States and union territories of India
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative divisions; the Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State. The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region. During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was kept, India was divided into provinces that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty over the princely states. Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces.
The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was declared to be a "Union of States"; the constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Part A states, which were the former governors' provinces of British India, were ruled by an elected governor and state legislature. The nine Part A states were Assam, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal; the eight Part B states were former princely states or groups of princely states, governed by a rajpramukh, the ruler of a constituent state, an elected legislature. The rajpramukh was appointed by the President of India; the Part B states were Hyderabad and Kashmir, Madhya Bharat, Mysore and East Punjab States Union, Rajasthan and Travancore-Cochin. The ten Part C states included both the former chief commissioners' provinces and some princely states, each was governed by a chief commissioner appointed by the President of India.
The Part C states were Ajmer, Bilaspur, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur and Vindhya Pradesh. The only Part D state was the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which were administered by a lieutenant governor appointed by the central government; the Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichéry, Karaikal and Mahé. Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State; the States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states. As a result of this act, Madras State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to form Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara districts of Madras State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras State, the districts of Belgaum, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State and the province of Coorg.
The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara and Malabar districts of Madras State were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Bombay State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala and East Punjab States Union and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal. Bombay State was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay Reorganisation Act. Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963; the Punjab Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab to Himachal Pradesh. The act designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab and Haryana. Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.
Mysore State was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union and the state's monarchy was abolished. In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories. In November 2000, three new states were created. Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh. ^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh was divided into two states, Telangana and a residual Andhra Pradesh on 2 June 2014. Hyderabad, located within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as the capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the Go
Pullambadi is a panchayat town in Tiruchirappalli district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Pullambadi town panchayat heads the revenue block of Pullambadi in the taluk of Lalgudi The village of Pullambadi was upgraded into town panchayat during 19th century; the name pullambadi was derived from the word "pullinambadi". As of 2001 India census, Pullambadi had a population of 9985. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Pullambadi has an average literacy rate of 72%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 80%, female literacy is 65%. In Pullambadi, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age; this small town is situated on the Banks of river Nandhiyar, tribute to River Kollidam. Lord Chidambareswara Temple, built by Kulothunga Chola I is main attraction. Recent Excavations of inscriptions at Temple reveals many Historical events during Early Chola period. Now the age of temple is around 950 years. Devi Temple Called Kulunthalamman Festival During April/May is famous in Tiruchirapalli District after Samayapuram Mariamman Temple.
The festival starts with Muthal kaappu on first Tuesday of "chithirai" Tamil month followed by second kaapu on second Tuesday. The 10 days long festival will start. Government Industrial Training Institute Kalaivani Matriculation school Government Higher Secondary School T. E. L. C School R. C. School S. R. Matriculation school Pari Matriculation school Child Jesus Matriculation school Panchayat union elmendrey school Sagayamatha Hospital Parkavan Hospital Government Hospital Sarasvathi Hospital Agriculture is the main occupation and Paddy is main crop grown in this region. Pullambadi Canal passes through the town; this canal was constructed by Mr. K. Kamaraj Former CM of Tamil Nadu during the 1960s; this was one of the biggest irrigation projects in Tamil Nadu. Lord Shiva temple Kulunthalamman temple Om Shakthi temple Mariyamman temple
Salem District is a district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. Salem was the biggest district before separating Dharmapuri in Tamilnadu; the district was now separated into Dharmapuri, Namakkal as individual district. Salem is the district headquarters and other major towns in the district include Attur, Mettur Sankagiri and Edappadi. Salem two thousand years ago is evident from the discovery of silver coins of the Greek Emperor Tiberices Claudices Nero in Koneripatti of Salem in 1987, it was ruled by Mazhavar King Kolli Mazhavan and kings Valvil Ori of sangam age. It comes under Kongu Nadu & Mazhanadu a vast region dated 2nd century BC. Salem was the largest district of Tamil Nadu, it was bifurcated into Salem – Dharmapuri districts in 1965 and Namakkal district in 1997. According to 2011 census, Salem district had a population of 3,482,056 with a sex-ratio of 954 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. A total of 344,960 were under the age of six, constituting 164,958 females.
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 3.43 % of the population respectively. The average literacy of the district was 72.86%, compared to the national average of 72.99%. The district had a total of 915,967 households. There were a total of 1,694,160 workers, comprising 247,011 cultivators, 396,158 main agricultural labourers, 132,700 in household industries, 785,161 other workers, 133,130 marginal workers, 9,993 marginal cultivators, 58,052 marginal agricultural labourers, 8,803 marginal workers in household industries and 56,282 other marginal workers. Salem Attur Mettur Sankagiri Edappadi Attur Mettur Narasingapuram Salem Veerapandi Thalaivasal Gangavalli Thammampatti Panaimarathupatti Ayothiapattinam Valapady Yercaud Attur Pethanaickenpalayam Nangavalli Mecheri Kolathur Omalur Tharamangalam Kadayampatti Sankagiri Magudanchavadi Konganapuram Edappadi Ayothiapattinam Gangavalli Thammampatti Attayampatti Jalakandapuram Elampillai Kannankurichi Kolathur Konganapuram Mecheri Omalur Panaimarathupatti Pethanaickenpalayam Sankagiri Sivathapuram Tharamangalam Vazhapadi Veerakkalpudur Thiruvelviyur Belur Edaganasalai Kadayampatti Karuppur Keeripatti Mallur Sentharapatti Thedavur Thevur Veeraganur Ethapur Arasiramani Nangavalli Poolampatti Vanavasi VellalapuramWhile Salem West, Salem South, Pethanaickenpalayam, are newly formed taluks, Mecheri people of Tharamangalam are demanding taluk status.
Salem district has many educational institutions including Government schools,Sona College of Technology,Indian Institute of Hand loom Technology,Government Polytechnic college, Central law college,Sarada institutions,Mohan kumaramangalam college,private schools and hundred years traditional institution Government arts college,Government arts college for women and the Government College of Engineering and Periyar University and Vinayaka Mission University. The Salem handloom industry is one of the most ancient cottage industries and producing quality sari and angavasthram out of silk yarn and cotton yarn. In the recent past, home furnishing items are woven for export purposes. More than 75,000 handlooms are working and the total value of cloth produced per annum is estimated at Rs.5,000 crores. With more than 125 spinning mills, with modern weaving units and garment units Salem established itself as one of the major textile center in Tamil Nadu; the history of handloom and spinning mills dates back to pre-independence period in Salem.
But till 1960s there were fewer than 5 spinning mills. Private handloom weaving started thriving in the region along with the large scale cooperative sector handloom weaving and marketing units. Small scale hand dying units were started around the region to the industry. Around 1980s the textile industry grew significantly. Many major spinning mills and waste spinning units came up into existence. Many Handloom societies and dying houses were established. New and increased number of Power Loom units were mushroomed in the places like Gugai, Attayampatti, Vennanthur, Rasipuram, Pallipalayam and Elampillai; the Salem region houses the Tamil Nadu largest number of Sago industries which are engaged in the production Sago Foods and Starch. In Salem District alone, 34000 hectares of land is under tapioca cultivation, the raw material for the sago industries and there are 650 units engaged in tapioca processing. In and around Salem the yield of tapioca is about 25-30 T/ha, highest in the World. National average is 19 World average production stands at 10 T/ha.
Hence it is called land of sago. In 1981, Salem Starch and Sago Manufacturers Service Industrial Co-operative Society Ltd was established to promote the growth of sago industries. Nearly 80% of the national demand for Sago and Starch is being met by the Sagoserv. Salem Steel Plant, a special steel unit of Steel Authority of India Ltd have their plant located in Salem which produces Cold rolled stainless steel and Hot rolled stainless steel/carbon steel; the plant can produce Austenitic, ferritic and low-nickel stainless steel in the form of coils and sheets with an installed capacity of 70,000 tonnes/year in Cold Rolling Mill and 1,86,000 tonnes/year in Hot Rolling Mill. In addition, the plant has country's first top-of-the-line stainless steel blanking facility with a capacity of 3,600 tonnes/year of coin blanks and utility blanks/circles. Expansion and modernisation of Salem Steel Plant is ongoing; the plan envisages installation of Steel Melting and Continuous Casting facilities to produce 1,80,000 tonnes of slabs along with expansion of Cold Rolling Mill complex, enhancing the capacity of Cold Rolled Stainles
Ariyalur district is an administrative district in the state of Tamil Nadu in India. The district headquarters is located at Ariyalur; the district encompasses an area of 1,949.31 km². Gangaikonda Cholapuram, built by King Rajendra Cholan of Chola Empire, is a UNESCO World Heritage site situated in this district; the district is known for its rich prehistoric fossils. Many fossils of gigantic molluscs and jawed fishes, at least one fossilized dinosaur egg, several fragmentary fossils of sauropod and theropod dinosaurs have been discovered here. An on-site museum is being set up at Keelapazhur to conserve fossils. Ariyalur is noted for its cement industries and Jayankondam has huge reserves of lignite. Ariyalur district was carved out of Perambalur district on January 1, 2001. But, it was merged with Perambalur district on March 31, 2002. Ariyalur district was re-carved on November 23, 2007; the district is bordered by the districts of Cuddalore to the north and north-east, Nagapattinam to the east, Thanjavur to the south and south-east, Tiruchirapalli to the south-west and Perambalur to the west.
GANGAIKONDA CHOLAPURAM JAYANKONDAM MELAPALUVUR and KEEZHAIYUR KILAPALUVUR THIRUMALAPADI KAMARASAVALLI GOVINDAPUTTUR VIKKIRAMANGALAM SENDURAI, SENNIVANAM AND SRIPURANDAN ARIYALUR – KODANDARMASWAMY KOVIL VETTAKUDI – KARAIVETTI BIRD SANCTUARY ELAKURICHI CHURCH According to the 2011 census, Ariyalur district has a population of 752,481 equal to the nation of Guyana or the US state of Alaska. This gives it a ranking of 491 in India; the district has a population density of 387 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 8.19%. Ariyalur has a sex ratio of 1016 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 71.99%. As of 2011 it is the third least populous district of Tamil Nadu, after Perambalur and Nilgiris.. Jayankondam is the most populated town in Ariyalur district; the district became famous in 2008, when theft of 8 idols were discovered from a 9th-century Chola Brahadeeswarar Temple at Gangaikondacholapuram was discovered by Archaeological Survey of India Government of India officials.
One of these idols, the Sripuranthan Natarajan Idol found its way to the National Gallery of Australia. Two of the stolen statues were returned and are now displayed in the Government Museum at Kumbakonam. Ariyalur District Official WebSite Ariyalur District Police
Postal Index Number
A Postal Index Number, or sometimes redundantly a PIN code, is a code in the post office numbering or postal code system used by India Post, the Indian postal entity. The code is six digits long; the PIN system was introduced on 15 August 1972 by Shriram Bhikaji Velankar, an additional secretary in the Union Ministry of Communications. The system was introduced to simplify the manual sorting and delivery of mail by eliminating confusion over incorrect addresses, similar place names, different languages used by the public. There are nine postal zones including eight regional zones and one functional zone; the first digit of the PIN indicates the zone. The second digit indicates the sub-zone, the third digit indicates the sorting district within that zone; the final three digits are assigned to individual post offices. The first digit of the PIN is allocated over the 9 zones as follows: 1 — Delhi, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir, Chandigarh 2 — Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand 3 — Rajasthan, Gujarat and Diu, Dadra and Nagar 4 — Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh 5 — Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka 6 — Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Lakshadweep 7 — West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya and Nicobar Islands, Sikkim 8 — Bihar, Jharkhand 9 — Army Post Office and Field Post Office The first three digits of the PIN represent a specific geographical region called a sorting district, headquartered at the main post office of the largest city and is known as the sorting office.
A state may have one or more sorting districts depending on the volume of mail handled. The fourth digit represents the route; this is 0 for offices in the core area of the sorting district. The last two digits represent the delivery office within the sorting district starting from 01 which would be the General Post Office or head office; the numbering of the delivery office is done chronologically with higher numbers assigned to newer delivery offices. If the volume of mails handled at a delivery office is too large, a new delivery office is created and the next available PIN is assigned. Thus, two delivery offices situated next to each other will only have the first four digits in common; each PIN is mapped to one delivery post office which receives all the mail to be delivered to one or more lower offices within its jurisdiction, all of which share the same code. The delivery office can either be a General Post Office, a head office, or a sub-office which are located in urban areas; the post from the delivery office is sorted and routed to other delivery offices for a different PIN or to one of the relevant sub-offices or branch offices for the same PIN.
Branch offices have limited postal services. Find Pincode – India Post
Dindigul district is an administrative region in the south of Tamil Nadu, India. The district was carved out of Madurai District in 1985, it has an area of 6266.64 km2 and comprises three Revenue Divisions, nine Taluks, 14 Panchayat Unions. The district is bound by Tirupur and Trichy districts in the north, the Sivaganga and Tiruchi districts in the east, the Madurai district in the south, the Theni and Coimbatore districts and the state of Kerala in the west; as of 2011, the district had a population of 2,159,775 with a sex-ratio of 998 females for every 1,000 males. In 2006, the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Dindigul one of the country's 250 most backward districts, it is one of the six districts in Tamil Nadu receiving funds from Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. According to 2011 census, Dindigul district had a population of 2,159,775 with a sex-ratio of 998 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929. A total of 216,576 were under the age of six, constituting 111,955 males and 104,621 females.
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 20.95% and.37% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the district was 68.61%, compared to the national average of 72.99%. The district had a total of 560,773 households. There were a total of 1,105,155 workers, comprising 155,332 cultivators, 388,725 main agricultural labourers, 25,253 in house hold industries, 393,707 other workers, 142,138 marginal workers, 10,073 marginal cultivators, 79,234 marginal agricultural labourers, 5,576 marginal workers in household industries and 47,255 other marginal workers. Kodaikanal Palani Sirumalai Dindigul Fort Sangal patty kombai dam koralampatty kaliyamman temple kannivadi somanadha sidhdhar cave Kamaraj sagar dam Dharmathupatty. K, Dindigul Pithalai patty Dindigul District Dindigul district - A profile - The Hindu, Monday, 15 Feb 2010