Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the United Kingdoms aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April 1918, following victory over the Central Powers in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. The RAF describe its mission statement as, an agile and capable Air Force that, person for person, is second to none, and that makes a decisive air power contribution in support of the UK Defence Mission. The mission statement is supported by the RAFs definition of air power, Air power is defined as the ability to project power from the air and space to influence the behaviour of people or the course of events. Today the Royal Air Force maintains a fleet of various types of aircraft. The majority of the RAFs rotary-wing aircraft form part of the tri-service Joint Helicopter Command in support of ground forces, most of the RAFs aircraft and personnel are based in the UK, with many others serving on operations or at long-established overseas bases. It was founded on 1 April 1918, with headquarters located in the former Hotel Cecil, during the First World War, by the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps, at that time it was the largest air force in the world.
The RAFs naval aviation branch, the Fleet Air Arm, was founded in 1924, the RAF developed the doctrine of strategic bombing which led to the construction of long-range bombers and became its main bombing strategy in the Second World War. The RAF underwent rapid expansion prior to and during the Second World War, under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan of December 1939, the air forces of British Commonwealth countries trained and formed Article XV squadrons for service with RAF formations. Many individual personnel from countries, and exiles from occupied Europe. By the end of the war the Royal Canadian Air Force had contributed more than 30 squadrons to serve in RAF formations, the Royal Australian Air Force represented around nine percent of all RAF personnel who served in the European and Mediterranean theatres. In the Battle of Britain in 1940, the RAF defended the skies over Britain against the numerically superior German Luftwaffe, the largest RAF effort during the war was the strategic bombing campaign against Germany by Bomber Command.
Following victory in the Second World War, the RAF underwent significant re-organisation, during the early stages of the Cold War, one of the first major operations undertaken by the Royal Air Force was in 1948 and the Berlin Airlift, codenamed Operation Plainfire. Before Britain developed its own nuclear weapons the RAF was provided with American nuclear weapons under Project E and these were initially armed with nuclear gravity bombs, being equipped with the Blue Steel missile. Following the development of the Royal Navys Polaris submarines, the nuclear deterrent passed to the navys submarines on 30 June 1969. With the introduction of Polaris, the RAFs strategic nuclear role was reduced to a tactical one and this tactical role was continued by the V bombers into the 1980s and until 1998 by Tornado GR1s. For much of the Cold War the primary role of the RAF was the defence of Western Europe against potential attack by the Soviet Union, with many squadrons based in West Germany. With the decline of the British Empire, global operations were scaled back, despite this, the RAF fought in many battles in the Cold War period
Saint Columba was an Irish abbot and missionary credited with spreading Christianity in what is today Scotland at the start of the Hiberno-Scottish mission. He founded the important abbey on Iona, which became a dominant religious and he is the Patron Saint of Derry. He was highly regarded by both the Gaels of Dál Riata and the Picts, and is remembered today as a Christian saint, Columba studied under some of Irelands most prominent church figures and founded several monasteries in the country. He remained active in Irish politics, though he spent most of the remainder of his life in Scotland, three surviving early medieval Latin hymns may be attributed to him. Columba was born to Fedlimid and Eithne of the Cenel Conaill in Gartan, near Lough Gartan, in modern County Donegal, on his fathers side, he was great-great-grandson of Niall of the Nine Hostages, an Irish high king of the 5th century. He was baptised in Temple-Douglas, in the County Donegal parish of Conwal, by his teacher and foster-uncle Saint Crunathan.
When sufficiently advanced in letters he entered the school of Movilla, at Newtownards. He was about twenty, and a deacon when, having completed his training at Movilla, he travelled southwards into Leinster, on leaving him, Columba entered the monastery of Clonard, governed at that time by Finnian, noted for sanctity and learning. Here he imbibed the traditions of the Welsh Church, for Finnian had been trained in the schools of St. David, in early Christian Ireland the druidic tradition collapsed due to the spread of the new Christian faith. The study of Latin learning and Christian theology in monasteries flourished, Columba became a pupil at the monastic school at Clonard Abbey, situated on the River Boyne in modern County Meath. During the sixth century, some of the most significant names in the history of Irish Christianity studied at the Clonard monastery and it is said that the average number of scholars under instruction at Clonard was 3,000. Columba was one of students of St. Finnian who became known as the Twelve Apostles of Ireland.
He became a monk and eventually was ordained a priest, another preceptor of Columba was St. Mobhi, whose monastery at Glasnevin was frequented by such famous men as St. Canice, St. Comgall, and St. Ciaran. A pestilence which devastated Ireland in 544 caused the dispersion of Mobhis disciples, and Columba returned to Ulster and he was a striking figure of great stature and powerful build, with a loud, melodious voice which could be heard from one hilltop to another. The following years were marked by the foundation of important monasteries, County Londonderry, County Offaly, County Meath. While at Derry it is said that he planned a pilgrimage to Rome and Jerusalem, thence he brought a copy of those gospels that had lain on the bosom of St. Martin for the space of 100 years. This relic was deposited in Derry, tradition asserts that, sometime around 560, he became involved in a quarrel with Saint Finnian of Movilla Abbey over a psalter. Columba copied the manuscript at the scriptorium under Saint Finnian, intending to keep the copy, Saint Finnian disputed his right to keep the copy
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Argyll and Bute
Argyll and Bute is both one of 32 unitary authority council areas and a lieutenancy area in Scotland. The administrative centre for the area is in Lochgilphead. Argyll and Bute covers the second largest administrative area of any Scottish council, the council area adjoins those of Highland and Kinross, Stirling and West Dunbartonshire. Its border runs through Loch Lomond, the present council area was created in 1996, when it was carved out of the Strathclyde region, which was a two-tier local government region of 19 districts, created in 1975. Argyll and Bute merged the existing Argyll and Bute district and one ward of the Dumbarton district. The Dumbarton ward, called Helensburgh and Lomond, included the burgh of Helensburgh and consisted of an area to the west of Loch Lomond, north of the Firth of Clyde and mostly east of Loch Long. The council area can be described by reference to divisions of the counties which were abolished in 1975, the council area includes most of the county of Argyll, part of the county of Bute and part of the county of Dunbartonshire.
The scenes of the 1963 James Bond film From Russia with Love were filmed around the lochs and hills of Argyll, the Colintraive in Cowal to Rhubodach on the Isle of Bute route, across the Kyles of Bute, is operated by Caledonian MacBrayne. The Portavadie in Cowal to Tarbert on the Kintyre Peninsula route, as a result of the investigation, a council employee was suspended for setting up fake social media accounts to monitor what was being said about the council. The councils own investigation confirmed it had no evidence of any form of spying or covert surveillance having been carried out by any employee within the councils communication team. In June 2012, the council was criticised for banning a local primary student, Martha Payne. The blog, NeverSeconds, had been praised by the celebrity chef, on the day the story broke, the blog had raised over £40,000. After an initial statement from the defending the decision, the ban was subsequently overturned by council leader. In November 2012 a book written by David Payne, father of Neverseconds blogger Martha Payne, revealed the background to the attempt to censor.
The book states about the council, My anger and frustration at Argyll, thinly veiled attacks on our parenting on national radio and an abusive phonecall stood out as examples of a public body sick to the very top. Complaints via the proper procedures and through elected councillors had no visible changes. Far from being contrite they seemed to take a pride in being untouchable and Bute Council election,2012 Censorship in the United Kingdom List of places in Argyll and Bute Gaelic place names of Scotland Argyll and Bute Council Argyll and Bute at DMOZ
Oban is a resort town within the Argyll and Bute council area of Scotland. Despite its small size, it is the largest town between Helensburgh and Fort William, during the tourist season, the town can play host to up to 25,000 people. Oban occupies a setting in the Firth of Lorn, the bay is a near perfect horseshoe, protected by the island of Kerrera, and beyond Kerrera, the Isle of Mull. To the north, is the long low island of Lismore, the site where Oban now stands has been used by humans since at least mesolithic times, as evidenced by archaeological remains of cave dwellers found in the town. Just outside the town stands Dunollie Castle, on a site that overlooks the entrance to the bay and has been fortified since the Bronze age. Prior to the 19th century, the town itself supported very few households, sustaining only minor fishing, trading and quarrying industries, and a few hardy tourists. The Renfrew trading company established a storehouse there in about 1714 as an outlet for its merchandise.
The modern town of Oban grew up around the distillery, which was founded there in 1794, the town was raised to a burgh of barony in 1811 by royal charter. Sir Walter Scott visited the area in 1814, the year in which he published his poem The Lord of the Isles, the arrival of the railways in the 1880s brought further prosperity, revitalising local industry and giving new energy to tourism. Shortly thereafter, McCaigs Tower, a folly and prominent local landmark, was constructed, during World War II, Oban was used by Merchant and Royal Navy ships and was an important base in the Battle of the Atlantic. The Royal Navy had a station near Ganavan, and an anti-submarine indicator loop station. There was a minefield in the Sound of Kerrera, which was operated from a building near the caravan site at Gallanach. There was a Royal Air Force flying boat base at Ganavan and on Kerrera, a Sector Operations Room was built near the airfield, after the war, this was extended to become the Royal Observer Corps Group HQ.
Oban was important during the Cold War because the first Transatlantic Telephone Cable came ashore at Gallanach Bay and this carried the Hot Line between the US and USSR presidents. Since the 1950s, the industry has remained tourism, though the town is an important ferry port. As with the rest of the British Isles, Oban experiences a climate with cool summers. The nearest official Met Office weather station for which records are available is Dunstaffnage. Rainfall is high, but thanks to the Gulf stream the temperature falls below zero
Employees in some fields or sectors may receive gratuities, bonus payment or stock options. In some types of employment, employees may receive benefits in addition to payment, benefits can include health insurance, disability insurance or use of a gym. Employment is typically governed by employment laws or regulations or legal contracts, employers must balance interests such as decreasing wage constraints with a maximization of labor productivity in order to achieve a profitable and productive employment relationship. The main ways for employers to workers and for people to find employers are via jobs listings in newspapers and online. Employers and job seekers find each other via professional recruitment consultants which receive a commission from the employer to find, screen. However, a study has shown that such consultants may not be reliable when they fail to use established principles in selecting employees, a more traditional approach is with a Help Wanted sign in the establishment. Evaluating different employees can be quite laborious but setting up different techniques to analyze their skill to measure their talents within the field can be best through assessments and potential employee commonly take the additional step of getting to know each other through the process of job interview.
Training and development refers to the effort to equip a newly hired employee with necessary skills to perform at the job. An appropriate level of training and development helps to improve job satisfaction. There are many ways that employees are paid, including by hourly wages, by piecework, by yearly salary, in sales jobs and real estate positions, the employee may be paid a commission, a percentage of the value of the goods or services that they have sold. In some fields and professions, employees may be eligible for a bonus if they meet certain targets, employee benefits are various non-wage compensation provided to employee in addition to their wages or salaries. In some cases, such as with workers employed in remote or isolated regions, employee benefits can improve the relationship between employee and employer and lowers staff turnover. Organizational justice is a perception and judgement of employers treatment in the context of fairness or justice. The resulting actions to influence the relationship is a part of organizational justice.
Employees can organize into trade or labor unions, which represent the force to collectively bargain with the management of organizations about working. Usually, either an employee or employer may end the relationship at any time and this is referred to as at-will employment. The contract between the two parties specifies the responsibilities of each when ending the relationship and may include such as notice periods, severance pay. In some professions, notably teaching, civil servants, university professors, and some jobs, some employees may have tenure
Prehistory means literally before history, from the Latin word for before, præ, and Greek ιστορία. Neighbouring civilisations were the first to follow, most other civilisations reached the end of prehistory during the Iron Age. The period when a culture is written about by others, but has not developed its own writing is known as the protohistory of the culture. By definition, there are no records from human prehistory. Clear techniques for dating were not well-developed until the 19th century and this article is concerned with human prehistory as defined here above. There are separate articles for the history of the Earth. However, for the race as a whole, prehistory ends when recorded history begins with the accounts of the ancient world around the 4th millennium BC. For example, in Egypt it is accepted that prehistory ended around 3200 BC, whereas in New Guinea the end of the prehistoric era is set much more recently. The three-age system is the periodization of prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies, Stone Age Bronze Age Iron Age.
The notion of prehistory began to surface during the Enlightenment in the work of antiquarians who used the word primitive to describe societies that existed before written records, the first use of the word prehistory in English, occurred in the Foreign Quarterly Review in 1836. The main source for prehistory is archaeology, but some scholars are beginning to more use of evidence from the natural and social sciences. This view has been articulated by advocates of deep history, human population geneticists and historical linguists are providing valuable insight for these questions. Human prehistory differs from history not only in terms of its chronology, restricted to material processes and artifacts rather than written records, prehistory is anonymous. Because of this, reference terms that use, such as Neanderthal or Iron Age are modern labels with definitions sometimes subject to debate. Palaeolithic means Old Stone Age, and begins with the first use of stone tools, the Paleolithic is the earliest period of the Stone Age.
The early part of the Palaeolithic is called the Lower Palaeolithic, evidence of control of fire by early humans during the Lower Palaeolithic Era is uncertain and has at best limited scholarly support. The most widely accepted claim is that H. erectus or H. ergaster made fires between 790,000 and 690,000 BP in a site at Bnot Yaakov Bridge, Israel. The use of fire enabled early humans to cook food, provide warmth, Early Homo sapiens originated some 200,000 years ago, ushering in the Middle Palaeolithic
Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity. The office may be given as a title to a clergyman who is not the head of a monastery. The word is derived from the Aramaic av meaning father or abba, in the Septuagint, it was written as abbas. At first it was employed as a title for any monk. The title abbot came into general use in western monastic orders whose members include priests. An abbot is the head and chief governor of a community of monks, the English version for a female monastic head is abbess. In Egypt, the first home of monasticism, the jurisdiction of the abbot, or archimandrite, sometimes he ruled over only one community, sometimes over several, each of which had its own abbot as well. Saint John Cassian speaks of an abbot of the Thebaid who had 500 monks under him, by the Rule of St Benedict, until the Cluniac reforms, was the norm in the West, the abbot has jurisdiction over only one community.
Monks, as a rule, were laymen, nor at the outset was the abbot any exception, for the reception of the sacraments, and for other religious offices, the abbot and his monks were commanded to attend the nearest church. This rule proved inconvenient when a monastery was situated in a desert or at a distance from a city, the change spread more slowly in the West, where the office of abbot was commonly filled by laymen till the end of the 7th century. The ecclesiastical leadership exercised by abbots despite their frequent lay status is proved by their attendance, thus at the first Council of Constantinople, AD448,23 archimandrites or abbots sign, with 30 bishops. The second Council of Nicaea, AD787, recognized the right of abbots to ordain their monks to the inferior orders below the diaconate, abbots used to be subject to episcopal jurisdiction, and continued generally so, in fact, in the West till the 11th century. The Code of Justinian expressly subordinates the abbot to episcopal oversight, in the 12th century, the abbots of Fulda claimed precedence of the archbishop of Cologne.
It has been maintained that the right to wear mitres was sometimes granted by the popes to abbots before the 11th century, but the documents on which this claim is based are not genuine. The first undoubted instance is the bull by which Alexander II in 1063 granted the use of the mitre to Egelsinus, abbot of the monastery of St Augustine at Canterbury. Of these the precedence was yielded to the abbot of Glastonbury, until in AD1154 Adrian IV granted it to the abbot of St Albans, next after the abbot of St Albans ranked the abbot of Westminster and Ramsey. Of course, they always and everywhere had the power of admitting their own monks, the power of the abbot was paternal but absolute, however, by the canon law. One of the goals of monasticism was the purgation of self and selfishness
Colonsay is an island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland, located north of Islay and south of Mull. The ancestral home of Clan Macfie and the Colonsay branch of Clan MacNeil, it is in the area of Argyll. Aligned on a south-west to north-east axis, it measures 8 miles in length and it is linked by a tidal causeway to Oronsay. The highest point on the island is Carnan Eoin,143 metres above sea level, the sequence has been correlated with the Grampian Group, the oldest part of the Dalradian Supergroup. Hazelnuts have been found on other Mesolithic sites, but rarely in such quantities or concentrated in one pit, the nuts were radiocarbon dated to 7720+/-110BP, which calibrates to circa 7000 BC. Similar sites in Britain and its dependencies are known only at Farnham in Surrey and this discovery gives an insight into communal activity and forward planning of the period. The nuts were harvested in a year and pollen analysis suggests that the hazel trees were all cut down at the same time. The scale of the activity, unparalleled elsewhere in Scotland, the pit was originally on a beach close to the shore, and there were two smaller stone-lined pits, whose function remains obscure, a hearth, and a second cluster of pits.
There are a variety of ruined hill forts on the such as Dùn Cholla. The eighth century Riasg Buidhe Cross has been re-erected in the gardens of Colonsay House, St Cathans Chapel may date from the 14th century. The ruins of the Chapel of St. Mary are little more than foundations, in 1549 Dean Monro wrote that Colonsay was seven myle lange from the northeist to the southwest, with twa myle bredthe, ane fertile ile guid for quhit fishing. This ile is bruikit be ane gentle capitane, callit M’Duffyhe, during the 18th century the lairds of the island were Macneils, and included Archibald Macneil. Colonsay House was first built by the Mcneil family in 1722, since 1904 the house has been the property of the islands owners, the Barons Strathcona. Colonsay is owned by Donald Howard, 4th Baron Strathcona and Mount Royal and Colonsay House is currently occupied by his eldest son, Alexander Howard and his family. In 2013 the Argyll and Bute Council threatened legal action against Alexander Howard over the state of the Rubh Aird Alanais beach following the significant removal of gravel leading to large holes, Howard infuriated island residents, by accusing them of removing gravel from a beach without permission.
Locals said that innocent people had been labelled thieves and peasants and it was discovered that the gravel had been removed by a builder working on behalf of one of the crofters. The islands population was 124 as recorded by the 2011 census an increase of nearly 15% since 2001 when there were 108 usual residents, during the same period Scottish island populations as a whole grew by 4% to 103,702. Colonsays main settlement is Scalasaig on the east coast, recently there has been a growth of tourism as the mainstay of the islands economy, with numerous holiday cottages, many of them owned and managed by the Isle of Colonsay Estate
Chain Home, or CH for short, was the codename for the ring of coastal Early Warning radar stations built by the Royal Air Force before and during the Second World War to detect and track aircraft. The term referred to the equipment itself, until it was given the official name Air Ministry Experimental Station Type 1 in 1940. Chain Home was the first early warning network in the world. In 1934, Nikola Tesla claimed to have invented a ray that could destroy aircraft. The Tizard Committee formed to consider the possibility, and asked Robert Watt, Watts assistant, Arnold Wilkins, calculated that a death ray was impossible, but suggested that radio could be used for long-range detection. Watts team quickly built a system using commercial shortwave radio hardware. Basic development was completed by the end of the year, with range on the order of 100 miles. Through 1936 attention was focused on a version, and early 1937 saw the addition of height finding. The first five stations, covering the approaches to London, were installed by 1937, Operational tests using early units in 1937 demonstrated that that relaying useful information to the pilots in fighter aircraft was difficult.
This led to the formation of the first integrated air defence network, the Dowding system, which collected and filtered this information into a single view of the airspace. This had the effect of multiplying the effectiveness of the RAF to the point that it was as if they had three times as many fighters, allowing them to defeat the larger German force. With such high efficiency, it was no longer the case that the bomber will always get through, the Chain Home network was continually expanded, with over forty stations operational by the wars end. Ports were covered by Chain Home Extra Low, AMES Type 14, in 1942 the AMES Type 7 radar began to take over the job of tracking of targets once detected, and CH turned its attention entirely to the early warning role. Late in the war, when the threat of Luftwaffe bombing had ended, after the war, they were reactivated as part of the ROTOR system to watch for Soviet bombers, before being replaced by newer systems in the 1950s. Today only a few of the sites remain intact in any fashion.
From the earliest days of radio technology, signals had been used for systems using the radio direction finding technique. RDF can determine the bearing to a transmitter, and several such measurements can be combined to produce a radio fix. Given some basic changes to the broadcast signal, it was possible for the receiver to determine its location using a single station, the UK pioneered one such service in the form of the Orfordness Beacon
Iona is a small island in the Inner Hebrides off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland. It was a centre of Gaelic monasticism for four centuries and is renowned for its tranquility. It is a popular tourist destination and a place for retreats and its modern Gaelic name means Iona of Columba. The Hebrides have been occupied by the speakers of languages since the Iron Age. Nonetheless few, if any, can have accumulated so many different names over the centuries as the now known in English as Iona. The earliest forms of the name enabled place-name scholar William J. Watson to show that the name meant something like yew-place. The element Ivo-, denoting yew, occurs in Ogham inscriptions and in Gaulish names and it is possible that the name is related to the mythological figure, Fer hÍ mac Eogabail, foster-son of Manannan, the forename meaning man of the yew. The possible confusion results from ì, despite its original etymology, eilean Idhe means the isle of Iona, known as Ì nam ban bòidheach.
The modern English name comes of yet another variant, iouas change to Iona, attested from c.1274, results from a transcription mistake resulting from the similarity of n and u in Insular Minuscule. Iona lies about 2 kilometres from the coast of Mull and it is about 2 kilometres wide and 6 kilometres long with a resident population of 125. The geology of the island consists mainly of Precambrian Lewisian gneiss with Torridonian sedimentary rocks on the eastern side, like other places swept by ocean breezes, there are few trees, most of them are near the parish church. Ionas highest point is Dùn Ì,101 metres, an Iron Age hill fort dating from 100 BC – AD200. Ionas geographical features include the Bay at the Back of the Ocean and Càrn Cùl ri Éirinn, the main settlement, located at St. Ronans Bay on the eastern side of the island, is called Baile Mòr and is known locally as The Village. The primary school, post office, the two hotels, the Bishops House and the ruins of the Nunnery are here. The Abbey and MacLeod Centre are a short walk to the north, port Bàn beach on the west side of the island is home to the Iona Beach Party.
The steamer Cathcart Park carrying a cargo of salt from Runcorn to Wick ran aground on Soa on 15 April 1912, in the early Historic Period Iona lay within the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata. The island was the site of an important monastery during the Early Middle Ages. Columba and twelve companions went into exile on Iona and founded a monastery there, many satellite institutions were founded, and Iona became the centre of one of the most important monastic systems in Great Britain and Ireland