Esquilache is a 1989 Spanish film directed by Josefina Molina. The film stars Fernando Fernán Gómez as Leopoldo de Marquis of Esquilache, it is based on the play "Un Soñador Para Un Pueblo" by Antonio Buero Vallejo. The film was entered into the 39th Berlin International Film Festival; the film is about the Esquilache Riots. Fernando Fernán Gómez as Esquilache José Luis López Vázquez as Antonio Campos Ángela Molina as Fernanda Ángel de Andrés as Marqués de la Ensenada Concha Velasco as Pastora Patermo Adolfo Marsillach as Carlos III Amparo Rivelles as Isabel de Farnesio Alberto Closas as Duque de Villasanta Tito Valverde as Bernardo Esqualiche on IMDb
El País is a Spanish-language daily newspaper in Spain. According to the Office of Justification of Dissemination it is the second most circulated daily newspaper in Spain as of December 2017. It's by the number sales in 2018 were, on average, 60.000 according to internal audits, more than 70% less than a decade prior. The current editor, Soledad Gallego Díaz, has been brought to court after dismissing five employees for what the accusers mainatin are political and ideological reasons. El País is the most read newspaper in Spanish online and the second most circulated daily newspaper in Spain, one of three Madrid dailies considered to be national newspapers of record for Spain. El País, based in Madrid, is owned by the Spanish media conglomerate PRISA. PRISA is owned by Banco Santander, Telefónica and the Liberty vulture fund. PRISA's debt of 988 million euros is bigger than the company's value, its headquarters and central editorial staff are located in Madrid, although there are regional offices in the principal Spanish cities where regional were produced until 2015.
El País produces a world edition in Madrid, available online in Brazil and Hispanic America. An English edition began as a print edition in 2001, available as a supplement in what was the International Herald Tribune The Global New York Times. Since 2014, it has been an digital project. In 2018, the newspaper changed editors one week after a vote of no confidence forced a change of premiership in Parliament, sparking doubts about the political independence of the parent company. Since the newspaper has engaged in a radical change of editorial line, going from a politically independent position to defending the socialist minority government; the current newspaper's editor in America, Javier Moreno, managing editor, Jan Martinez Ahrens, were responsible for publishing a false picture of a dying Hugo Chávez in 2013. The publication of such photo in the front page was a major blow to the newspaper's credibility and standing in Latin America. El País was founded in May 1976 by a team at PRISA which included Jesus de Polanco, José Ortega Spottorno and Carlos Mendo.
The paper was designed by Julio Alonso. It was first published on 4 May 1976, six months after the death of dictator Francisco Franco, at the beginning of the Spanish transition to democracy; the first editor-in-chief of the daily was Juan Luis Cebrián. El País was the first pro-democracy newspaper within a context where all the other Spanish newspapers were influenced by Franco's ideology; the circulation of the paper was 116,600 copies in its first year. It rose to 137,562 copies in 1977. El País filled a gap in the market and became the newspaper of Spanish democracy, for which role El País was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award for Communication and the Humanities in 1983, at a time when the transition from Franco's dictatorship to democracy was still developing; the paper's first Director was Juan Luis Cebrián. Like many other Spanish journalists of the time he had worked for Diario Pueblo, a mouthpiece for the Francoist sindicato vertical, its reputation as a bastion of Spanish democracy was established during the attempted coup d'état by Lieutenant Colonel Antonio Tejero of the Guardia Civil on 23 February 1981.
During the uncertain situation of the night of 23 February 1981, with all the members of parliament held hostage in the Congress building and with tanks on the streets of Valencia, before the state television station could transmit a speech by King Juan Carlos I condemning the coup, El País published a special edition of the newspaper called'El País, for the Constitution'. It was the first daily paper on the streets that night with a clear pro-democracy position calling on citizens to demonstrate in favour of democracy, it was discussed in the news media that the director of El País, Juan Luis Cebrián, telephoned the director of Diario 16, Pedro J. Ramírez, in order to propose that both newspapers work on a joint publication in defence of democracy and Ramírez refused, claiming that he would prefer to wait a few hours to see how the situation developed. Diario 16 was not published until after a television broadcast by the king. Along with its commitment to democracy before the attempted coup of 23 February 1981, the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party's election victory in 1982 with an absolute majority and its open support for the government of Felipe González, meant that El País consolidated its position during the 1980s as the Spanish newspaper with the most sales ahead of the conservative leaning ABC.
In 1986 El País was the recipient of the Four Freedom Award for the Freedom of Speech by the Roosevelt Institute. In 1987 El País received the largest amount of the state aid. Both the rigorous journalistic standards and the fact that it was the first Spanish newspaper to establish internal quality control standards have increased the standing of El País, it was the first Spanish daily to create the role of "Reader's Advocate" and the first to publish a "Style Guide", that has become a benchmark for quality amongst journalists. El País has established a number of collaborative agreements with other European newspapers with a social democrat viewpoint. In 1989, El País participated in the creation of a common network of information resources with La Repubblica in Italy and Le Monde in France. At the beginning of the 1990s, El País had to face a new journalistic challenge; the increasing political tensions caused by corru
Queens is a 2005 film directed by Manuel Gómez Pereira. The story follows a group of men who will be marrying in Spain's first same-sex wedding ceremony, their mothers, who will be attending. Magda is the manager of a posh resort hotel in Madrid which will be the site of a mass same-sex marriage ceremony. One of the grooms is Magda's son Miguel, a designer, who will marry his boyfriend Óscar, son of Ofelia, "visiting" from Argentina with her dog... Nuria, a sex addict, is on her way to attend the ceremony, her son Narciso will be marrying his boyfriend Hugo, whose own parents and Hector, are less enthusiastic. Meanwhile, actress Reyes will be attending to watch her son Rafa marry his boyfriend Jonas, the son of her gardener Jacinto. Queens received mixed reviews from critics. Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a tomatometer rating of 43% from 30 critics and 59% from Audience score from 13,160 users. Andre Soares of Alt Film Guide notes "cheesy commercialism and sentimentality aside, Reinas boasts a couple of first-rate performances" and it "delivers more than a few good laughs".
Anthony Mardon of abusdecine.com remarks that the "director has managed to bring together the muses of Pedro Almodovar" and "the film enjoys, indeed and colorful moments, but the rhythmic, too sawtooth, some situations vaudevillesques, pulled by the hair, spoil the coherence". Thomas G. Deveny states in his book'Migration in Contemporary Hispanic Cinema' in 2012, "it has international stars and casts them as immigrants in a world of luxury". Reinas on IMDb
Ávila is a Spanish fortified city located in the autonomous community of Castile and León, is the capital of the Province of Ávila. It is sometimes called the Town of Stones and Saints, it claims that it is one of the towns with the highest number of Romanesque and Gothic churches per capita in Spain, it has prominent medieval town walls, built in the Romanesque style. The town is known as Ávila de los Caballeros, Ávila del Rey and Ávila de los Leales, each of these epithets being present in the town standard. Orson Welles once named Ávila as the place in which he would most desire to live, calling it a "strange, tragic place", while writer José Martínez Ruiz, in his book El alma castellana, described it as "perhaps the most 16th-century town in Spain". Welles filmed his "Chimes at Midnight" in 1965 at Avila, it was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985. Situated 1132 metres above sea level on a rocky outcrop on the right bank of the Adaja river, a tributary of the Duero, Ávila is the highest provincial capital in Spain.
It is built on the flat summit of a rocky hill, which rises abruptly in the midst of a veritable wilderness. Ávila's position results in a temperate Mediterranean climate, with warm summers and chilly winters with snowfalls, bordering on a cold semi-arid climate. The hottest month, has an average temperature of 20.6 °C, the coldest month, has an average of 3.0 °C. The average annual precipitation is 416 mm. Annual rainfall is low compared to surrounding areas, implying; the Adaja is dry for several months of the year and the town has had water supply problems. Ávila is the provincial capital city in Spain with the coldest winter low temperatures, caused for its altitude, as the city has an average elevation of 1,132 metres above sea level. In pre-Roman times, Ávila was inhabited by the Vettones, who called it Obila and built one of their strongest fortresses here. There are Bronze Age stone statues of boars nearby. Ávila may have been the ancient town known as Abula, mentioned by Ptolemy in his Geographia as being located in the Iberian region of Bastetania.
Abula is mentioned as one of the first towns in Hispania, converted to Christianity by Secundus of Abula, Abula may alternatively have been the town of Abla. After the conquest by ancient Rome, the town was called Abela; the plan of the town remains Roman. Roman remains that are embedded in town walls at the eastern and southern entrances appear to have been ashlar altar stones. By tradition, in the 1st century, having travelled via the Roman province of Hispania Baetica, brought the Gospel to Avila, was created its first bishop. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Ávila became a stronghold of the Visigoths. Conquered by the Moors, it was attacked by the northern Iberian Christian kingdoms, becoming a uninhabited no man's land, it was repopulated about 1088 following the definitive reconquest of the area by Raymond of Burgundy, son in law of Alfonso VI of León and Castile. He employed two foreigners, Casandro Romano and Florin de Pituenga, to construct a stone frontier town and creating the walls that still stand.
The city achieved a period of prosperity under the Catholic Monarchs in the early 16th century, their successors Charles V and Philip II of Spain, but began a long decline during the 17th century, reducing to just 4,000 inhabitants. In the 19th century, there was some population growth with the construction of the railway line from Madrid to the French border at Irun and an important junction near the town. In 1936, at the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, the town became part of the area occupied by rebel troops. Growth continued again under Franco, but Ávila has not had a major influence in Spanish society in recent history, apart from the nurturing of politicians such as Adolfo Suárez, the first democratically elected prime minister Spanish post-Franco, José María Aznar, prime minister from 1996 to 2004, who represented Ávila in the Cortes but was not from the town, its main monument is the imposing Walls of Ávila, begun in 1090. The enclosed area is 31 hectares with a perimeter of 2,516 metres, 88 blocks of semicircular towers, 2,500 merlons, curtain walls 3 m thick, with an average height of 12 m, 9 gates.
The Walls of Ávila is the largest illuminated monument in the world. It is possible to walk upon the walls themselves for half their circumference. While some of the walls will never be navigable in this way because of their integration into other structures, a large stretch of the walls has yet to be made safe for pedestrians; the construction of the iron-grey granite Gothic Cathedral of Ávila is said to have commenced in 1107 under Alvar Garcia de Estrella. Other historians believe the Cathedral to be the work of the master mason Fruchel in the 12th century, coinciding with the repopulation of the town led by Raymond of Burgundy; the eastern apse, which forms part of the town walls, is half church, half fortress, it was here that the loyal citizens elevated Alonso VII as their king, hence Ávila del Rey. Th
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog