Title IX is a federal civil rights law in the United States of America, passed as part of the Education Amendments of 1972. This is Public Law No. 92‑318, 86 Stat. 235, codified at 20 U. S. C. §§ 1681–1688. It was co-authored and introduced by Senator Birch Bayh in the U. S. Senate, Congresswoman Patsy Mink in the House, it was renamed the Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act following Mink's death in 2002; the following is the original text as written and signed into law by President Richard Nixon in 1972: No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. Title IX was enacted as a follow-up to passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; the 1964 Act was passed to end discrimination in various fields based on race, religion, sex, or national origin in the areas of employment and public accommodation. The 1964 Act did not prohibit sex discrimination against persons employed at educational institutions.
A parallel law, Title VI, had been enacted in 1964 to prohibit discrimination in federally funded private and public entities. It covered race and national origin but excluded sex. Feminists during the early 1970s lobbied Congress to add sex as a protected class category. Title IX was enacted to fill this gap and prohibit discrimination in all federally funded education programs. Congressman John Tower proposed an amendment to Title IX that would have exempted athletics departments from the scope of Title IX's coverage; the Tower amendment was rejected, but it led to widespread misunderstanding of Title IX as a sports-equity law, rather than an anti-discrimination, civil rights law. While Title IX is best known for its impact on high school and collegiate athletics, the original statute made no explicit mention of sports; the United States Supreme Court issued decisions in the 1980s and 1990s, making clear that sexual harassment and assault is a form of sex discrimination. In 2011, President Barack Obama issued guidance reminding schools of their obligation to redress sexual assaults as civil rights matters under Title IX.
Obama issued guidance clarifying Title IX protections for LGBT students through Dear Colleague letters. The precursor to Title IX was an executive order, issued in 1967 by President Lyndon Johnson, forbidding discrimination in federal contracts. Before these orders were issued, the National Organization for Women had persuaded him through successful lobbying, or influencing, his personal aides or Members of Congress to include the addition of women. Executive Order 11375 required all entities receiving federal contracts to end discrimination on the basis of sex in hiring and employment. In 1969, a notable example of its success was Bernice Sandler who used the executive order to retain her job and tenure at the University of Maryland, she utilized university statistics to show how female employment at the University had plummeted as qualified women were replaced by men. Sandler brought her complaints to the Department of Labor's Office for Federal Fair Contracts Compliance, where she was encouraged to file a formal complaint.
Sandler soon began to file complaints against the University of Maryland and against other colleges while working with NOW and the Women's Equity Action League. Sandler filed two hundred and sixty-nine complaints against colleges and universities, which led to the events of 1970. In 1970, Sandler joined U. S. House Representative Edith Green's Subcommittee on Higher Education of the Education and Labor Committee, observed corresponding congressional hearings relating to women's issues on employment and equal opportunity. In these hearings and Sandler proposed the idea of Title IX. An early legislative draft was authored by Representative Patsy Mink with the assistance of Representative Edith Green. At the hearing, there were mentions of athletics; the idea behind the draft was a progressive one in somewhat instituting an affirmative action for women in all aspects of American education. Mink's initial draft of Title IX was formally introduced in Congress by Senator Birch Bayh of Indiana in 1971, its chief Senate sponsor with respect to congressional debate.
At the time, Bayh was working on numerous constitutional issues related to women's employment and sex discrimination—including but not limited to the revised draft of the Equal Rights Amendment. The ERA attempted to build "a powerful constitutional base from which to move forward in abolishing discriminatory differential treatment based on sex"; as he was having partisan difficulty in getting the ERA Amendment out of committee, the Higher Education Act of 1965 was on the Senate Floor for re-authorization. In his remarks on the Senate Floor, Bayh stated, "we are all familiar with the stereotype women pretty things who go to college to find a husband, go on to graduate school because they want a more interesting husband, marry, have children, never work again; the desire of many schools not to waste a'man's place' on a woman stems from such stereotyped notions. But the facts contradict these myths about the'weaker sex' and it is time to change our operating assumptions." He continued: ``, it is not a panacea.
It is, however, an important first step in the effort to provide for the women of America something, rightfully theirs—an equal chance to attend
The Lockheed XFV was an American experimental tailsitter prototype aircraft built by Lockheed in the early 1950s to demonstrate the operation of a vertical takeoff and landing fighter for protecting convoys. The Lockheed XFV originated as a result of a proposal issued by the U. S. Navy in 1948 for an aircraft capable of vertical takeoff and landing aboard platforms mounted on the afterdecks of conventional ships. Both Convair and Lockheed competed for the contract but in 1950, the requirement was revised, with a call for a research aircraft capable of evolving into a VTOL ship-based convoy escort fighter. On 19 April 1951, two prototypes were ordered from Lockheed under the designation XFO-1. Soon after the contract was awarded, the project designation changed to XFV-1 when the Navy's code for Lockheed was changed from O to V; the XFV was powered by a 5,332 hp Allison YT40-A-6 turboprop engine driving three-bladed contra-rotating propellers. The tail surfaces were a reflected cruciform v-tail that extended below the fuselage.
The aircraft had an ungainly appearance on the ground with a fixed landing gear attached. Lockheed employees derisively nicknamed the aircraft the "pogo stick". To begin flight testing, a temporary non-retractable undercarriage with long braced V-legs was attached to the fuselage, fixed tail wheels attached to the lower pair of fins. In this form, the aircraft was trucked to Edwards AFB in November 1953 for ground testing and taxiing trials. During one of these tests, at a time when the aft section of the large spinner had not yet been fitted, Lockheed chief test pilot Herman "Fish" Salmon managed to taxi the aircraft past the liftoff speed, the aircraft made a brief hop on 22 December 1953; the official first flight took place on 16 June 1954. Full VTOL testing at Edwards AFB was delayed pending the availability of the 7,100 shp Allison T54, which never materialized. After the brief unintentional hop, the aircraft made a total of 32 flights. All further XFV-1 flights did not involve any vertical landings.
The XFV-1 was able to make a few transitions in flight from the conventional to the vertical flight mode and back, had held in hover at altitude. Performance remained limited by the confines of the flight test regime. With the realization that the XFV's top speeds would be eclipsed by contemporary fighters and that only experienced pilots could fly the aircraft, the project was cancelled in June 1955. Salmon taxied the XFV-1 on its temporary gear "from a standing start to 175 mph, brought it back down to a dead stop without any use of the brakes, all within a distance of one mile." XFO-1/XFV-1: Two prototypes built, one flown. FV-2: Proposed production version was to have been powered by the T54-A-16 turboprop, incorporating a bullet-proof windshield and radar in the fixed forward part of the nose spinner; the proposed armament was four 20 mm cannon fitted in the two wingtip pods. Alternatively, 48 2 3⁄4 - inch; the single flying prototype ended up as an exhibit at the Sun'n Fun Campus Museum at Lakeland Linder International Airport in Lakeland, Florida.
This example was refurbished at the museum's Buehler Restoration Center and is on outdoor display. The aircraft was assigned USN/USMC Bureau Number 138657, but was marked as 658 following restoration; the second prototype, never completed, is on display at Los Alamitos Army Airfield in California. General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 36 ft 10.25 in Wingspan: 30 ft 10.1 in Height: 36 ft 10.25 in Wing area: 246 ft2 Empty weight: 11,599 lb Loaded weight: 16,221 lb Max. Takeoff weight: 16,221 lb Powerplant: 1 × Allison XT40-A-14 turboprop, 6 blade contra-rotating, 5,100 shp Performance Maximum speed: 580 mph Cruise speed: 410 mph Range: unknown Service ceiling: 43,300 ft Rate of climb: 10,820 ft/min Wing loading: 65.9 lb/ft2 Armament 4 × 20 mm cannons or 48 × 2.75 in rockets Note: Performance estimates are based on XFV with YT40-A-14 engine. Aircraft of comparable role and era Convair XFY Focke-Wulf Triebflügel Heinkel Lerche Ryan X-13 Vertijet Related lists List of Lockheed aircraft List of fighter aircraft List of military aircraft of the United States List of military aircraft of the United States "Heads Up Fighters."
Popular Mechanics, May 1954, pp. 96–97
Aimery II was the Viscount of Narbonne from around 1106 until his death. He was the eldest son of Aimery I of Narbonne and Mahalt, daughter of Robert Guiscard and Sichelgaita and widow of Raymond Berengar II of Barcelona; this made him a half-brother of Raymond Berengar III. He ruled as a minor under the regency of his mother. After he came of age he married Ermengard. In 1112 or 1113, Aimery received the Fenouillèdes and the Peyrepertusès from his half-brother in return for swearing an oath of fealty against Bernard Ato IV of Béziers, with whom Raymond Berengar was at war; the lords of the Fenouillèdes and the Peyrepertuseès remained vassals of Narbonne until the Albigensian Crusade and the viscounts of Narbonne took the lordship of Rouffiac near Peyrepertuse into their own hands. When Douce I, Countess of Provence died and Raymond Berengar claimed the County of Provence, Aimery received the fief of Beaucaire and the terre d'Argence near the mouth of the Rhône in Provence. Sometime during his rule, Aimery granted the merchants of Narbonne the right to form a consulate in imitation of Genoa.
He saw the self-organisation of his merchants and their formation of a military in their own defence as an aid to his own rule so long as the consulate remained under vicecomital control, which in the end it did not. Aimery participated in 1114–15 in the Balearic Islands expedition led by the Republic of Pisa and Raymond Berengar. In 1114, Aimery put an end to conflicting claims in the village of Le Lac on the Via Domitia by transferring his rights there to the abbey of Lagrasse in return for a large loan of gold and silver, he entered into a conflict with his cousin Richard de Millau, Archbishop of Narbonne, who may have been a compromise candidate between Aimery and the pope for the archiepiscopal throne. Richard claimed that Aimery fecit mihi hominium propriis manibus received fedovia from the Church "in the presence of the universal synod of the province of Narbonne." The archbishop accused Aimery of deceiving him concerning the extent of the Church's fiefs and attempting to hold land as his by inheritance, his by grant of the Church.
Aimery was recorded to have abused church property violently and there were disputes concerning who controlled the towers on the city walls. The whole dispute lasted a long time, but Aimery was made to come to terms by the Papacy's support of Richard. In the end, he had to swear oaths of fealty to the archbishop, recognise the archbishop's independent temporal lordship, concede that some of the rights he held in the city of Narbonne constituted a fief of the archbishopric. In 1124, Bernard Ato of Béziers declared war on Aimery, who responded by razing the castle at Montséret, held by Aimery's vassal Bernard Amati until he had treacherously turned it over to Bernard Ato. Not long after this Aimery turned towards Iberia and joined the Reconquista being waged by Alfonso the Battler in the Ebro valley. In July 1131, Aimery was at the deathbed of his half-brother to witness his final testament, of which he was to be the executor. Aimery died in battle before the walls of the Moorish city of Fraga, which Alfonso had been besieging.
Aimery had a daughter by Ermengard. He married a second time to a woman left by her a daughter of the same name; this second daughter, married before 1153 a great Castilian magnate, Manrique Pérez de Lara, lord of Molina. Cheyette, Fredric L. Ermengard of Narbonne and the World of the Troubadours. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001
Richard Field was a printer and publisher in Elizabethan London, best known for his close association with the poems of William Shakespeare, with whom he grew up in Stratford-upon-Avon. Field's family lived on Bridge Street, Stratford-upon-Avon, close to the Shakespeare's house on Henley Street, his father was a tanner. It is accepted that Shakespeare and Field knew each other in Stratford, since they were similar in age and their fathers were in similar businesses. After Field's father Henry died in August 1592, William's father John Shakespeare was one of the local officials charged with the appraisal of the deceased man's property. In 1579 Richard Field began an apprenticeship with the London printers George Bishop and Thomas Vautrollier. Vautrollier died in 1587. In 1588, Field collaborated with Jacqueline Vautrollier, Thomas Vautrollier's widow and a printer in her own right, on The copie of a letter sent out of England to Don Bernardin Mendoza declaring the state of England; this piece of Protestant propaganda was the first work to bear Field's name.
Field went on to marry Jacqueline in 1589. He succeeded to his former master's business, "one of the best in London." Field's shop was near Ludgate. He printed works for the most regarded publishers in London, including William Ponsonby and Edward Blount. In 1592 his brother, Jasper Field, joined Richard's business as an apprentice. Field's Protestantism led him to publish a number of Spanish-language Protestant works for sale in Catholic Spain, under the name "Ricardo del Campo." Examples include a translation of Calvin's reformed catechism, Catecismo que significa forma de instrucción, que contiene los principios de la religión de dios, util y necessario para todo fiel Christiano: compuesto en manera de dialogue, dónde pregunta el maestro, y responde el discípulo. His Spanish works included a number which claimed to be written by Cipriano de Valera, including Dos tratados. El primero es del Papa y de su autoridad colegiado de su vida y dotrina, y de lo que los doctores y concilios antiguos y la misma sagrada Escritura enseñan.
El segundo es de la Missa recopilado de los doctores y concilios y de la sagrada Escritura and a Spanish New Testament. For his title pages, Field adopted an Aldine device, an anchor with the Latin motto Anchora Spei, "anchor of hope," which belonged to the Vautrollier. In Field's era, the trades of printer and publisher were to some significant degree separate activities: booksellers acted as publishers and commissioned printers to do the requisite printing. Field concentrated more on printing than publishing: of the 295 books he printed in his career, he was publisher of 112, while the rest were published by other stationers. When, for example, Andrew Wise published Thomas Campion's Observations in the Art of English Poesy in 1602, the volume was printed by Field. Field rose to be one of the 22 master printers of the Stationers Company. From 1615 on he kept his shop near his home. Field had a number of one being George Miller. After Field's death in 1624, his business passed to the partners Richard Badger and George Miller, who continued to employ the Aldine device.
Field is best remembered for printing the early editions of three of Shakespeare's non-dramatic poems: Venus and Adonis – Field printed the first four editions of the narrative poem, the quartos of 1593 and 1594 and the octavos of 1595 and 1596. The Rape of Lucrece – Field printed the first quarto edition of 1594; the Phoenix and the Turtle – working for Edward Blount, Field printed the 1601 first quarto edition of the poem Love's Martyr by Robert Chester. In addition to Chester's poem, the volume contained short poems by other hands, including Shakespeare's work. In contrast to the early printed editions of Shakespeare's plays, Field's texts for the two narrative poems meet a high standard of quality. Scholars have sometimes supposed Shakespeare's direct involvement: "The two early poems, both printed by Field, are the only works the publication of which Shakespeare supervised." Others, have disputed the idea of the poet's personal involvement, arguing that Field, "a efficient printer with a reputation for honesty and scrupulousness," could have produced the high-quality texts on his own.
Field entered Venus and Adonis into the Stationers' Register on 18 April 1593, published as well as printed the first two editions, but on 25 June 1594 he transferred the rights to the poem to bookseller John Harrison. Harrison published Lucrece as well as future editions of Venus, sold the books from his shop at the sign of the White Greyhound in St. Paul's Churchyard. Harrison published editions of Lucrece that were printed by other printers. Another association between Shakespeare and Field has been theorised, it has been noticed that many of the texts that Shakespeare used as sources for his plays were products of the Vautrollier/Field printshop. These texts include Thomas North's translation of Plutarch, Sir John Harington's translation of Orlando Furioso, Robert Greene's Pandosto, the works of Ovid, Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles. Since Field would have kept a copy of each of these books in his shop, it has been theorised that Shakespeare used Field's shop as a library during his early career.
James Shapiro argues that the influence of Plutarch was significant in Shakespeare's mid-career and that he "probably worked from a copy of Plutarch given, or lent him, by Field, an expensive and beautiful folio that cost a couple of pounds". Richard and Jacqueline Field lived on Wood Street in the parish of St. Olave in the early 17th century.
The SL-1, or Stationary Low-Power Reactor Number One, was a United States Army experimental nuclear power reactor in the United States that underwent a steam explosion and meltdown on January 3, 1961, killing its three operators. The direct cause was the improper withdrawal of the central control rod, responsible for absorbing neutrons in the reactor core; the event is the only reactor accident in the U. S. that resulted in immediate fatalities. The accident released about 80 curies of iodine-131, not considered significant due to its location in the remote high desert of eastern Idaho. About 1,100 curies of fission products were released into the atmosphere; the facility, located at the National Reactor Testing Station forty miles west of Idaho Falls, was part of the Army Nuclear Power Program and was known as the Argonne Low Power Reactor during its design and build phase. It was intended to provide electrical power and heat for small, remote military facilities, such as radar sites near the Arctic Circle, those in the DEW Line.
The design power was 3 MW, but some 4.7 MW tests were performed in the months prior to the accident. Operating power was 200 kW electrical and 400 kW thermal for space heating. During the accident the core power level reached nearly 20 GW in just four milliseconds, precipitating the steam explosion. From 1954 to 1955, the U. S. Army evaluated their need for nuclear reactor plants that would be operable in remote regions of the Arctic; the reactors were to replace diesel generators and boilers that provided electricity and space heating for the Army's radar stations. The Army Reactors Branch formed the guidelines for the project and contracted with Argonne National Laboratory to design and test a prototype reactor plant to be called the Argonne Low Power Reactor; some of the more important criteria included: All components able to be transported by air All components limited to packages measuring 7.5 by 9 by 20 feet and weighing 20,000 pounds Use of standard components Minimal on-site construction Simplicity and reliability Adaptable to the Arctic "permafrost region" 3-year fuel operating lifetime per core loadingThe prototype was constructed at the NRTS site from July 1957 to July 1958.
It went critical on August 11, 1958, became operational on October 24, was formally dedicated on December 2, 1958. The 3 MW boiling water reactor used 93.20% enriched uranium fuel. It operated with natural circulation, using light water as a coolant and moderator. ANL used its experience from the BORAX experiments to design the BWR; the circulating water system operated at 300 pounds per square inch flowing through fuel plates of uranium-aluminum alloy. The plant was turned over to the U. S. Army for training and operating experience in December 1958 after extensive testing, with Combustion Engineering Incorporated acting as the lead contractor beginning February 5, 1959. CEI was responsible for the actual operation of the SL-1 reactor, for the routine training of military personnel and for developmental research programs; the Contractor provided at the site a Project Manager, Operations Supervisor, a Test Supervisor and a technical staff of six personnel. In recent months, the Project Manager spent half time at the site and half time at the contractor's office in Connecticut.
In his absence, either the Operations Supervisor or the Test Supervisor was assigned as the Project Manager.... It was understood, as indicated by testimony before the Board, that CEI would provide supervision on any shifts when non-routine work was carried out.... The AEC's Idaho Office and the Army Reactors Office believed that addition of night supervisors when only routine work was involved would defeat a part of the purpose of operating the reactor under the existing arrangement, i.e. to obtain plant operating experience with only military personnel. Trainees in the Army Reactor Training Program included members of the U. S. Army, called cadre, who were the plant operators, although many "Maritime" civilians trained, along with a few U. S. Air Force and U. S. Navy personnel. While plant operation was done by the cadre in two-man crews, any development of the reactor was to be supervised directly by CEI staff. CEI decided to perform development work on the reactor as recent as the half of 1960 in which the reactor was to be operated at 4.7 MWthermal for a "PL-1 condenser test."
As the reactor core aged and boron "poison" strips corroded and flaked off, CEI calculated that about 18% of the boron in the core had been "lost." This resulted in the addition of "cadmium sheets" on November 11, 1960, two months before the accident. Corrective actions to the flaking off and/or corrosion loss of boron poison strips included a recent change to the reactor core in which new cadmium sheets were installed "to several tee slot positions to increase reactor shutdown margin." This modification was done on November 15, 1960, some weeks before the accident. The majority of the plant equipment was located in a cylindrical steel reactor building 38.5 feet in diameter and an overall height of 48 feet. The reactor building known as ARA-602 was made of plate steel, most of which had a thickness of 1/4 inch. Access to the building was provided by an ordinary door through an enclosed exterior stairwell from ARA-603, the Support Facilities Building. An emergency exit door was included, with an exterior stairwell going to the ground level.
The reactor building was not a pressure-type containment shell as would have been used for reactors located in populated areas. The building was able to contai
Buckeye Elementary School District 33 is a school district in Maricopa County, feeding into Buckeye Union High School District. The district consists with more than 5,200 students and 650 staff; the first school in Buckeye was built in 1889. It was a one-room school made of lumber and located on the north side of Clanton Street between Fifth and Sixth streets. Just one year after it was built, W. J. Melton organized a Baptist church group which met there on Sundays and for socials; the school outgrew the building and had to move, but the church remained there until 1931. In 1903, Buckeye built a four-room, two-story, red brick building with an outdoor stairway with a woodshed under the stairway, it was just east of the original school and across from the present elementary school There were two large rooms on the ground floor and two upstairs. In 1937, the Buckeye Elementary School was constructed on its current location; as the community of Buckeye grew, so did the school district: 2002 - Bales Elementary School 2004 - Sundance Elementary School 2005 - WestPark Elementary School 2006 - Jasinski Elementary School 2009 - Inca Elementary School 2017 - Marionneaux Elementary School The Buckeye Elementary Preschool, located on the campus of Buckeye Elementary School, opened a separate campus adjacent to BES in 2004 and an additional campus at Jasinski Elementary in 2017.
The Buckeye Elementary School District Governing Board consists of five members, each of whom resides within the school district and is elected to a four-year term. They serve voluntarily. Governing Board President is Marcus Eads, Clerk is Jane Hunt, Member Richard Hopkins, Member Amy Lovitt and Member Gina Ragsdale. Official website City of Buckeye, Ariz