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Titius–Bode law

The Titius–Bode law is a hypothesis that the bodies in some orbital systems, including the Sun's, orbit at semi-major axes in a function of planetary sequence. The formula suggests that, extending outward, each planet would be twice as far from the Sun as the one before; the hypothesis anticipated the orbits of Ceres and Uranus, but failed as a predictor of Neptune's orbit and was superseded as a theory of Solar System formation. It is named after Johann Elert Bode; the law relates the semi-major axis a of each planet outward from the Sun in units such that the Earth's semi-major axis is equal to 10: a = 4 + x where x = 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, … with the exception of the first step, each value is twice the previous value. There is another representation of the formula: a = 2 n × 3 + 4 where n = − ∞, 0, 1, 2, …; the resulting values can be divided by 10 to convert them into astronomical units, resulting in the expression a = 0.4 + 0.3 × 2 m for m = − ∞, 0, 1, 2, … For the outer planets, each planet is predicted to be twice as far from the Sun as the previous object.

The first mention of a series approximating Bode's law is found in David Gregory's The Elements of Astronomy, published in 1715. In it, he says "... supposing the distance of the Earth from the Sun to be divided into ten equal Parts, of these the distance of Mercury will be about four, of Venus seven, of Mars fifteen, of Jupiter fifty two, that of Saturn ninety five." A similar sentence paraphrased from Gregory, appears in a work published by Christian Wolff in 1724. In 1764, Charles Bonnet said in his Contemplation de la Nature that, "We know seventeen planets that enter into the composition of our solar system. To this, in his 1766 translation of Bonnet's work, Johann Daniel Titius added two of his own paragraphs, at the bottom of page 7 and at the beginning of page 8; the new interpolated paragraph is not found in Bonnet's original text, nor in translations of the work into Italian and English. There are two parts to Titius's intercalated text; the first part explains the succession of planetary distances from the Sun: Take notice of the distances of the planets from one another, recognize that all are separated from one another in a proportion which matches their bodily magnitudes.

Divide the distance from the Sun to Saturn into 100 parts. But notice that from Mars to Jupiter there comes a deviation from this so exact progression. From Mars there follows a space of 4 +24 = 28 such parts, but should the Lord Architect have left that space empty? Not at all. Let us therefore assume that this space without doubt belongs to the still undiscovered satellites of Mars, let us add that Jupiter still has around itself some smaller ones which have not been sighted yet by any telescope. Next to this for us still unexplored space there rises Jupiter's sphere of influence at 4+48=52 parts. In 1772, Johann Elert Bode, aged twenty-five, completed the second edition of his astronomical compendium Anleitung zur Kenntniss des gestirnten Himmels, into which he added the following footnote unsourced, but credited to Titius in versions: This latter point seems in particular to follow from the astonishing relation which the known six planets observe in their distances from the Sun. Let the distance from the Sun to Saturn be taken as 100 Mercury is separated by 4 such parts from the Sun.

Venus is 4+3=7. The Earth 4+6=10. Mars 4+12=16. Now comes a gap in this so orderly progression. After Mars there follows a space of 4 +24 = 28 parts. Can one believe that the Founder of the universe had left this space empty? Not. From here we come to the distance of Jupiter by 4+48=52 parts, to that of Saturn by 4+96=100 parts; these two statements, for all their particular typology and the radii of the orbits, seem to stem from an antique cossist. Many precedents were found from before the seventeenth century. Titius was a disciple of the German philosopher Christian Freiherr von Wolf; the second part of the inserted text in Bonnet's work is founded in a von Wolf work dated 1723, Vernünftige Gedanken von den Wirkungen der Natur. Twentieth century literature about Titius–Bode law assigns the German philosopher authorship. Another older reference was written by James Gregory in 1702, in his Astronomiae physicae et geometricae elementa, where the succession of planetary distances 4, 7, 10, 16, 52, 100 became a geometric progression of ratio 2.

This is the nearest Newtonian

DNB Arena (Stavanger)

DNB Arena is an indoor ice hockey rink in Stavanger and home to the GET-ligaen side Stavanger Oilers. Opened ahead of the 2012–13 season, the arena has a capacity for 4,500 spectators during ice hockey matches and 6,000 during concerts, including 36 executive boxes; the rink is unusual for Norway. The 16,500 square meters building is designed by Arkitektkontoret Jobb and is named for DNB, a Norwegian banking group. Plans for a new venue to replace the aging Stavanger Ishall were first articulated by club-owner Tore Christiansen in 2006. Construction started with Kruse Smith as the main contractor. Construction cost 210 million Norwegian krone; the venue is owned by the Oilers' investment company, which receives a combined 9 million per year from DNB and the municipality. The arena hosted group stages of 2012–13 IIHF Continental Cup and 2013 IIHF Women's World Championship Division I. Plans for a new arena for the Stavanger Oilers was first articulated by club-owner and chairman Tore Christiansen in 2006.

By 2007 the Oilers had the highest attendance of any team in the GET-Ligaen, when they reached an average 2,000. The club stated that additional increase would be difficult because seats were all sold to season ticket holders and that terrace spaces were only being sold to top matches; the city council passed the zoning plan for the arena area on 19 October 2009. However, construction start was delayed after a disagreement arose between the municipality and the arena company regarding the use of commercial areas. Part of the financing comes from NOK 4 million per year over 20 years paid by the municipality for ice time for local clubs. Construction commenced on 13 May 2011 with Kruse Smith as the main contractor; the project was named Oilers Arena, but in September 2011 the club signed a ten-year agreement with DNB for the naming rights, worth NOK 5 million per year. The building made of prefabricated elements manufactured by Spenncon. Construction cost NOK 210 million. Ahead of the 2012–13 season, the Oilers sold 3,000 season tickets.

The arena was inaugurated with an Oilers training session on 1 October. Stavanger Municipal Council gave, against the votes of the Christian Democratic Party and the Socialist Left Party, a temporary permission to serve alcoholic beverages at matches; the team stated that they hoped this would pave the way for alcohol service at other sports events in the country. The first match took place on 7 October, with Oilers beating 3–2. DNB Arena is located at Madlaveien, next to the Oilers' old venue Stavanger Ishall; the area has a capacity for 4,500 spectators during ice hockey matches and 6,000 during concerts, including 36 executive boxes. The rink measures 26 by 60 metres, the standard for the National Hockey League and narrower than the standard of the International Ice Hockey Federation, used in Norway; the structure was designed by Arkitektkontoret Jobb. It is named for a Norwegian banking group. Seats are softened with textiles and the club has chosen to not color the venue in their team colors to keep focus on the playing field and make it easier for the venue to be used for other events.

The sound system was delivered by Bose and Electrocompaniet. The concessionaires do not accept cash. Oilers hosted Group E of the 2012–13 IIHF Continental Cup. Played between 23 and 25 November, the group was contested between Oilers, Belarus' Metallurg Zhlobin, Poland's KH Sanok and the winner of Group C, Beibarys Atyrau; the venue is scheduled to host Group A of the 2013 IIHF Women's World Championship Division I between 7 and 14 April. In addition to Norway, the tournament will feature Austria, Japan and Slovakia. Scheduled concerts are Brad Paisley on 11 November 2012 and Mark Knopfler on 13 June 2013; the venue will along with other halls be used to host future Offshore Northern Seas trade fairs. Media related to DNB Arena at Wikimedia Commons Official website

Ephraim H. Foster

Ephraim Hubbard Foster twice served as a United States Senator from Tennessee. During his political career, he was a member of the Whig Party. Foster was born near Bardstown, Kentucky in Nelson County, the son of Robert Coleman Foster and the former Ann Hubbard. In 1797 he moved with his parents to Tennessee, he graduated from Cumberland College and studied law, being admitted to the bar in 1820. He served in the Creek War and was for a time private secretary to General Andrew Jackson, he was a member of the Tennessee House of Representatives from 1829 to 1831 and again from 1835 to 1837, serving each time as Speaker. Upon the resignation from the U. S. Senate of Felix Grundy to accept appointment as United States Attorney General, the Tennessee General Assembly elected Foster his successor, he served in the Senate for the first time from September 17, 1838 to March 3, 1839. The legislature elected him to continue in the new term, but he declined, refusing to take their instruction in how to vote while a Senator.

However, Grundy died in office about a year later. Alfred O. P. Nicholson agreed to serve on an interim basis, his second period of service in the Senate was from October 17, 1843 to March 3, 1845. During this time he chaired the Senate Committee on Claims. In 1845 Foster received the nomination of the Whig party for Governor of Tennessee, but was defeated in the election by Aaron V. Brown of the Democratic Party. Following this, Foster returned to his Nashville law practice until shortly before his death, he is buried in the old City Cemetery in Nashville. His only daughter Sallie married Benjamin F. Cockrill, the son of planter Mark R. Cockrill, they had a son, Benjamin F. Cockrill Jr.. United States Congress. "Ephraim H. Foster". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Ephraim H. Foster at Find a Grave

No Sleep til Shanghai

No Sleep til Shanghai is a 2007 documentary film. It was directed by Todd Angkasuwan. Riding the notoriety of winning the weekly Freestyle Friday rap battle on BET’s 106 and Park for seven consecutive weeks, Jin shattered insurmountable boundaries and stereotypes by becoming the first Asian American rapper to sign a recording deal with a major label when he signed with Virgin Records; the film follows Jin and his crew as they tour Asia to promote Jin’s debut album, The Rest is History. Along the way, we are treated to a fascinating glimpse into the life of a rapper, as well as the growing hip hop communities in Asian cities such as Hong Kong, Shanghai and Tokyo; the film gained wide acclaim and some shock from screening audiences at the Atlanta Film Festival as they reacted to the startling visage of Jamaican-American promoter Andrew Ballen speaking fluent Chinese on the Shanghai leg of the tour. Atlanta Hip Hop Film Festival - Best Documentary San Francisco Int'l Asian American Film Festival - Best Documentary Official website

Junk Science (album)

Junk Science is the first studio album by electronic music duo Deep Dish. The album reached #37 in the United Kingdom. All tracks except where noted. "Morning Wood" – 2:19 "The Future of the Future" featuring Tracey Thorn – 9:28 "Summer's Over" – 7:16 "Mohammad Is Jesus..." – 4:47 "Stranded" – 7:10 "Junk Science" – 3:51 "Sushi" – 7:52 "My Only Sin" - 4:05 "Monsoon" – 6:52 "Persepolis" – 2:55 "Chocolate City" – 10:28 "Mohammad Is Jesus..." – 5:16 "Wear the Hat" – 5:29 "The Future of the Future" featuring Tracey Thorn – 13:20 "Summer's Over" – 8:41 "Wear the Hat" – 5:29 "Stranded" – 7:53 "Junk Science" – 5:58 "Sushi" – 7:50 "My Only Sin" - 4:04 "Morning Wood" – 2:19 "Chocolate City" – 10:28 "Mohammad Is Jesus" – 5:14 "Mohammad Is Jesus" – 4:46 "Monsoon" – 6:52 "Persepolis" – 2:55 "Mohammad Is Jesus" – 9:16 "Sushi" – 9:47 "The Future of the Future" – 13:20 "Chocolate City" – 10:28

Lands of Sweden

The lands of Sweden are three traditional parts, each consisting of several provinces, in Sweden. The division into lands goes back to the foundation of modern Sweden, when Götaland, the land of the Geats, merged with Svealand, the land of the Swedes, to form the country. While Norrland and Österland were added later; the lands have no administrative function but are still seen by many Swedes as an important part of their identity. Götaland is the southern, most densely populated part, consisting of ten provinces. Svealand is the central, smallest of the three lands, with six provinces. Norrland is the northern, largest, of the three lands, covering 60 percent of the total land area of Sweden, with nine provinces; the three northernmost provinces are referred to as Övre Norrland, while the rest of the provinces are referred to as Nedre Norrland. The lands have no administrative functions and no coats of arms, but are in common use when referring to different parts of the country, including in all nationwide weather reports in Swedish media.

Areas and populations of the lands: Sweden was divided into the four lands: Götaland, Norrland and Österland. Large parts of Norrland was only inhabited by the Sami people and the border towards Norway was unclear in the far north. Österland is an old name for southern Finland. The term has been obsolete since the 15th century and is unknown in Sweden today. In most dictionaries, "österlandet" means the orient. Norrland was the name for the annexed lands to the north on both sides of the Gulf of Bothnia. In Sweden's prehistoric times, Sweden was limited to Svealand and southern Norrland, while Götaland was mentioned as a rival kingdom, stories of Swedish-Geatish wars survive in the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf; the two countries were united under one crown, though it is a matter of debate when, as historians have claimed that it happened as early as the 6th Century AD and as late as the 13th Century AD. In the Second Treaty of Brömsebro Denmark-Norway ceded the Norwegian provinces of Jämtland and Härjedalen to Sweden.

These provinces are part of Norrland. In the Treaty of Roskilde, Denmark-Norway ceded Scania and Halland and Bohuslän to Sweden; these provinces are since part of Götaland. After the Finnish War, the eastern part of Sweden was ceded to Russia, thus becoming the Imperial Russian Grand Duchy of Finland, with Norrland divided between these two states; the Swedish portion of Norrland still represents more than half of Sweden's territory. Subdivisions of the Nordic countries Old Finland Lands of Denmark Dominions of Sweden Provinces of Sweden Historical provinces of Finland Media related to Category:Lands of Sweden at Wikimedia Commons Courts of Appeal: The Court Districts of Sweden - Official site of The National Courts Administration