In Jainism, a tirthankara is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma. The word tirthankara signifies the founder of a tirtha, a fordable passage across the sea of interminable births and deaths, the saṃsāra. According to Jains, a tirthankara is an individual who has conquered the saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth, on their own, made a path for others to follow. After understanding the true nature of the self or soul, the Tīrthaṅkara attains Kevala Jnana; the first Tirthankara founded Jainism. Tirthankara provides a bridge for others to follow the new teacher from saṃsāra to moksha. Tirthankara shri Māllīnātha is believed to be a woman named Malli bai by Svetambara Jains while the Digambara sect believes all 24 tirthankara to be men including Māllīnātha. Digambara tradition believes a woman can reach to the 16th heaven and can attain liberation only by being reborn as a man. In Jain cosmology, the wheel of time is divided in two halves, Utsarpiṇī or ascending time cycle and avasarpiṇī, the descending time cycle.
In each half of the cosmic time cycle twenty-four tirthankaras grace this part of the universe. There have been an infinite number of tirthankaras in the past time periods; the first tirthankara in this present time cycle was Rishabhanatha, credited for formulating and organising humans to live in a society harmoniously. The 24th and last tirthankara of present half-cycle was Mahavira. History records the existence of Mahavira and his predecessor, the twenty-third tirthankara. A tirthankara organises the sangha, a fourfold order of male and female monastics, srāvakas and śrāvikās; the tirthankara's teachings form the basis for the Jain canons. The inner knowledge of tirthankara is believed to be perfect and identical in every respect and their teachings do not contradict one another. However, the degree of elaboration varies according to the spiritual advancement and purity of the society during their period of leadership; the higher the spiritual advancement and purity of mind of the society, the lower the elaboration required.
While tirthankaras are documented and revered by Jains, their grace is said to be available to all living beings, regardless of religious orientation. Tīrthaṅkaras are arihants. An Arihant is called Jina, one who has conquered inner enemies such as anger, attachment and greed, they dwell within the realm of their Soul, are free of kashayas, inner passions, personal desires. As a result of this, unlimited siddhis, or spiritual powers, are available to them – which they use for the spiritual elevation of living beings. Through darśana, divine vision, deshna, divine speech, they help others in attaining kevalajñana, moksha to anyone seeking it sincerely; the word tirthankara signifies the founder of a tirtha which means a fordable passage across the sea of interminable births and deaths. Tirthankaras are variously called "Teaching Gods", "Ford-Makers", "Crossing Makers" and "Makers of the River-Crossing. Jain texts propound that a special type of karma, the tīrthaṅkara nama-karma, raises a soul to the supreme status of a Tīrthaṅkara.
Tattvartha Sutra, a major Jain text, lists sixteen observances which lead to the bandha of this karma: Purity of right faith Reverence Observance of vows and supplementary vows without transgressions Ceaseless pursuit of knowledge Perpetual fear of the cycle of existence Giving gifts Practising austerities according to one's capacity Removal of obstacles that threaten the equanimity of ascetics Serving the meritorious by warding off evil or suffering Devotion to omniscient lords, chief preceptors and the scriptures Practice of the six essential daily duties Propagation of the teachings of the omniscient Fervent affection for one's brethren following the same path. Five auspicious events called Pañca kalyāṇaka mark the life of every tirthankara: Gārbha kalyāṇaka: When ātman of a tirthankara comes into his mother's womb. Janma kalyāṇaka: Birth of a tirthankara. Indra performs a ceremonial bath on tirthankara on Mount Meru. Tapa kalyāṇaka: When a tirthankara renounces all worldly possessions and become an ascetic.
Jñāna kalyāṇaka: The event when a tirthankara attains kevalajñāna. A samavasarana is erected from where he restores sangha after that. Nirvāṇa kalyāṇaka: When a tirthankara leaves his mortal body, it is known as nirvana, it is followed by the final liberation, after which his souls dwells in Siddhashila. After attaining kevalajñāna, a tirthankara preaches the path to liberation in the samavasarana. According to Jain texts, the heavenly pavilion is erected by devas where devas and animals assemble to hear the tirthankara. A tirthankara's speech is heard by all animals in their own language, it is believed. Jainism postulates that time has no end, it moves like the wheel of a cart. The wheel of time is divided in two halves, Utsarpiṇī and Avasarpiṇī. 24 tirthankaras are born in each half of this cycle. In Jain tradition the tirthankaras were royal in their final lives, Jain texts record details of their previous lives, their clan and families are among those recorded in legendary stories. Jain canons state that Rishabhanatha, the first tirthankara, founded the Iksh
Angelo Braxton Herndon was an African-American labor organizer arrested and convicted of insurrection after attempting to organize black and white industrial workers in 1932 in Atlanta, Georgia. The prosecution case rested on Herndon's possession of "communist literature", which police found in his hotel room. Herndon was defended by the International Labor Defense, the legal arm of the Communist Party, which hired two young local attorneys, Benjamin J. Davis Jr. and John H. Geer, provided guidance. Davis became prominent in leftist circles. Over a five-year period, Herndon's case twice reached the United States Supreme Court, which ruled that Georgia's insurrection law was unconstitutional, as it violated First Amendment rights of free speech and assembly. Herndon became nationally prominent because of his case, Southern justice was under review. By the end of the 1940s he moved to the Midwest and lived there quietly. Born into a poor family in southwestern Ohio, Angelo Herndon endured racial discrimination in his city, where African Americans have been a minority.
He moved to Kentucky at the age of 14 to work in the mines. By 1930 he was working in Birmingham, for the Tennessee Coal and Railroad Company; as a youth, Herndon was given a copy of the Communist Manifesto by a white worker in the Unemployed Councils, a group affiliated with the Communist Party. He was impressed with the Party's campaigning in the South to promote labor reform and interracial cooperation, its teachings on racial equality and class conflict, he joined the party in 1930. After being arrested several times in Alabama for labor organizing, Herndon was sent to Atlanta, Georgia in the fall of 1931. Herndon went to Atlanta as a labor organizer for the Unemployment Council, his involvement with the Communist Party brought him national prominence after he was arrested in Atlanta, convicted of insurrection, his case twice reached the US Supreme Court on appeal. He campaigned to organize working-class whites to become politically active, he solicited whites alike for membership in an integrated Communist Party of Atlanta.
Nearly 1,000 unemployed workers, both black and white, demonstrated at the federal courthouse on June 30, 1932, seeking resumption of relief payments. Officials were alarmed that the protest was biracial, as it crossed the segregated lines of the Jim Crow South, they began to monitor known and suspected radicals as the city became more crowded with rural migrants. On July 11, Herndon checked on his mail at the Post Office and was arrested by two Atlanta police detectives. A few days his hotel room was searched, Communist Party publications were found. Herndon was charged with insurrection under a Georgia Reconstruction era law, he was held for nearly six months in jail and was released on Christmas Eve, after his bail of $7,000 was paid by the International Labor Defense, a legal organization affiliated with the Communist Party USA. An all-white jury found Herndon guilty at trial on January 18, 1933. Hired by the ILD, his young attorneys were John H. Geer; the International Juridical Association provided support by reviewing their brief for Herndon.
Herndon was sentenced to 18 to 20 years of hard labor "on the chain gang."On December 7, 1935, Herndon's conviction was overturned by the state appeals court and he was released on bail. After the Georgia Supreme Court upheld his original conviction, Herndon went on a national speaking tour in 1936 to promote his case while his defense appealed it to the Supreme Court, he appeared before crowds in Colorado. On April 26, 1937, a narrow five-to-four majority of the United State Supreme Court ruled in Herndon's favor, striking down Georgia's insurrection statute as unconstitutional, as it violated the First Amendment, which protects individual's right to free speech and the right of assembly. Herndon was greeted as a hero by a crowd of 6,000 well-wishers when he returned by train to Pennsylvania Station in New York City. Several leading Communist Party officials were on hand to welcome him. On October 13, 1937 Angelo's brother Milton was killed fighting for the Republicans in the Spanish Civil War.
Like Angelo, Milton was a Communist Party member. Milton had sought to use his previous experience as a National Guard while in Spain. In the 1940s, Herndon founded the Negro Publication Society of America, which published the radical African-American newspaper The People's Advocate in San Francisco, among other works, but by the end of the 1940s, Herndon left the Party. He moved to the Midwest, where he lived and worked as a salesman; the Case of Angelo Herndon, New York: Joint Committee To Aid the Herndon Defense, 1935. Let Me Live, New York: Random House, 1937. Let Me Live! A book review, Encyclopedia of Anti-Revisionism On-Line: Proletarian Cause, N. Sanders. "You cannot kill the working class", New York: International Labor Defense and the League of Struggle for Negro Rights, 1937. The Scottsboro Boys: four freed! Five to go!, New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1937. The Road to Liberation for the Negro People, New York: Workers Library Publishers, 1939. Victory: decision of the United States Supreme Court in the case of Angelo Herndon, April 1937: full text of the majority decision setting aside the verdict in the Herndon case, by Justice Roberts: with the dissenting opinion of the minority, by Justice Van Devanter: with an introduction by Anna Damon.
New York City: International Labor Defense, Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore, Defying Dixie: The Radical Roots of Civil Rights, 1919-1950. Frederick T. Gr
Addenbrooke's Hospital is an internationally renowned teaching hospital and research centre in Cambridge, with strong affiliations to the University of Cambridge. Addenbrooke's Hospital is based on the Cambridge Biomedical Campus; the hospital is run by Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and is a designated academic health science centre. It is the East of England's Major Trauma Centre - the first of which to be operational in the UK; the hospital was founded in 1766 on Trumpington Street with £4,500 from the will of Dr John Addenbrooke, a fellow of St Catharine's College. In 1962 the first building was opened on its present site, on the southern edge of the city at the end of Hills Road; the last patient left the old site in 1984 - the old site is now occupied by the Cambridge Judge Business School, as well as Browns Brasserie & Bar. A new elective care facility was procured under a Private Finance Initiative contract in 2004, It was built by Alfred McAlpine and designed by Llewelyn Davies Architects at a cost of £85 million and completed in spring 2007.
Addenbrooke's provides a full range of clinical services, with two exceptions: cardiothoracic surgery is performed at the adjacent Papworth Hospital. Addenbrooke's is a designated Major Trauma Centre; this was the first regional Major Trauma Centre in England to become operational and was featured on the BBC documentary series'Life Savers' in 2013. Addenbrooke's is a tertiary referral centre for a number of specialities, it performs multivisceral transplants. It is a busy regional neurosurgical centre and has the largest neurological intensive care unit of its kind in Europe, it is a centre of excellence for renal services, bone marrow transplantation, cleft lip and palate reconstruction, treatment of rare cancers, medical genetics, paediatrics. Addenbrooke's is the designated regional centre for pancreatic and liver cancer surgery and tertiary referral centre for complex pancreatitis, it has 37 operating theatres, in addition to the neurosciences critical care unit it has an adult, a paediatric, a neonatal intensive care service, several high-dependency areas.
Addenbrooke's is an internationally renowned transplant centre. Addenbrooke's transplant surgeons have made many notable contributions to the world of transplantation, including: The first liver transplant outside the USA The introduction of the immunosuppressant drug ciclosporin into clinical practice The pre-clinical development of the immunosuppressant drugs sirolimus and tacrolimus The world's first combined heart and liver transplant, with Papworth Hospital The first combined liver and pancreas transplant The first small-bowel transplant in the UK The first multivisceral transplant in the UK The East of England Ambulance Service has an ambulance station in the grounds of the hospital, there is an NHS Blood and Transplant facility on site; the hospital has an on-site helipad, for the numerous air ambulances that visit - transporting patients in a critical state to the Major Trauma Centre. The campus is served by a busy bus station, located on its gateway roundabout, with up to 60 buses arriving there every hour.
Addenbrooke's hospital is directly accessible from three of Cambridge's five Park and Ride sites, of which Babraham Road and Trumpington are nearest. The green Park and Ride buses from the Babraham Park and Ride stop at its main bus station, while the busway service A connects various locations around the site to Trumpington Park and Ride and the Cambridgeshire Guided Busway. Busway service U from and to Eddington has a stop at the Madingley Road Park and Ride and one outside the hospital's outpatient entrance. All three services stop at the Cambridge railway station. Various cycle ways lead to Addenbrooke's hospital and a new cycleway and footpath linking Great Shelford and Addenbrooke's opened in August 2006, which marks the 10,000th mile of the National Cycle Network. Parking is restricted, as former car parks are being built on, staff and visitors are encouraged to travel in by bus or bike. A new multi-storey car park with 1050 spaces for visitor and patient parking and a further 63 for disabled parking was opened on 18 April 2008.
There is a customer service desk and concession tickets are available for outpatients with appointments. Transport remains something of a problem due to the volume of people arriving each day – there are 8,000 car movements each day, but only 3,200 car parking spaces available. With three proposed developments around the hospital including an extension of the hospital site itself and two residential developments traffic is expected to increase considerably. For this reason work for a new access road from Hauxton Road in Trumpington to Addenbrooke's Hospital began in July 2007; the £25million new road opened in October 2010 and provides direct access from the M11 to the Cambridge Biomedical Campus, home to the hospital. It is expected to handle up to 25,000 journeys per day when nearby residential developments are complete; the route was intended for access to the hospital only and as such, entrances to the Cambridge Biomedical Campus are fitted with Automatic Number Plate Recognition cameras to monitor traffic entering and leaving the site without stopping.
The police have power to issue Fixed Penalty Notices to drivers who are not authorised to use the route. The hospital holds a free open day to allow mem