Titanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, high strength. Titanium is resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia, chlorine. Titanium was discovered in Cornwall, Great Britain, by William Gregor in 1791 and was named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth after the Titans of Greek mythology; the element occurs within a number of mineral deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite, which are distributed in the Earth's crust and lithosphere. The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores by the Hunter processes; the most common compound, titanium dioxide, is a popular photocatalyst and is used in the manufacture of white pigments. Other compounds include a component of smoke screens and catalysts. Titanium can be alloyed with iron, aluminium and molybdenum, among other elements, to produce strong, lightweight alloys for aerospace, industrial processes, agriculture, medical prostheses, orthopedic implants and endodontic instruments and files, dental implants, sporting goods, mobile phones, other applications.
The two most useful properties of the metal are corrosion resistance and strength-to-density ratio, the highest of any metallic element. In its unalloyed condition, titanium is less dense. There are two allotropic forms and five occurring isotopes of this element, 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant. Although they have the same number of valence electrons and are in the same group in the periodic table and zirconium differ in many chemical and physical properties; as a metal, titanium is recognized for its high strength-to-weight ratio. It is a strong metal with low density, quite ductile and metallic-white in color; the high melting point makes it useful as a refractory metal. It is paramagnetic and has low electrical and thermal conductivity compared to other metals. Titanium is superconducting when cooled below its critical temperature of 0.49 K. Commercially pure grades of titanium have ultimate tensile strength of about 434 MPa, equal to that of common, low-grade steel alloys, but are less dense.
Titanium is 60% denser than aluminium, but more than twice as strong as the most used 6061-T6 aluminium alloy. Certain titanium alloys achieve tensile strengths of over 1,400 MPa. However, titanium loses strength when heated above 430 °C. Titanium is not as hard as some grades of heat-treated steel. Machining requires precautions, because the material can gall unless sharp tools and proper cooling methods are used. Like steel structures, those made from titanium have a fatigue limit that guarantees longevity in some applications; the metal is a dimorphic allotrope of an hexagonal α form that changes into a body-centered cubic β form at 882 °C. The specific heat of the α form increases as it is heated to this transition temperature but falls and remains constant for the β form regardless of temperature. Like aluminium and magnesium, titanium metal and its alloys oxidize upon exposure to air. Titanium reacts with oxygen at 1,200 °C in air, at 610 °C in pure oxygen, forming titanium dioxide, it is, slow to react with water and air at ambient temperatures because it forms a passive oxide coating that protects the bulk metal from further oxidation.
When it first forms, this protective layer continues to grow slowly. Atmospheric passivation gives titanium excellent resistance to corrosion equivalent to platinum. Titanium is capable of withstanding attack by dilute sulfuric and hydrochloric acids, chloride solutions, most organic acids. However, titanium is corroded by concentrated acids; as indicated by its negative redox potential, titanium is thermodynamically a reactive metal that burns in normal atmosphere at lower temperatures than the melting point. Melting is possible only in a vacuum. At 550 °C, it combines with chlorine, it reacts with the other halogens and absorbs hydrogen. Titanium is one of the few elements that burns in pure nitrogen gas, reacting at 800 °C to form titanium nitride, which causes embrittlement; because of its high reactivity with oxygen and some other gases, titanium filaments are applied in titanium sublimation pumps as scavengers for these gases. Such pumps inexpensively and reliably produce low pressures in ultra-high vacuum systems.
Titanium is the ninth-most abundant element in the seventh-most abundant metal. It is present as oxides in most igneous rocks, in sediments derived from them, in living things, natural bodies of water. Of the 801 types of igneous rocks analyzed by the United States Geological Survey, 784 contained titanium, its proportion in soils is 0.5 to 1.5%. Common titanium-containing minerals are anatase, ilmenite, perovskite and titanite. Akaogiite is an rare mineral consisting of titanium dioxide. Of these minerals, only rutile and ilmenite have economic importance, yet they are
Minnaminnikootam is a Malayalam film directed by Kamal. It stars Narain, Meera Jasmine, Jayasurya, Samvrutha, Anoop Chandran and Radhika in the lead roles; the score and soundtrack is composed by Bijibal. The story of the film revolves around a group of youngsters working in an IT park. Sidharth and his wife Mumthas are two paid IT professionals who are trying to overcome the crisis of their love marriage, they have many friends: Manikkunju, Charulatha, Rose Mary and Kalyani. They visit Sidharthan’s flat for unwinding after work and consider their home an escape from stressful work; some unusual things happen. Abhilash and Charu fight. At the end of these simple fights, they come to the home of Momu to chill out. Charu was living a life, surrounded only by her father from when she was 5 years old. A wedding meet between the families of Abhi and Charu causes Charu's father to start drinking after 15 years; this causes a major break up between Abhi. On a trip to Chennai, for Mani's and Rose's marriage and for Abhi's marriage with his father's friend's daughter, Charu runs away to Bangalore and moves abroad.
The story returns from flashback. The flashback started. Charu attends the marriage and there she meets the old members of her "Minnaminnikootam". However, none of them shows any friendship with her, she returns to the airport and Abhi comes and sits beside her. He asks for them to go for a drive and takes her to Sidhu's house where she is greeted by her friends and receives the message of surprise. Abhi was never going to marry anyone else, he was planning on marrying Charu if he didn't have her permission. Meera Jasmine as Charulatha/Charu Narain as Abhilash/Abhi Indrajith as Sidhaarth/Siddhu Jayasurya as Manikunju/Achayan Roma as Rosemary/Rose Samvrutha as Mumtaz/Mummu Anoop Chandran as Partha Saradhi/Paachan Radhika as Kalyani Saikumar as Charulatha's father Janardhanan as Karaparamban, Charulatha's father's friend Mamukkoya as Kunjikannan, Charulatha's father's friend T. G. Ravi as Aalikka, Charulatha's father's friend Balachandran Chullikkadu as Appukuttan Maash, Charulatha's father's friend Manikuttan as Fraud Boy, minister's son Deepak Menon as Minister's son's friend.
Ambika Mohan as Abhilash's mother The soundtrack features songs composed by Bijibal, with lyrics by Anil Panachooran. "We Are in Love" — Karthik, Vineeth Sreenivasan, Sayanora Philip, T. R. Soumya "Mizhi Tammil" — Ranjith Govind, Swetha Mohan "Mizhi Tammil" — Swetha Mohan "Taara Jaalam" — Afsal, Ganesh Sundaram, Rakhi R. Nath, Raghuram. However, in an interview with Manorama in 2015, director Kamal classified this a movie he wished he didn't work on. Samvrutha Sunil won the Best Supporting Actress at Asianet Film Awards for this film in 2008. Minnaminnikkoottam on IMDb http://www.nowrunning.com/Movie/?movie=5252 http://www.123.com/movie/2008/regional/may/minnaminnekoottam/preview/index.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20080622152832/http://www.musicindiaonline.com/music/malayalam/s/movie_name.9787/ http://sify.com/movies/imagegallery/galleryDetail.php?hcategory=13733817&hgallery=14687659
If Only My Heart Had A Voice is the twenty-fifth studio album by country music superstar Kenny Rogers. It was Rogers' first album released on the Giant Records label. However, Rogers had been signed with its parent company, WEA, since 1989; the album was Rogers' first since 1976 not to chart. The album includes the singles "Missing You", "Ol' Red" and "Wanderin' Man". "Ol' Red" was recorded by George Jones on his 1990 album You Oughta Be Here with Me, would be a Top 20 hit in 2002 for Blake Shelton from his self-titled debut. "If I Were You", recorded here as a duet with Travis Tritt, was cut by The Oak Ridge Boys on their 1991 album Unstoppable, would be recorded by Chad Brock as a duet with Mark Wills on Brock's 2000 album Yes! Rob Theakston of Allmusic rated the album 2.5 out of 5 stars, saying that "there are some moments on here that die-hard fans will enjoy". He thought that the production had "aged well" and that the songs were "surprisingly consistent." Producers – Larry Butler and James Stroud Recorded by Julian King, Lynn Peterzell and Billy Sherrill.
Assistant Engineers – Derek Bason, Mark Capps, David Hall, John Hurley, Julian King, Graham Lewis and Darren Smith. Recorded at Sound Stage Studios, Soundshop Recording Studios and 16th Avenue Sound. Mixed by Lynn Peterzell at 16th Avenue Sound, Sound Stage Studios and Masterfonics. Mastered by Glenn Meadows at Masterfonics Art Direction – Laura Lipuma Nash Design – Beth Middleworth Photography – Peter Nash Management – Ken Kragen at Kragen & Co. Booking – C. K. Spurlock