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Tithe

A tithe is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory tax to government. Today, tithes are voluntary and paid in cash or cheques, whereas tithes were required and paid in kind, such as agricultural products. Several European countries operate a formal process linked to the tax system allowing some churches to assess tithes. Traditional Jewish law and practice has included various forms of tithing since ancient times. Orthodox Jews practice ma'aser kesafim. In modern Israel, some religious Jews continue to follow the laws of agricultural tithing, e.g. ma'aser rishon, terumat ma'aser, ma'aser sheni. With respect to Christianity, many denominations hold Jesus taught that "tithing must be done in conjunction with a deep concern for justice and faithfulness". Tithing was taught at early Christian church councils, including the Council of Tours in 567, as well as the Third Council of Mâcon in 585. Tithing remains an important doctrine in many Christian denominations, such as the Congregationalist Churches, Methodist Churches and Seventh-day Adventist Church.

Some Christian Churches, such as those in the Methodist tradition, teach the concept of Storehouse Tithing, which emphasizes that tithes must be prioritized and given to the local church, before offerings can be made to apostolates or charities. None of the extant extrabiblical laws of the Ancient Near East deal with tithing, although other secondary documents show that it was a widespread practice in the Ancient Near East. William W. Hallo recognises comparisons for Israel with its ancient Near Eastern environment, however, as regards tithes, comparisons with other ancient Near Eastern evidence is ambiguous, Ancient Near Eastern literature provides scant evidence for the practice of tithing and the collection of tithes. Listed below are some specific instances of the Mesopotamian tithe, taken from The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, Vol. 4 "E" p. 369: "the palace has taken eight garments as your tithe" "...eleven garments as tithe".. "... Shamash demands the tithe..." "four minas of silver, the tithe of Bel and Nergal..."

"...he has paid, in addition to the tithe for Ninurta, the tax of the gardiner" "...the tithe of the chief accountant, he has delivered it to Shamash" "...why do you not pay the tithe to the Lady-of-Uruk?" "... owes barley and dates as balance of the tithe of the **years three and four" "...the tithe of the king on barley of the town..." "...with regard to the elders of the city whom has **summoned to tithe..." "...the collector of the tithe of the country Sumundar..." "..., in charge of the tithe..." Hebrew is a Semitic language, related to the lingua franca of that time. In Genesis 14:18–20, after rescuing Lot, met with Melchizedek. After Melchizedek's blessing, Abraham gave him a tenth of everything he has obtained from battle: "Then Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine, he was priest of God Most High, he blessed Abram, saying, "Blessed be Abram by God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth. And praise be to God Most High, who delivered your enemies into your hand". Abram gave him a tenth of everything".

In Genesis 28:16–22, after his visionary dream of Jacob's Ladder and receiving a blessing from God, promises God a tenth: "Then Jacob awoke from his sleep and said, "Surely the Lord is in this place, I did not know it". And he was afraid and said, "How awesome is this place! This is none other than the house of God, this is the gate of heaven". So early in the morning Jacob took the stone that he had put under his head and set it up for a pillar and poured oil on the top of it, he called the name of that place Bethel. Jacob made a vow, saying, "If God will be with me and will keep me in this way that I go, will give me bread to eat and clothing to wear, so that I come again to my father's house in peace the Lord shall be my God, this stone, which I have set up for a pillar, shall be God's house, and of all that you give me I will give a full tenth to you". The tithe is mentioned in the Books of Leviticus and Deuteronomy; the tithe system was organized in corresponding to the Shmita-cycle. These tithes were in reality more like taxes for the people of Israel and were mandatory, not optional giving.

This tithe was distributed locally "within thy gates" to assist the poor. Every year, Terumah, Ma'aser Rishon and Terumat Ma'aser were separated from the grain and oil; the first tithe is giving of one tenth of agricultural produce to the Levite. During the First Temple period, the first tithe was given to the Levites. At the beginning of the Second Temple construction and his Beth din implemented its giving to the kohanim. Unlike other offerings which were restricted to consumption within the tabernacle, the second tithe could be consumed anywhere. On years one, two and five of the Shemittah-cycle, God commanded the Children of Israel to take a second tithe, to be brought to the place of the Temple; the owner of the produce was to separate and bring 1/10 of his finished produce to the Old City of Jerusal

Babette Deutsch

Babette Deutsch was an American poet, critic and novelist. Born in New York City, the daughter of Michael and Melanie Deutsch, she matriculated from the Ethical Culture School and Barnard College, graduating in 1917 with a B. A, she published poems in magazines such as the North American Review and the New Republic while she was still a student at Barnard. On April 29, 1921, Deutsch married Avrahm Yarmolinsky, chief of the Slavonic Division of The New York Public Library a writer and translator, they had two sons and Michael. During the 1940s, 1950s and into the 1960s, Deutsch was teaching at Columbia University, where her students included poet/publisher Lawrence Ferlinghetti. In 1946, she received an honorary D. Litt. from Columbia University. She translated Pushkin's Eugene Onegin into English and made some of the best English versions of Boris Pasternak's poems. Deutsch's own poems displayed what poet Marianne Moore called "her commanding stature as a poet." Banners Honey Out of the Rock Fire for the Night Epistle to Prometheus One Part Love Take Them, Stranger Animal, Mineral Coming of Age: New & selected poems Collected Poems, 1919–1962 The Collected Poems of Babette Deutsch A Brittle Heaven In Such A Night Mask of Silenus: A Novel About Socrates Rogue's Legacy: A Novel About Francois Villon Potable Gold: Some Notes on Poetry and This Age This Modern Poetry Walt Whitman: Builder for America The Reader's Shakespeare Poetry Handbook Poetry in Our Time Poems – Samuel Taylor Coleridge, ed. Babette Deutsch, illus.

Jacques Hnizkovsky Modern Russian Poetry: an Anthology – trans. by Babette Deutsch and Avrahm Yarmolinsky Contemporary German Poetry: an Anthology – trans. by Babette Deutsch and Avrahm Yarmolinsky Eugene Onegin – Alexander Pushkin, illus. Fritz Eichenberg Heroes of the Kalevala – illus. Fritz Eichenberg Poems from the Book of HoursRainer Maria Rilke Selected Poems – Adam Mickiewicz, trans. Babetted Deutsch Two Centuries of Russian Verse – trans. Babette Deutsch and Avrahm Yarmolinsky CrocodileKorney Chukovsky, trans. Babette Deutsch It's A Secret! – illus. Dorothy Bayley The Welcome – illus. Marc Simont The Steel Flea – Nikolas Leskov, trans. Babette Deutsch and Avrahm Yarmolinsky, illus. Mstislav Dobufinsky – revised 1964, illus. by Janina Domanska Tales of Faraway Folk – trans. Babette Deutsch and Avrahm Yarmolinsky, illus. Irena Lorentowicz More Tales of Faraway Folk – trans. Babette Deutsch and Avrahm Yarmolinsky, illus. Janina Domanska I Often Wish Works by or about Babette Deutsch at Internet Archive Works by Babette Deutsch at LibriVox Babette Deutsch at FactMonster Babette Deutsch in The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia at GeoCities.com Babette Deutsch at The Literary Encyclopaedia – no text as of 2016-07-17 Penguin Translators A–G at Penguin First Editions – one book translated by Deutsch as of 2016-07-17 Babette Deutsch at Library of Congress Authorities, with 60 catalog records

List of Swiss inventions and discoveries

The following list is composed of items and processes that were invented by or discovered by people from Switzerland. Nucleic acid, DNA by Friedrich Miescher Restriction endonuclease by Werner Arber Research of the Immune system by Rolf M. Zinkernagel Laudanum by Paracelsus Aluminium foil by Robert Victor Neher Cellophane by Jacques E. Brandenberger DDT by Paul Hermann Müller Lysergic acid diethylamide by Albert Hofmann Reichstein process by Tadeus Reichstein Glyphosate by Henri Martin Velcro by George de Mestral Computer mouse by René Sommer, co-inventor Smaky by Jean-Daniel Nicoud programming language Pascal by Niklaus Wirth Absinthe Muesli by Maximilian Bircher-Benner White chocolate by Nestle Immersion blender by Roger Perrinjaquet Discovery of economic cycles and propagation of Social policy against the classic liberal economy by Simonde de Sismondi Bank secrecy Laudanum by Paracelsus Diclofenac Panthenol Swiss Army knife Full Metal Jacket bullet Argand lamp by Aimé Argand Twisted nematic field effect by Brown, Boveri & Cie Scanning tunneling microscope by Heinrich Rohrer Super-twisted nematic display by Brown, Boveri & Cie Swatch Internet Time by Swatch Research on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance by Kurt Wüthrich Bobsleigh Schwingen Constant escapement by Girard-Perregaux Cross-beat escapement and remontoire for watches by Jost Bürgi Riggenbach rack system by Niklaus Riggenbach Solar Impulse by Bertrand Piccard in co-operation with EPFL Tourbillon by Abraham-Louis Breguet Turbocharger by Alfred Büchi Bathyscaphe Trieste by Auguste Piccard The Red Cross by Henry Dunant List of Swiss inventors and discoverers