Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
A fisherman or fisher is someone who captures fish and other animals from a body of water, or gathers shellfish. Worldwide, there are fish farmers. Fishermen may be both men or women. Fishing has existed as a means of obtaining food since the Mesolithic period. Fishing has existed as a means of obtaining food since the Mesolithic period. Fishing had become a major means of survival as well as a business venture. Fishing and the fisherman have influenced Ancient Egyptian religion. Bastet was manifested in the form of a catfish. In ancient Egyptian literature, the process that Amun used to create the world is associated with the tilapia's method of mouth-brooding. According to the FAO, there were about 39 million fishers in countries producing more than 200,000 tonnes in 2012, nearly 140% the number in 1995; the total fishery production of 66 million tonnes equated to an average productivity of 3.5 tonnes per person. Most of this growth took place in Asian countries, where four-fifths of world fishers and fish farmers dwell.
Most fishermen are men involved in deep-sea fisheries. Women fish in some regions collect shellfish and seaweed. In many artisanal fishing communities, women are responsible for making and repairing nets, post-harvest processing and marketing. Recreational fishing is fishing for competition, it can be contrasted with commercial fishing, fishing for economic profit, or subsistence fishing, fishing for survival. The most common form of recreational fishing is done with a rod, line and any one of a wide range of baits. Lures are used in place of bait; some people make handmade lures, including artificial flies. The practice of catching or attempting to catch fish with a hook is called angling; when angling, it is sometimes required that the fish be caught and released. Big-game fishing is fishing from boats to catch large open-water species such as tuna and marlin. Noodling and trout tickling are recreational activities. For some communities, fishing provides not only a source of food and work but community and cultural identity.
The fishing industry is hazardous for fishermen. Between 1992 and 1999, US commercial fishing vessels averaged 78 deaths per year; the main contributors to fatalities are: inadequate preparation for emergencies poor vessel maintenance and inadequate safety equipment lack of awareness of or ignoring stability issues. Many fishermen, while accepting that fishing is dangerous, staunchly defend their independence. Many proposed laws and additional regulation to increase safety have been defeated because fishermen oppose them. Alaska's commercial fishermen work in one of the world's harshest environments. Many of the hardships they endure include isolated fishing grounds, high winds, seasonal darkness cold water and short fishing seasons, where long work days are the norm. Fatigue, physical stress, financial pressures face most Alaska fishermen through their careers; the hazardous work conditions faced by fishermen have a strong impact on their safety. Out of 948 work-related deaths that took place in Alaska during 1990-2006, one-third occurred to fishermen.
This is equivalent to an estimated annual fatality rate of 128/100,000 workers/year. This fatality rate is 26 times that of the overall U. S. work-related fatality rate of 5/100,000 workers/year for the same time period. While the work-related fatality rate for commercial fishermen in Alaska is still high, it does appear to be decreasing: since 1990, there has been a 51 percent decline in the annual fatality rate; the successes in commercial fishing are due in part to the U. S. Coast Guard implementing new safety requirements in the early 1990s; these safety requirements contributed to 96 percent of the commercial fishermen surviving vessel sinkings/capsizings in 2004, whereas in 1991, only 73 percent survived. While the number of occupational deaths in commercial fishermen in Alaska has been reduced, there is a continuing pattern of losing 20 to 40 vessels every year. There are still about 100 fishermen. Successful rescue is still dependent on the expertly trained personnel of the US Coast Guard Search and Rescue operations, such efforts can be hindered by the harshness of seas and the weather.
Furthermore, the people involved in Search and Rescue operations are themselves at considerable risk for injury or death during these rescue attempts. Fishing Recreational fishing Aquaculture Fish farming Dirty and demeaning Fishery List of American fishers Fields, Leslie Leyland Out On The Deep Blue: Women and the Oceans They Fish. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-27726-0 Jones, Stephen Working Thin Waters: Conversations with Captain * Lawrence H. Malloy, Jr. University Press of New England. ISBN 978-1-58465-103-1 Moore, Charles W Did fishermen discover the New World? For Those in Peril: Dangers at Sea for fishermen on the East Coast of Scotland historyshelf.org Fisher Folk at Sea and Ashore North East Folklore Archive, Aberdeenshire Council. Retrieved 9 March 2011
Seney National Wildlife Refuge
The Seney National Wildlife Refuge is a managed wetland in Schoolcraft County in the U. S. state of Michigan. It has an area of 95,212 acres, it is bordered by M-28 and M-77. The nearest town of any size is Michigan; the refuge contains the Seney Wilderness Area and the Strangmoor Bog National Natural Landmark within its boundaries. While the Seney National Wildlife Refuge is oriented towards maintaining living space for bird life, river otters, moose, black bears and wolves live in the refuge. 211 separate species of birds have been logged at Seney, including ducks, bald eagles, trumpeter swans, sandhill cranes, common loons. On the western side of the National Wildlife Refuge, a parcel is designated as a wilderness with an area of 25,150 acres; the Seney NWR's western wilderness area, designated by federal law as the Seney Wilderness Area, includes the Strangmoor Bog National Natural Landmark. The Strangmoor Bog was landmarked as being the best surviving example in the 48 states of a sub-arctic patterned bog ecosystem, characterized by rapid glacial meltoff from an exposed sandy plain.
The friable sand, exposed to the weather, was sculpted by wind and water into parallel strips of dune highland and wetland. The Seney National Wildlife Refuge is built upon the remains of the Great Manistique Swamp, a perched sand wetland located in the central Upper Peninsula. After its forests were exploited in 1880-1910, promoters attempted to drain the swamp for farmland; the drainage was a failure and left the wetland criscrossed with canals and drainage ponds. Much of the property was abandoned for unpaid property taxes. During the 1930s, work crews employed by the Civilian Conservation Corps rebuilt and expanded the wetland drains, this time for active wetlands management purposes; these CCC ponds and drains are still used by the wetlands managers that staff the current National Wildlife Refuge. The Seney National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1935; when the Seney National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1935, the Canada goose was a threatened species. Widespread, year-round hunting had reduced the North American population of free-flying Canada geese to a trickle of birds who avoided human beings as much as possible.
One of the priorities of the new Seney NWR was to establish a refuge for free-flying Canada geese. In January 1936, during the first winter of the Seney Refuge's operation, the refuge trucked in 300 pinioned Canada geese; these flightless geese were fed. It was hoped that they would produce a crop of goslings that would establish a migratory pattern of behavior and voluntarily return to the Refuge; the goslings were banded. Every year a shrinking crop of Canada goslings was hatched and flew south for the winter, but few or none returned in the following spring to Seney. Poaching was continuing in the geese wintering grounds and on the flyways. Meanwhile, the parent population of wing-clipped Canada geese diminished between 1936 and 1945 from 300 to 45. March, 1946 saw the first significant return of free-flying Canada geese; this tiny flock bred true in the following years. The Seney Canada goose breeding population had multiplied to 3,000 birds by 1956, continued to expand thereafter after local hunting was re-legalized.
The Seney National Wildlife Refuge's Canada goose project is considered to have been one of the key programs in re-establishing the Canada goose as a major wetland bird of North America. As of 2007, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, administrator of the Seney National Wildlife Refuge, was reporting that the refuge hosted 88,000 visitors annually. Seney NWR acts as the administrative unit for the following other refuges: The Huron Islands/Huron National Wildlife Refuge in Lake Superior; the Lake Michigan division of the Michigan Islands National Wildlife Refuge. The Whitefish Point Unit on Lake Superior in the eastern Upper Peninsula of Michigan, where the Whitefish Point Bird Observatory conducts research on migrating birds. In 1998, the United States Coast Guard transferred 33 acres from the Whitefish Point Light Station to the USFWS to form the Whitefish Point Unit of the Seney NWR; the USFWS shares governance of the former light station with the Michigan Audubon Society and the Great Lakes Shipwreck Historical Society through a Management Plan.
The USFWS has final oversight at Whitefish Point. On August 30, 2012, the USFWS added 19.85 acres acres and more than 1,000 feet of Lake Superior shoreline as critical piping plover habitat to Whitefish Point unit. Casselman, Tracy. "Seney National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan". United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Retrieved January 30, 2011. Lively, Jim. "Human use/natural resource management plan for Whitefish Point". Michigan Land Use Institute. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2011. Rosentreter, Roger L.. "Roosevelt's Tree Army: Michigan's Civilian Conservation Corps". Michigan History. Retrieved December 3, 2007. Seney National Wildlife Refuge Whitefish Point Unit of Seney National Wildlife Refuge Whitefish Point Bird Observatory
The Chinook salmon is the largest species in the Pacific salmon genus Oncorhynchus. The common name refers to the Chinookan peoples. Other vernacular names for the species include king salmon, Quinnat salmon, spring salmon, chrome hog, Tyee salmon; the scientific species name is based on the Russian common name chavycha. Chinook are anadromous fish native to the North Pacific Ocean and the river systems of western North America, ranging from California to Alaska, as well as Asian rivers ranging from northern Japan to the Palyavaam River in the Arctic north-east Siberia, they have been introduced to other parts of the world, including New Zealand, the Great Lakes of North America and Patagonia. A large Chinook is a sought-after catch for a sporting angler; the flesh of the salmon is highly valued for its dietary nutritional content, which includes high levels of important omega-3 fatty acids. Some populations are endangered; the Chinook salmon has not been assessed for the IUCN Red List. According to NOAA the Chinook salmon population along the California coast is declining, due to factors like overfishing, loss of freshwater and estuarine habitat, hydropower development, poor ocean conditions, hatchery practices.
The native distribution of Chinook salmon in North America ranged from the Ventura River in California in the south to Kotzebue Sound in Alaska in the north. Populations have disappeared from large areas where they once flourished, shrinking by as much as 40 percent. In some regions, their inland range has been cut off by dams and habitat alterations: from Southern California, some areas east of the Coast Ranges of California and Oregon, large areas in the Snake River and upper Columbia River drainage basins. In certain areas like California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, it was revealed that low populations of juvenile Chinook salmon were surviving. In the western Pacific, the distribution ranges from northern Japan in the south to the Arctic Ocean as far as the East Siberian Sea and Palyavaam River in the north, they are present and the distribution is well known only in Kamchatka. Elsewhere, information is scarce, but they have a patchy presence in the Anadyr River basin and parts of the Chukchi Peninsula.
In parts of the northern Magadan Oblast near the Shelikhov Gulf and Penzhina Bay stocks might persist, but remain poorly studied. In 1967, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources planted Chinook in Lake Michigan and Lake Huron to control the alewife, an invasive species of nuisance fish from the Atlantic Ocean. Alewives constituted 90% of the biota in these lakes. Coho salmon had been planted the year before and the program was a success. Chinook and Coho salmon spawned in the lakes' tributaries. After this success, Chinook were planted in the other Great Lakes, where sport fishermen prize them for their aggressive behavior on the hook; the species has established itself in Patagonian waters in South America, where both introduced and escaped hatchery fish have colonized rivers and established stable spawning runs. Chinook salmon have been found spawning in headwater reaches of the Rio Santa Cruz having migrated over 1,000 km from the ocean; the population is thought to be derived from a single stocking of juveniles in the lower river around 1930.
Sporadic efforts to introduce the fish to New Zealand waters in the late 1800s were failures and led to no evident establishments. Early ova were imported from the Baird hatchery of the McCloud River in California. Further efforts in the early 1900s were more successful and subsequently led to the establishment of spawning runs in the rivers of Cantebury and North Otago; the success of the latter introductions is thought to be attributable to the use of ova from autumn-run populations as opposed to ova from spring-run populations used in the first attempts. Whilst other salmon have been introduced into New Zealand, only Chinook salmon have established sizeable pelagic runs; the Chinook is blue-green, red, or purple on the back and top of the head, with silvery sides and white ventral surfaces. It has the upper half of its body. Chinook have a Black gum line, present in both salt and freshwater. Adult fish may be up to 58 in in length. In the Kenai River of Alaska, mature Chinook averaged 16.8 kg.
The current sport-caught world record, 97.25 lb, was caught on May 1985, in the Kenai River. The commercial catch world record is 126 lb caught near Rivers Inlet, British Columbia, in the late 1970s. Chinook may spend one to eight years in the ocean before returning to their home rivers to spawn; the salmon undergo radical morphological changes as they prepare for the spawning event ahead. All salmon lose the silvery blue they had as ocean fish, their colour darkens, sometimes with a radical change in hue. Salmon are sexually dimorphic, the male salmon develop canine-like teeth and their jaws develop a pronounced curve or hook, called a "kype". Studies have shown that larger and more dominant male salmon have a reproductive advantage as female Chinook are more aggressive toward smaller males. Chinook spawn in larger and deeper waters than other salmon species and can be found on the spawning redds from Sept
Waterloo State Recreation Area
Waterloo State Recreation Area is the third-largest park in Michigan, encompassing over 21,000 acres of forest and wetlands. Located in northeast Jackson County and parts of Washtenaw County, the park is the largest in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and features 4 campgrounds, 11 lakes, a nature center, over 50 miles of trails - some for horses, bicycles and cross-country skiing. Waterloo SRA includes the Black Spruce Bog Natural Area, a National Natural Landmark and borders the 11,000-acre Pinckney Recreation Area on the east and the 950-acre Phyllis Haehnle Memorial Audubon Sanctuary to the west; the land preserved by the park is not all contiguous and numerous private landholdings and roads run through the park area. The area is characterized by moraines, kettle lakes and bogs left by retreating glaciers after the last ice age; the park was created by the federal government during the Great Depression and is long-term leased to the state. The Waterloo area was first settled in the 1830s but the ground was poorly suited for farming and during the Great Depression large numbers of farms were abandoned or in financial trouble.
The Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works studied the creation of a variety of kinds of parks in several states. The lands were transferred to the Resettlement Administration of the Department of Agriculture in 1935. In 1935-1936, 45 recreational demonstration projects were established including 12,000 acres at Waterloo; these areas were sited in marginal areas near large population centers to provide outdoor recreation actitivies and temporary employment. Most of the sites had CCC camps, Works Progress Administration workers and other "relief workers". Permanent organized family and youth camps, trails, park facilities buildings and bathing facilities were constructed. Waterloo had three permanent camps: Mill Lake and Cassidy Lake camps. Mill Lake served inner-city youth and Cassidy Lake was a year-round trade school before being converted to its current use as a prison in 1942. Camp Waterloo began as a CCC camp served to train military police and as a German POW camp during World War II.
It became a low security prison. Sylvan Pond was created when the WPA put in a dam and levees at Cassidy Lake raised its water level permanently; the clubhouse of former Sylvan Estates Country Club is the current park headquarters. The recreational demonstration projects were transferred from the Resettlement Administration to the National Park Service in November, 1936; the Park Service ended hunting on all park lands it managed nationwide which created a local controversy in Waterloo. In 1943, the state of Michigan leased the park from the National Park Service under the conditions that it must remain a public park for recreational and conservation purposes. In particular, the lease for Waterloo Park requires marshes be maintained for the sandhill cranes and that Michigan must provide funds to run the Yankee Springs Recreation Area near Grand Rapids, the other recreational demonstration project in the state; the park offers over 434 campsites that are available in two modern campgrounds, one equestrian and one rustic campground.
Available to visitors are thirteen rustic cabins. The park boasts a swimming beach, several picnic sites, 11 fishing lakes, eight boat launches. Hunting for small game and deer is allowed in most of the park, except for established safety zones around campgrounds and park facilities; the park offers extensive trails that wind through the vast landscape and around the eleven lakes that exist within the park's confines - 12 miles of interpretive nature trails, 47 miles of hiking trails and numerous equestrian trails. The 36-mile Waterloo-Pinckney Trail runs across the park and into the adjoining 11,000-acre Pinckney Recreation Area; the lakes host a variety of fish species which include Largemouth Bass, Smallmouth Bass, Sunfish, Northern Pike and others. Crooked Lake, Clear Lake, Little Portage Lake, Mill Lake, Sugarloaf Lake, Doyle Lake, Merkle Lake, Mud Lake, the Winnewana Impoundment are among the eleven bodies of water found in the park. Clear Lake, Doyle Lake, Little Portage Lake and Merkle Lake are accessible by foot only by crossing state land.
Fishing piers are located on Big Crooked lakes. Sugarloaf Lake has state owned access limited to campers and a owned access site. Public boat launches are located on the following lakes: Big Portage, Green, Mill and Walsh; the Winnewana Impoundment provides a boat landing. The launch site at Big Portage Lake meets ADAAG standards for universal accessibility. Boats may be rented by visitors at Big Portage Lake from the park; the Gerald E. Eddy Discovery Center features exhibits on the geology and natural habitats of Waterloo State Recreation Area, both in pre-settler times and today. Another display shows fluted spear points used by the Paleo-Indian hunters and other cultural history artifacts. There is interactive exhibits and computer games; the center hosts special programs for school groups. Waterloo-Pinckney Trail Waterloo Recreation Area Michigan Department of Natural Resources Gerald E. Eddy Discovery Center Michigan DNR Waterloo Recreation Area Protected Planet
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore is a U. S. National Lakeshore on the shore of Lake Superior in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, United States, it covers 73,236 acres. The park has extensive views of the hilly shoreline between Munising and Grand Marais in Alger County, with picturesque rock formations and sand dunes. Pictured Rocks derives its name from the 15 miles of colorful sandstone cliffs northeast of Munising; the cliffs reach up to 200 feet above lake level. They have been sculptured into a variety of shallow caves and formations resembling castle turrets and human profiles. Near Munising, visitors can visit Grand Island, most of, included in the separate Grand Island National Recreation Area; the U. S. Congress designated Pictured Rocks the first National Lakeshore in the United States in 1966, it is governed by the National Park Service, with 22 year-round NPS employees as of May 2006, received 476,888 visitors in 2005. The colors in the cliffs are created by the large amounts of minerals in the rock.
The cliffs are composed of the Munising Formation of 500-million-year-old Cambrian Period sandstone. The Munising Formation sits atop Precambrian sandstone of the Jacobsville Formation; the mottled red Jacobsville Formation is the oldest rock in the park. On top of the Munising Formation, acting as a cap over the other layers, is the hard sandstone of the younger Au Train Formation from the Ordovician Period. Streaks on the face of the cliffs come from groundwater leaching out of the rock and evaporating, leaving streaks of iron, limonite and other minerals. Although the Pictured Rocks shore waters are a rich fishing ground, the sandstone cliffs are dangerous to canoes and other open boats skirting the coastline. In 1658, the fur trader Pierre Esprit Radisson made this risky passage and noted that his Native American companions made an offering of tobacco to the local spirit of the cliffs. During the Romantic Era of the 1800s, a series of American writers described their feelings upon sight of the Pictured Rocks.
Geologist and US Indian Agent Henry Rowe Schoolcraft visited in 1820 and remarked upon "some of the most sublime and commanding views in nature". In 1850, George Copway Kah-Ge-Ga-Gah-Bowh, a Mississaugas Ojibwa writer and Methodist missionary, published The Traditional History and Characteristic Sketches of the Ojibway Nation, in which he cited the detailed description of the Pictured Rock by General Lewis Cass. Around 1850, developers planned a tourist resort, Grand Island City, adjacent to the Pictured Rocks near the current site of Munising. After the lumbering era ended around 1910, much of the land making up the current National Lakeshore reverted to the state of Michigan for unpaid property taxes. Eager for federal help and recognition, the state cooperated with the federal government in the region's redevelopment. In October 1966, Congress passed a bill authorizing the establishment of the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore "in order to preserve for the benefit, education, recreational use, enjoyment of the public, a significant portion of the diminishing shoreline of the United States and its related geographic and scientific features."
This was America's first National Lakeshore. On April 13, 2006, one of the named rock formations collapsed: the Inner Turret of Miner's Castle in the Munising Formation; the collapse was reported via cell phone by fisherman in the area, according to chief ranger Larry Hach. Miners Castle consists of crumbly cross-bedded sandstone poorly cemented by secondary quartz, according to Research Ecologist Walter Loope of the U. S. Geological Survey. Rockfalls along the cliffs occur in the spring and fall due to freezing-thawing action. On March 30, 2009, the Omnibus Public Land Management Act was signed into law, protecting 11,740 acres of Pictured Rocks as the Beaver Basin Wilderness. In 2010, singer Kid Rock filmed the video for his song "Born Free" at the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore. In early 2014, Courtney Kotewa's snapshot of kayakers passing under a rock arch at the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore was chosen as the grand prize winner of 2013 Share the Experience photo contest, sponsored by the National Park Foundation.
Munising, on the western end of the lakeshore, is accessed by M-28 and M-94. Grand Marais, on the eastern end, is reached by M-77. Paved highways penetrate into the Lakeshore from both ends, connected by County Road H-58. Roads come close to the shoreline only near Miners Castle, 12 Mile Beach, the Grand Sable Dunes; the rest of the shoreline is seen from land only by hiking. A 42-mile section of the North Country Trail spans the lakeshore. A permit is needed for backcountry camping, allowed along many miles of the National Lakeshore; this means. Many boat companies offer daily trips along the lakeshore from Memorial Day weekend through the fall season. Sea kayaking is another popular way to explore the park. While this may be the best way to see the natural formations, it is a strenuous trip in cold, dangerous water, not be undertaken or without proper equipment. Guides are available; the most efficient port of entry for kayaks is from the harbor at Munising. In addition, pontoons can be cheaply rented locally.
Winter sports activities include cross-country skiing, snowmobiling, ice climbing, ice fishing. The administrators of Pictured Rocks have worked to make much of its rugged environment wheelchair accessible. Features include: Interagency Visitor Center, Munising Falls Interpretive Center, Miners Castle Information Station in Munis
National Historic Site (United States)
National Historic Site is a designation for an recognized area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS contains a single historical feature directly associated with its subject. A related but separate designation, the National Historical Park, is an area that extends beyond single properties or buildings, its resources include a mix of historic and sometimes significant natural features; as of 2018, there are 89 NHSs. Most NHPs and NHSs are managed by the National Park Service; some federally designated sites are owned by local authorities or owned, but are authorized to request assistance from the NPS as affiliated areas. One property, Grey Towers National Historic Site, is managed by the U. S. Forest Service; as of October 15, 1966, all historic areas, including NHPs and NHSs, in the NPS are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are about 90,000 NRHP sites, the large majority of which are neither owned nor managed by the NPS. Of these, about 2,500 have been designated at the highest status as National Historic Landmark sites.
National Historic Sites are federally owned and administered properties, though some remain under private or local government ownership. There are 89 NHSs, of which 77 are official NPS units, 11 are NPS affiliated areas, 1 is managed by the US Forest Service. Derived from the Historic Sites Act of 1935, a number of NHSs were established by United States Secretaries of the Interior, but most have been authorized by acts of Congress. In 1937, the first NHS was created in Salem, Massachusetts in order to preserve and interpret the maritime history of New England and the United States. There is one International Historic Site in the US park system, a unique designation given to Saint Croix Island, Maine, on the New Brunswick border; the title, given to the site of the first permanent French settlement in America, recognizes the influence that has had on both Canada and the United States. The NPS does not distinguish among these designations in terms of their preservation or management policies. In the United States, sites are "historic", while parks are "historical".
The NPS explains that a site can be intrinsically historic, while a park is a modern legal invention. As such, a park is not itself "historic", but can be called "historical" when it contains historic resources, it is the resources. Klondike Gold Rush International Historical Park was formally established in 1998 by the United States and Canada, the year of the centennial of the gold rush the park commemorates; the park comprises Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park in Washington and Alaska, Chilkoot Trail National Historic Site in British Columbia. It was this trail which so many prospectors took in hopes of making their fortunes in the Klondike River district of Yukon. National Historic Sites List of World Heritage Sites in North America Designation of National Park System Units