Latin jazz is a genre of jazz with Latin American rhythms. Although musicians continually expand its parameters, the term Latin jazz is understood to have a more specific meaning than "jazz from Latin America"; some Latin jazz employs rhythms that either have a direct analog in Africa, or exhibit an African influence. The two main categories of Latin jazz are: Afro-Cuban jazz – jazz rhythmically based on Cuban popular dance music with a rhythm section employing ostinato patterns or a clave. Afro-Brazilian jazz -- includes bossa jazz samba. African American music began incorporating Afro-Cuban musical motifs in the 19th century, when the habanera gained international popularity; the habanera was the first written music to be rhythmically based on an African motif. The habanera rhythm can be thought of as a combination of the backbeat. Wynton Marsalis considers tresillo to be the New Orleans "clave," although technically, the pattern is only half a clave. "St. Louis Blues" by W. C. Handy has a habanera-tresillo bass line.
Handy noted a reaction to the habanera rhythm included in Will H. Tyler's "Maori": "I observed that there was a sudden and graceful reaction to the rhythm... White dancers, as I had observed them, took the number in stride. I began to suspect that there was something Negroid in that beat." After noting a similar reaction to the same rhythm in "La Paloma", Handy included this rhythm in his "St. Louis Blues", the instrumental copy of "Memphis Blues", the chorus of "Beale Street Blues", other compositions. Jelly Roll Morton considered the tresillo-habanera to be an essential ingredient of jazz; the habanera rhythm can be heard in his left hand on songs like "The Crave". Now in one of my earliest tunes, “New Orleans Blues,” you can notice the Spanish tinge. In fact, if you can’t manage to put tinges of Spanish in your tunes, you will never be able to get the right seasoning, I call it, for jazz—Morton. Although the exact origins of jazz syncopation may never be known, there is evidence that the habanera-tresillo was there at its conception.
Buddy Bolden, the first known jazz musician, is credited with creating the big four, a habanera-based pattern. The big four was the first syncopated bass drum pattern to deviate from the standard on-the-beat march; as the example below shows, the second half of the big four pattern is the habanera rhythm. It is safe to say that by and large the simpler African rhythmic patterns survived in jazz... because they could be adapted more to European rhythmic conceptions. Some survived, others were discarded, it may account for the fact that patterns such as... remained one of the most useful and common syncopated patterns in jazz—Schuller. The Cuban influence is evident in many pre-1940s jazz tunes, but rhythmically, they are all based on single-celled motifs such as tresillo, not do not contain an overt two-celled, clave-based structure. "Caravan", written by Juan Tizol and first performed in 1936, is an early proto-Latin jazz composition. It is not clave-based; the first jazz piece to be overtly based in-clave, therefore, the first true Latin jazz piece, was "Tanga" composed by Mario Bauza and recorded by Machito and his Afro-Cubans the same year, 1943.
The tune was a descarga with jazz solos superimposed, spontaneously composed by Bauzá. The right hand of the "Tanga" piano guajeo is in the style known as ponchando, a type of non-arpeggiated guajeo using block chords; the sequence of attack-points is emphasized, rather than a sequence of different pitches. As a form of accompaniment it can be played in a repetitive fashion or as a varied motif akin to jazz comping; the following example is in the style of a 1949 recording by Machito. 2‐3 clave, piano by René Hernández. The first descarga that made the world take notice is traced to a Machito rehearsal on May 29, 1943, at the Park Palace Ballroom, at 110th Street and 5th Avenue. At this time, Machito was at Fort Dix in his fourth week of basic training; the day before at La Conga Club, Mario Bauza, Machito's trumpeter and music director, heard pianist Luis Varona and bassist Julio Andino play El Botellero composition and arrangements of the Cuban-born Gilberto Valdez which would serve as a permanent sign off tune.
On this Monday evening, Dr. Bauza leaned over the piano and instructed Varona to play the same piano vamp he did the night before. Varona's left hand began the introduction of Gilberto Valdes' El Botellero. Bauza instructed Julio Andino what to play; the broken chord sounds soon began to take shape into an Afro-Cuban jazzed up melody. Gene Johnson's alto sax emitted oriental-like jazz phrases. Afro-Cuban jazz was invented when Bauza composed "Tanga" that evening of 1943. Thereafter, whenever "Tanga" was played, it sounded different, depending on a soloist's individuality. In August 1948, when trumpeter Howard McGhee soloed with Machito's orchestra at the Apollo Theatre, his ad-libs to "Tanga" resulted in "Cu-Bop City," a tune, recorded by Roost Records months later; the jams which took place at the Royal Roots, Bop City and Birdland between 1948 and 1949, when Howard McGhee, tenor saxophonist Brew Moore, Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie sat in with the Machito orchestra, were unrehearsed, unheard-of-before jam sessions which at the time, master of ceremonies Symphony Sid called Afro-Cuban jazz.
The Machito orchestra's ten- or fifteen-minute jams were the first in Latin music to break away from
Machito was a Latin jazz musician who helped refine Afro-Cuban jazz and create both Cubop and salsa music. He was raised in Havana with his foster sister. In New York City, Machito formed the band the Afro-Cubans in 1940, with Mario Bauzá as musical director, brought together Cuban rhythms and big band arrangements in one group, he made numerous recordings from the 1940s to the 1980s, many with Graciela as singer. Machito changed to a smaller ensemble format in 1975, he brought his son and daughter into the band, received a Grammy Award in 1983, one year before he died. Machito's music had an effect on the lives of many musicians who played in the Afro-Cubans over the years, on those who were attracted to Latin jazz after hearing him. George Shearing, Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker and Stan Kenton credited Machito as an influence. An intersection in East Harlem is named "Machito Square" in his honor. Machito gave conflicting accounts of his birth, he sometimes said. Other accounts place his birth in Tampa, making him an American of Cuban ancestry.
He may have been born in 1908 in the Jesús María district of Havana or in Tampa, 1909 in the Marianao Beach district of Havana or in Tampa, 1912 in Tampa or Havana, or 1915 in Havana. Regardless of his place of birth, Machito was raised from an early age in the Jesús María district of Havana, where his foster sister Graciela was born August 23, 1915, her parents raised both of them. Young Francisco Raúl Gutiérrez Grillo, the son of a cigar manufacturer, was nicknamed "Macho" as a child because he was the first son born to his parents after they had three daughters. In his teens and twenties in Cuba, "Macho" became a professional musician, playing in several ensembles from 1928 to 1937. "Macho" moved to New York City in 1937 as a vocalist with "La Estrella Habanera". He worked with several Latin artists and orchestras in the late 1930s, recording with Conjunto Moderno, Cuarteto Caney, Orchestra Siboney, the bandleader Xavier Cugat. After an earlier attempt to launch a band with Mario Bauzá, in 1940 he founded the Afro-Cubans, their first gig on December 3 at the Park Plaza Hotel.
"Macho" was at this time going by "Machito" out of respect for his new bride. A big band-style brass section with trumpets and saxes was backed by a Cuban rhythm section. Machito took on Bauza the following year as musical director. Bauza played trumpet and alto saxophone; the band had an early hit with "Sopa de Pichon" in 1941. Its title is slang for "pigeon soup", a Puerto Rican joke about nearly starving as an immigrant in New York. Tito Puente played timbales on the track, Chino Pozo played percussion. Machito's bands of the 1940s the band named the Afro-Cubans, were among the first to fuse Afro-Cuban rhythms with jazz improvisation and big band arrangements. Machito was the front man and maraca player of the Afro-Cubans and its successors while Bauza determined the character of the band. Bauza, Machito's brother-in-law from his marriage to Machito's sister Estela, hired jazz-oriented arrangers and musicians; as a result, Machito's music inspired such North American jazz giants as Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker and Stan Kenton.
One of the most famous performances of the Kenton band is an idiomatic Afro-Cuban number known as "Machito", composed by Stan Kenton with Pete Rugolo and released as a Capitol 78 in 1947. In April 1943 during World War II, Machito was drafted into the United States Army. After a few months of training, he was discharged in October. Earlier, anticipating a long absence of the band's leader, Bauza had sent for Machito's younger foster sister Graciela, who traveled to New York from Havana where she had been touring with El Trio Garcia, singing lead with the all-female Orquesta Anacaona. Graciela served as the lead singer of the Afro-Cubans for a year before Machito returned to front the band. Graciela stayed on—at performances, the two singers alternated solo songs and created duets such as "Si Si No No" and "La Paella". Adding to the percussion, Graciela played claves alongside Machito's maracas. Beginning in 1947, teenager Willie Bobo helped move the band's gear to gigs in Upper Manhattan, just so he could watch them play.
Near the end of the evening, if there were no musician's union leaders in sight, he borrowed bongos from José Mangual and played with the band. Machito helped him get positions in other Latin bands. Many years George Shearing pointed to Machito and Willie Bobo as two musicians who helped him learn "what Latin music was about". Machito accepted a recording date with Stan Kenton's band in December 1947, playing maracas on the tune "The Peanut Vendor", which turned out to be a great hit for Kenton. Other Afro-Cubans at the date were José Mangual on timbales; the next month, the bands of both Kenton and Machito shared the stage at The Town Hall, setting off a surging interest in Cubop. Machito named that style of music when he recorded an arrangement of Bauza's "Tanga" with the new title "Cubop City" in 1948. Machito was sought after by record producers, in his live shows he featured soloists Howard McGhee on trumpet and Brew Moore on tenor sax. Late in 1948 he took to the studio with Charlie Parker, Flip Phillips on tenor sax.
Machito's star was ascendant, he played Carnegie Hall on February 11, 1949, on a bill including Duke Ellington, Lester Young, Bud Powell and Coleman Hawkins. An album made from 1948 and 1949 recordings was issued: Mucho Macho. For these recordings, the 14-piece band had three trumpeters, four saxophonists, piano player René
Lupe Victoria Yolí Raymond, better known as La Lupe, was a Cuban singer of boleros and Latin soul, known for her energetic, sometimes controversial performances. Following the release of her first album in 1961, La Lupe moved from Havana to New York and signed with Tico Records, which marked the beginning of a prolific and successful career in the 1960s and 1970s, she retired in the 1980s due to religious reasons. La Lupe was born in the barrio of San Pedrito in Santiago de Cuba, her father was a major influence on her early life. In 1954 she participated on a radio program which invited fans to sing imitations of their favorite stars. Lupe escaped from school to sing a bolero of Olga Guillot's, called "Miénteme", won the competition; the family moved to Havana in 1955, where she was enrolled at the University of Havana to become a teacher. She admired Celia Cruz and like her, she graduated from teaching instruction before starting her professional singing career. Lupe married in 1958 and formed a musical trio with her husband Eulogio "Yoyo" Reyes and another female singer.
This group, Los Tropicuba, broke up along with her marriage in 1960. She began to perform her own act at a small nightclub in Havana, La Red, which had a clientele of distinguished foreigners, she acquired a devoted following, which included Ernest Hemingway, Tennessee Williams, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir and Marlon Brando. She recorded her first album, Con el diablo en el cuerpo, in 1960 for Discuba, the Cuban subsidiary of RCA Victor. On the album she was backed by two different groups directed by Eddy Gaytán, her first television appearance on Puerto Rican television caused a stir due to her frenzied, vibrant performance, which shocked some viewers. In 1962 she was exiled to México, she approached Celia Cruz and asked for her support to get work, in turn, Celia recommended her to Mongo Santamaría in New York. In New York City, Lupe performed at a cabaret named La Berraca and started a new career, making more than 10 records in five years, she married a second time, with whom she had a daughter.
That marriage ended in divorce. Lupe's passionate performances covered the range of music: son montuno, boogaloo, venturing into other Caribbean styles like Dominican merengue, Puerto Rican bomba and plena, it was her recordings which brought Tite Curet Alonso into prominence as a composer of tough-minded boleros in the salsa style. For a good part of the 1960s she was the most acclaimed Latin singer in New York City due to her partnership with Tito Puente, she did a wide variety of cover versions in either Spanish or accented English, including "Yesterday", "Dominique" by The Singing Nun, "Twist & Shout", "Unchained Melody", "Fever" and "America" from West Side Story. Fred Weinberg, her favorite audio engineer produced several of her albums. Weinberg called La Lupe "a hurricane" in the studio due to her intense enthusiasm; the quality of her performances became inconsistent. There were persistent rumors of her drug addiction and her life was "a real earthquake" according to statements of close friends.
She ended some of her on-stage engagements being treated with an oxygen mask. Although she may have been poorly managed by her label Fania Records in particular, she managed and produced herself in mid-career, after she parted ways with Tito Puente. However, in the late 1960s her ephemeral career went downhill; the explosion of salsa and the arrival of Celia Cruz to New York were the determining factors that sent her into the background and her career declined thereafter. A devout follower of Santería, she continued to practice her religion, her record label Fania Records ended her contract in the late 1970s simply because of her falling record sales. She retired in 1980, found herself destitute by the early 1980s. In 1984 she injured her spine while trying to hang a curtain in her home. An electrical fire made her homeless. After being healed at an evangelical Christian crusade, La Lupe abandoned her Santería roots and became a born-again Christian. In 1991, she gave a concert at La Sinagoga in New York.
La Lupe died of a heart attack at the age of 52 and is buried in Saint Raymond's Cemetery in the Bronx. Con el diablo en el cuerpo La Lupe is back 1961 Mongo introduces La Lupe 1963 The King swings, the incredible Lupe sings 1965 Tú y yo 1965 Homenaje a Rafael Hernández 1966 La Lupe y su alma venezolana 1966 A mí me llaman La Lupe 1966 The King and I 1967 The Queen does her own thing 1967 Two sides of La Lupe 1968 Queen of Latin soul 1968 La Lupe's era 1968 La Lupe is the Queen 1969 Definitely la Yiyiyi 1969 That genius called the Queen 1970 La Lupe en Madrid 1971 Stop, I'm free again 1972 ¿Pero cómo va ser? 1973 Un encuentro con La Lupe – with Curet Alonso 1974 One of a kind 1977 La pareja 1978 En algo nuevo 1980 This section is not complete. Lo mejor de la Lupe Compilation, 1974 Apasionada Compilation, 1978 La Lupe: too much 1989. Compilation from Tico recordings only, by Charly Records LP HOT 123 Dance with the Queen 2008 La Lupe greatest hits 2008 Short list of her best-known songs, taken from Giro Radamés' Diccionario enciclopédico de la música en Cuba and compilation albums: "Con el diablo en el cuerpo" "Fiebre" "Crazy heart" "Qué te pedí?"
"La tirana" "Puro teatro" "Adiós" "Carcajada final" "A Benny Moré La gran tirana by Carlos Padrón-Cuba. 2011 Havanna, 2012: Havanna at Humbo
Boroughs of New York City
New York City encompasses five county-level administrative divisions called boroughs: The Bronx, Manhattan and Staten Island. All boroughs are part of New York City, each of the boroughs is coextensive with a respective county, the primary administrative subdivision within New York state. Queens and the Bronx are concurrent with the counties of the same name, while Manhattan and Staten Island correspond to New York and Richmond counties respectively. Boroughs have existed since the consolidation of the city in 1898, when the city and each borough assumed their current boundaries. However, the boroughs have not always been coextensive with their respective counties; the borough of the Bronx had earlier been in the southern part of Westchester County—which had been annexed to New York County in two stages in 1874 and 1895—and in 1914, the county was created to match the borough. Before 1899, the county of Queens included an eastern part, split-off during the consolidation to become Nassau County.
The term borough was adopted to describe a form of governmental administration for each of the five fundamental constituent parts of the newly consolidated city in 1898. Under the 1898 City Charter adopted by the New York State Legislature, a "borough" is a municipal corporation, created when a county is merged with populated areas within it; the limited powers of the borough governments are inferior to the authority of the Government of New York City, contrasting with other borough administrations of government used in Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, where a borough is an independent level of government, as well as borough forms used in other states and in Greater London. New York City is referred to collectively as the five boroughs; the term is used by politicians to counter a frequent focus on Manhattan and thereby to place all five boroughs on equal footing. In the same vein, the term outer boroughs refers to all of the boroughs excluding Manhattan though the geographic center of the city is along the Brooklyn–Queens border.
All five boroughs were created in 1898 during consolidation, when the city's current boundaries were established. The Bronx included parts of New York County outside of Manhattan, ceded by neighboring Westchester County in two stages. In 1914, the present-day separate Bronx County became the last county to be created in the State of New York; the borough of Queens consists of what was only the western part of a then-larger Queens County. In 1899, the three eastern towns of Queens County that had not joined the city the year before—the towns of Hempstead, North Hempstead, Oyster Bay—formally seceded from Queens County to form the new Nassau County; the borough of Staten Island, concurrent with Richmond County, was the borough of Richmond until the name was changed in 1975 to reflect its common appellation, while leaving the name of the county unchanged. There are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods throughout the five boroughs of New York City, many with a definable history and character to call their own.
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough. Manhattan's population density of 72,033 people per square mile in 2015 makes it the highest of any county in the United States and higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. Manhattan is the cultural and financial center of New York City and contains the headquarters of many major multinational corporations, the United Nations Headquarters, Wall Street, a number of important universities. Manhattan is described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world. Most of the borough is situated at the mouth of the Hudson River. Several small islands are part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, Roosevelt Island in the East River, Governors Island to the south in New York Harbor. Manhattan Island is loosely divided into Lower and Uptown regions. Uptown Manhattan is divided by Central Park into the Upper East Side and the Upper West Side, above the park is Harlem; the borough includes a small neighborhood on the United States mainland, called Marble Hill.
Marble Hill was part of Manhattan Island, but is now contiguous with the Bronx after having been severed from Manhattan Island by the construction of the Harlem River Ship Canal south of the neighborhood, having been connected to the mainland by the subsequent filling in of the Harlem River's original path to the neighborhood's north. New York City's remaining four boroughs are collectively referred to as the outer boroughs. Brooklyn, on the western tip of Long Island, is the city's most populous borough. Brooklyn is known for its cultural and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods, a distinctive architectural heritage. Downtown Brooklyn is the largest central core neighborhood in the outer boroughs; the borough has a long beachfront shoreline including Coney Island, established in the 1870s as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the country. Marine Park and Prospect Park are the two largest parks in Brooklyn. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolv
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
East Harlem known as Spanish Harlem or El Barrio, is a neighborhood of Upper Manhattan, New York City encompassing the area north of the Upper East Side and East 96th Street up to East 142nd Street east of Fifth Avenue to the East and Harlem Rivers. Despite its name, it is not considered to be a part of Harlem; the neighborhood is one of the largest predominantly Latino communities in New York City made up of Puerto Ricans, as well as sizeable numbers of Dominican and Mexican immigrants. The community is notable for its contributions to Latin salsa music. East Harlem includes the area known as Italian Harlem, in which the remnants of a once predominantly Italian community remain; the Chinese population has increased in East Harlem since 2000. East Harlem has suffered from many social issues, such as a high crime rate, the highest jobless rate in New York City, teenage pregnancy, AIDS, drug abuse, an asthma rate five times the national average, it has the second-highest concentration of public housing in the United States, behind Brownsville, Brooklyn.
However, East Harlem is undergoing some gentrification. In February 2016, East Harlem was one of four neighborhoods featured in an article in The New York Times about "New Hot Neighborhoods", the city was considering re-zoning the area. East Harlem is part of Manhattan Community District 11 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10029 and 10035, it is patrolled by the 25th Precincts of the New York City Police Department. The area which became East Harlem was rural for most of the 19th century, but residential settlements northeast of Third Avenue and East 110th Street had developed by the 1860s; the construction of the elevated transit line to Harlem in 1879 and 1880, the building of the Lexington Avenue subway in 1919, urbanized the area, precipitating the construction of apartment buildings and brownstones. The extension of cable cars up Lexington Avenue into East Harlem was stymied by the incline created by Duffy's Hill at 103rd Street, one of the steepest grades in Manhattan. East Harlem was first populated by poor German, Irish and Eastern European Jewish immigrants, with the Jewish population standing at 90,000 around 1917.
In the 1870s, Italian immigrants joined the mix after a contractor building trolley tracks on First Avenue imported Italian laborers as strikebreakers. The workers' shantytown along the East River at 106th Street was the beginning of an Italian neighborhood, with 4,000 having arrived by the mid-1880s; as more immigrants arrived, it expanded north to west to Third Avenue. East Harlem now consisted of pockets of ethnically-sorted settlements – Italian, German and Jewish – which were beginning to press up against each other, with the spaces still between them occupied by "gasworks and tar and garbage dumps". In 1895, Union Settlement Association, one of the oldest settlement houses in New York City, began providing services in the area, offering the immigrant and low-income residents a range of community-based programs, including boys and girls clubs, a sewing school and adult education classes. Southern Italians and Sicilians, with a moderate number of Northern Italians, soon predominated in the area east of Lexington Avenue between 96th and 116th Streets and east of Madison Avenue between 116th and 125th Streets, with each street featuring people from different regions of Italy.
The neighborhood became known as "Italian Harlem", the Italian American hub of Manhattan. The first Italians arrived in East Harlem in 1878, from Polla in the province of Salerno, settled in the vicinity of 115th Street. There were many crime syndicates in Italian Harlem from the early Black Hand to the bigger and more organized Italian gangs that formed the Italian-American Mafia, it was the founding location of the Genovese crime family, one of the Five Families that dominated organized crime in New York City. This includes the current 116th Street Crew of the Genovese family. During the 1970s, Italian East Harlem was home to the Italian-American drug gang and murder-for-hire crew known as the East Harlem Purple Gang. In the 1920s and early 1930s, Italian Harlem was represented in Congress by future Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia, in the 1940s, by Italian-American civil rights lawyer and socialist Vito Marcantonio; the Italian neighborhood approached its peak in the 1930s, with over 110,000 Italian-Americans living in its crowded, run-down apartment buildings.
The 1930 census showed that 81 percent of the population of Italian Harlem consisted of first- or second-generation Italian Americans. The Italian community in East Harlem remained strong into the 1980s, but it has diminished since then. However, Italian inhabitants and vestiges of the old Italian neighborhood remain; the annual Feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel and the "Dancing of the Giglio", the first Italian feast in New York City, is still celebrated there every year on the second weekend of August by the Giglio Society of East Harlem. Italian retail establishments still exist, such as Rao's restaurant, started in 1896, the original Patsy's Pizzeria which opened in the 1933. In May 2011, one of the last remaining Italian retail businesses in the neighborhood, a barbershop owned by Claudio Caponigro on 116th Street, was threatened with closure by a rent increase. Puerto Rican and Latin American migration after the First World War established an enclave at the western portion of East Har
Ángel Santos Vega Colon, aka Santitos Colón, was a Puerto Rican bolero and mambo singer, born in Sabana Grande, Puerto Rico and raised in Mayagüez. He was known by the moniker: "The Man with The Golden Voice". Colón was born in Sabana Grande, Puerto Rico, but moved to the Dr. Luis Vadi Benelli street of the Cristy residential district in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, a location which he made a reference to during his lifetime, his parents were Felícita Colón. He attempted to sing as a hobby in his early youth teaming with Lester Cole, one of the brothers of composer Roberto Cole and Mayagüez mayor Benjamín Cole, their pairing was indistinctively known as "El Dúo Juvenil" and "El Dúo Azul". He joined Frank Madera's orchestra but only could participate in activities during the day, since he was too young to join the band at nightly functions. Colón's tenure in Madera's orchestra lasted six years. At the same time, Rivera had a partnership with Germán Vélez (later the father of international singer Wilkins Vélez and journalist Bruni Vélez called "El Dúo Huasteco".
Colón joined Rivera and Vélez and toured as a trio over western Puerto Rico. Colón was a member of the Fania All-Stars, his is the voice heard singing chorus most prominently and saying "¡Ajá! ¡Ajá!" in the original version of Oye Como Va by Puente's orchestra. Santitos became well known as a singer of boleros and Spanish language versions of English standards recorded with an orchestral backing, his signature song was "Niña". Fania selected Santos Colón and Cheo Feliciano as solo singers despite having Justo Betancourt and Monguito el Único under contract. Santitos Colón is survived by his sons Santos and George and daughter Diana Vega Namer, who reside in Sarasota, Florida, he is survived by his wife Judy. Santitos is survived by several great-grandchildren, he lost another son, Héctor, to liver disease in July 1998. In the early morning hours of February 20, 1998, he went to the recording studio More Audio Productions to bring his voice to two boleros in duet with the singer Carmen Delia Dipiní.
But, just before preparing to carry out this task, he felt a strong stomach pain. However, instead of going to a doctor, he chose to return to his home in Laguna Gardens neighborhood in Carolina, where the pain turned acute; the next morning, February 21, 1998, he suffered a stroke, so he was transferred to the Carolina Regional Hospital. Shortly after his arrival, he fell into a deep coma, he passed away that night. Doctors discovered he was suffering from prostate cancer and that this condition was in a advanced stage. Santitos never received treatment to combat the illness. Five days before, on February 15, 1998, he had recorded his participation in the program "Voices in function," the singer Lou Briel animated and produced in WIPR / Channel 6 and, broadcast a week after his death; the next day, on February 17, 1998, he made his last performance, in "El Show de Raymond Arrieta", in WAPA TV / Channel 4. A significant detail presentation occurred during the second season could be a warning of his impending end: while playing consecrating one of his hits, "hours and minutes" - bolero of Antonio Jose "Pepe" Quirós who vocalized hundreds of times over 30 years - he forgot the lyrics for a moment.
Although his seniority allowed him to overcome the situation without much difficulty, it was the first time in more than six decades of artistic career. Portrait Of Santos Colón, 1969 Santitos, 1970 Love Story, 1971 Imágenes / Éxitos De Santos Colón, 1971 Fiel, 1972 Brindis De Navidad, 1972 Long Live The King, 1973 Santitos Y Su Pueblo, 1974 Con Mucho Cariño, 1975 Siempre Santitos, 1976 Bonita, 1977 Con Placer, 1979 Mis Grandes Éxitos En El Bolero De Amor,1994 Bolero De Amor / Parte II,1995 Un Santo Para La Historia, 1998With Tito Puente Orchestra Dance Manía Mucho Cha Cha Tambó The Exciting Tito Puente Band In Hollywood El Rey Tito: Bravo Puente In Puerto Rico Excitante Ritmo El Mundo Latino De Tito Puente Mucho Puente De Mi Para Ti Carnaval En Harlem Stop & Listen / Pare & Oiga El Rey Tito Puente En El Puente Pa’ Lante No Hay Mejor Homenaje A Beny Plays with Tito Puente Homenaje A Beny Plays with Tito Puente The Mambo King: His 100th Album Y Su Pueblo With Fania All Stars Live At The Cheetah Our Latin Thing Live In Africa Fania All Stars At Yankee Stadium Tribute To Tito Rodríguez Commitment Latin Connection With Payo Alicea & Sexteto La Playa Vaya Means Go!, 1968With Wilkins No Se Puede Morir Por Dentro, 1977With Artistada Puertorriqueña Somos El Prójimo With Miguelito Miranda & Orquesta Miguelito Miranda & Orquesta, 1948 re released as 50 years in music, 1987.
Plays with Panchito Minguela With Joey Hernández ¡Compárame!, 1989