swing.
In 1927 Armstrong worked with pianist Earl Hines, who had a similar impact on his instrument as Armstrong had on trumpet. Hines' melodic, horn-like conception of playing deviated from the contemporary conventions in jazz piano centered on building rhythmic patterns around "pivot notes." His approaches to rhythm and phrasing were free and daring, exploring ideas that would define swing playing. His approach to rhythm used accents on the lead-in instead of the main beat, mixed meters, to build a sense of anticipation to the rhythm and make his playing swing, he used "stops" or musical silences to build tension in his phrasing. Hines' style was a seminal influence on the styles of swing-era pianists Teddy Wilson, Art Tatum, Jess Stacy, Nat "King" Cole, Erroll Garner, Mary Lou Williams, Jay McShann. Black territory dance bands in the southwest were developing dynamic styles that went in the direction of blues-based simplicity, using riffs in a call-response pattern to build a strong, danceable rhythm and provide a musical platform for extended solos.
The rhythm-heavy tunes for dancing were called "stomps." The requirement for volume led to continued use of the sousaphone over the string bass with the larger ensembles, which dictated a more conservative approach to rhythm based on 2/4 time signatures. Meanwhile, string bass player
The Yardbirds are an English rock band, formed in London in 1963. The band's core lineup featured vocalist and harmonica player Keith Relf, drummer Jim McCarty, rhythm guitarist/bassist Chris Dreja and bassist/producer Paul Samwell-Smith; the band is known for starting the careers of three of rock's most famous guitarists, Eric Clapton, Jimmy Page and Jeff Beck, all of whom ranked in the top five of Rolling Stone magazine's list of 100 greatest guitarists. The band had a string of hits throughout the mid-1960s, including "For Your Love", "Heart Full of Soul", "Shapes of Things" and "Over Under Sideways Down". A blues-based band noted for their signature "rave-up" instrumental breaks, the Yardbirds broadened their range into pop, pioneering psychedelic rock and early hard rock; the band's influence on both the music of the times and genres to come was great, they inspired a host of imitators such as the Count Five and The Shadows of Knight. Some rock critics and historians credit the Yardbirds with contributing to, if not inventing, "the birth of psychedelic music" and sowing the seeds of punk rock, progressive rock and heavy metal, among other genres.
Following the band's split in 1968, Relf and McCarty formed Renaissance and guitarist Jimmy Page formed what became Led Zeppelin. The band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1992, they were included as No. 89 in Rolling Stone's list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", ranked No. 37 on VH1's 100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock. The Yardbirds reformed in the 1990s, featuring drummer Jim McCarty and rhythm guitarist/bassist Chris Dreja as the only original members of the band. Dreja left the band in 2012, leaving McCarty as the sole original member of the band present in the lineup; the band formed in the south-west London suburbs in 1963. Relf and Samwell-Smith were in a band named the Metropolitan Blues Quartet. After being joined by Dreja, McCarty and Top Topham, they performed at Kingston Art School in late May 1963 as a backup band for Cyril Davies. Following a couple of gigs in September 1963 as the Blue-Sounds, they changed their name to The Yardbirds, either an expression for hobos hanging around rail yards or prisoners hanging around a prison yard or a reference to seminal jazz saxophonist Charlie "Yardbird" Parker.
The quintet achieved notice on the burgeoning British rhythm and blues scene when they took over as the house band at the Crawdaddy Club in Richmond, succeeding the Rolling Stones. Their repertoire drew from the Chicago blues of Howlin' Wolf, Muddy Waters, Bo Diddley, Sonny Boy Williamson II and Elmore James, including "Smokestack Lightning", "Good Morning Little School Girl", "Boom Boom", "I Wish You Would", "Rollin' and Tumblin'", "Got Love if You Want It" and "I'm a Man". Original lead guitarist Topham left and was replaced by Eric Clapton in October 1963. Crawdaddy Club impresario Giorgio Gomelsky became the Yardbirds manager and first record producer. Under Gomelsky's guidance the Yardbirds toured Britain as the back-up band for blues legend Sonny Boy Williamson II in December 1963 and early 1964, recording live tracks on 8 December and other dates; the recordings would be released two years during the height of the Yardbirds popularity on the album Sonny Boy Williamson and The Yardbirds.
After the tours with Williamson, the Yardbirds signed to EMI's Columbia label in February 1964, recorded more live tracks 20 March at the legendary Marquee Club in London. The resulting album of rhythm and blues covers, Five Live Yardbirds, would not be released by Columbia for another nine months, it failed to enter the UK albums charts. Over time Five Live gained stature as one of the few quality live recordings of the era, as a historical document of both the British "rock and roll boom" in the 1960s and Clapton's time in the band; the Clapton line-up recorded two singles, the blues "I Wish You Would" and "Good Morning, School Girl", before the band scored its first major hit with the overtly pop "For Your Love", a Beatles-influenced Graham Gouldman composition built around a four-chord progression played on a harpsichord by Brian Auger. "For Your Love" hit the top of the charts in the UK and Canada and reached No. 6 in the United States, but it displeased Clapton, a blues purist whose vision extended beyond three-minute singles.
Frustrated by the commercial approach, he abruptly left the band on 25 March 1965, the day the single was released. Soon Clapton joined John Mayall & the Bluesbreakers, but not before he recommended Jimmy Page, a prominent young session guitarist, to replace him. Content with his lucrative sessions work, worried about both his health and the politics of Clapton's departure, Page in turn recommended his friend Jeff Beck. Beck played his first gig with the Yardbirds only two days after Clapton's departure. Beck's explorations of fuzz tone, feedback, sustain and hammer-on soloing fitted well into the raw style of British beat music; the Yardbirds began to experiment with eclectic arrangements reminiscent of Gregorian chants and various European and Asian styles while Beck infused a pervasive Middle Eastern influence into the mix. Beck was voted No. 1 lead guitarist of 1966 in the British music magazine Beat Instrumental. The Beck-era Yardbirds produced a number of groundbreaking recordings; these included the hit singles "Heart Full of Soul", "Evil Hearted You"/"Still I'm Sad", a cover of Bo Diddley's "I'm a Man", "Shapes of Things" and "Over Under Sideways Down", the Yardbirds album.
Beck's fuzz-tone guitar riff on "Heart Full of Soul" introduced Indian raga-style guitar to the pop charts in the summer of 1965. The fol
Jazz piano is a collective term for the techniques pianists use when playing jazz. The piano has been an integral part of the jazz idiom since its inception, in both solo and ensemble settings, its role is multifaceted due to the instrument's combined melodic and harmonic capabilities. For this reason it is an important tool of jazz musicians and composers for teaching and learning jazz theory and set arrangement, regardless of their main instrument. Along with the guitar and other keyboard instruments, the piano is one of the instruments in a jazz combo that can play both single notes and chords rather than only single notes as does the saxophone or trumpet. A new style known as “stride” or “Harlem stride” emerged during the 1920s, predominantly in New York. James P. Johnson was a prominent adherent; the left hand was used to establish rhythm. Mastering the various chord voicings—simple to advanced—is the first building block of learning jazz piano. Jazz piano technique uses all the chords found in Western art music, such as major, augmented, seventh, diminished seventh, minor seventh, major seventh, suspended fourth, so on.
A second key skill is learning to play with a swing rhythm and "feel". In jazz, the roots are omitted from keyboard voicings, as this task is left to the double bass player. Jazz pianists make extensive use of chord "extensions", such as adding the ninth, eleventh or thirteenth scale degree to the chord. In some cases, these extensions may be "altered" i.e. sharpened or flattened, as in the case of a "sharp 11" chord. The next step is learning to improvise melodic lines using scales and chord tones; this ability is perfected after long experience, including much practice, which internalizes the physical skills of playing and the technical elements of harmony, it requires a great natural'ear' for extemporaneous music-making. When jazz pianists improvise, they use the scales and arpeggios associated with the chords in a tune's chord progression; the approach to improvising has changed since the earliest eras of jazz piano. During the Swing era, many soloists improvised "by ear" by embellishing the melody with ornaments and passing notes.
However, during the bebop era, the rapid tempo and complicated chord progressions made it harder to play "by ear." Along with other improvisers, such as saxes and guitar players, bebop-era jazz pianists began to improvise over the chord changes using scales and arpeggios. Jazz piano and the instrument itself offer soloists an exhaustive number of choices. One may play the bass register in an ostinato pattern, popular in boogie-woogie style, where the left hand repeats a phrase numerous times throughout a song, as performed by Rob Agerbeek in "Boogie Woogie Stomp." The left hand can be played as a melodic counterline that emulates the walking of an upright bass. In stride piano, the left hand plays alternate positions between notes in the bass register and chords in the tenor register, while the right hand plays melody and improvises, as performed in George Gershwin's "Liza"; the right hand may play melodic lines, or harmonic content, chordally or in octaves. It may be played in lockstep with the left hand, using a double melody block chord called "locked-hand" voicing, or Shearing voicing—a technique popularized, though not invented, by the pianist and set leader George Shearing.
Jazz piano has played a leading role in developing the sound of jazz. Early on, black jazz musicians created ragtime on the piano; as the genre progressed the piano was featured in the rhythm section of a band, configured as one or more of piano, bass, or drums, or other instruments, such as the vibraphone. Over time, playing piano-accompaniment in ensemble sets, bands, changed from time-keeping to a more flexible role; the skilled pianist was free both to lead and to answer the instrumental soloist, using both short and sustained and melodic, fragments—a technique known as'comping'. Good comping musicians were capable of many and different chord voicings, so to match the various moods the different soloists were aiming for. In the early days not all leading pianists were concerned to provide comping. Others—notably Duke Ellington, who became famous during the Harlem Renaissance at the Cotton Club—earned great esteem among band members as well as other musicians. Ellington did much to develop the technique.
Jazz piano moved away from playing lead melody to providing foundation for song sets. In the 1940s and 1950s, a number of great piano players emerged. Pianists like Thelonious Monk and Bud Powell helped establish the sound of bebop. Bill Evans built upon the style of Bud Powell while adding a distinct classical influence to his playing while Oscar Peterson pushed rhythmic variations and was influenced by the style of Art Tatum, Teddy Wilson and Nat King Cole. Wynton Kelly, Red Garland, Herbie Hancock, Keith Jarrett were exceptional pianists who played with Miles Davis. Tommy Flanagan was featured by John Coltrane on his hit album Giant Steps. McCoy Tyner is an influential player who played with Coltrane. List of jazz pianists Swing, a term of praise for playing that has a strong rhythmic "groove" or drive Mark Levine: The Jazz Piano Book. A "how to" book on the subject. Randy Halberstadt: Metaphors For The Musician. Insights into ev
A drum kit — called a drum set, trap set, or drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum. A drum kit consists of a mix of drums and idiophones – most cymbals, but can include the woodblock and cowbell. In the 2000s, some kits include electronic instruments. Both hybrid and electronic kits are used. A standard modern kit, as used in popular music and taught in music schools, contains: A snare drum, mounted on a stand, placed between the player's knees and played with drum sticks A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot, which moves a felt-covered beater One or more toms, played with sticks or brushes A hi-hat, played with the sticks and closed with left foot pedal One or more cymbals, mounted on stands, played with the sticksAll of these are classified as non-pitched percussion, allowing the music to be scored using percussion notation, for which a loose semi-standardized form exists for both the drum kit and electronic drums.
The drum kit is played while seated on a stool known as a throne. While many instruments like the guitar or piano are capable of performing melodies and chords, most drum kits are unable to achieve this as they produce sounds of indeterminate pitch; the drum kit is a part of the standard rhythm section, used in many types of popular and traditional music styles, ranging from rock and pop to blues and jazz. Other standard instruments used in the rhythm section include the piano, electric guitar, electric bass, keyboards. Many drummers extend their kits from this basic configuration, adding more drums, more cymbals, many other instruments including pitched percussion. In some styles of music, particular extensions are normal. For example, some rock and heavy metal drummers make use of double bass drums, which can be achieved with either a second bass drum or a remote double foot pedal; some progressive drummers may include orchestral percussion such as gongs and tubular bells in their rig. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, play small kits that omit elements from the basic setup.
Before the development of the drum set and cymbals used in military and orchestral music settings were played separately by different percussionists. In the 1840s, percussionists began to experiment with foot pedals as a way to enable them to play more than one instrument, but these devices would not be mass-produced for another 75 years. By the 1860s, percussionists started combining multiple drums into a set; the bass drum, snare drum and other percussion instruments were all struck with hand-held drum sticks. Drummers in musical theater shows and stage shows, where the budget for pit orchestras was limited, contributed to the creation of the drum set by developing techniques and devices that would enable them to cover the roles of multiple percussionists. Double-drumming was developed to enable one person to play the bass and snare with sticks, while the cymbals could be played by tapping the foot on a "low-boy". With this approach, the bass drum was played on beats one and three. While the music was first designed to accompany marching soldiers, this simple and straightforward drumming approach led to the birth of ragtime music when the simplistic marching beats became more syncopated.
This resulted in dance feel. The drum set was referred to as a "trap set", from the late 1800s to the 1930s, drummers were referred to as "trap drummers". By the 1870s, drummers were using an "overhang pedal". Most drummers in the 1870s preferred to do double drumming without any pedal to play multiple drums, rather than use an overhang pedal. Companies patented their pedal systems such as Dee Dee Chandler of New Orleans 1904–05. Liberating the hands for the first time, this evolution saw the bass drum played with the foot of a standing percussionist; the bass drum became the central piece around which every other percussion instrument would revolve. William F. Ludwig, Sr. and his brother, Theobald Ludwig, founded the Ludwig & Ludwig Co. in 1909 and patented the first commercially successful bass drum pedal system, paving the way for the modern drum kit. Wire brushes for use with drums and cymbals were introduced in 1912; the need for brushes arose due to the problem of the drum sound overshadowing the other instruments on stage.
Drummers began using metal fly swatters to reduce the volume on stage next to the other acoustic instruments. Drummers could still play the rudimentary snare figures and grooves with brushes that they would play with drumsticks. By World War I, drum kits were marching band-style military bass drums with many percussion items suspended on and around them. Drum kits became a central part of jazz Dixieland; the modern drum kit was developed in the vaudeville era during the 1920s in New Orleans. In 1917, a New Orleans band called "The Original Dixieland Jazz Band " recorded jazz tunes that became hits all o