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Titulus Regius

Titulus Regius is a statute of the Parliament of England, issued in 1484, by which the title of King of England was given to Richard III. The act ratifies the declaration of the lords and the members of the House of Commons a year earlier that the marriage of Edward IV of England to Elizabeth Woodville had been invalid and so their children, including Edward and Elizabeth, were illegitimate and thus debarred from the throne. Richard III had been proclaimed the rightful king. Since the Lords and Commons had not been convened as a parliament, doubts had arisen as to its validity, so when Parliament convened it enacted the declaration as a law. Following the overthrow of Richard III, the Act was repealed, which had the effect of reinstating the legitimacy of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville's children. Edward's marriage was invalidated because Bishop Robert Stillington testified that the king had precontracted a marriage to Lady Eleanor Butler, and how that at the time of contract of the same pretensed Marriage, before and long time after, the said King Edward was and stood married and troth-plight to one Dame Eleanor Butler, Daughter of the old Earl of Shrewsbury, with whom the same King Edward had made a precontract of Matrimony, long time before he made the said pretensed Marriage with the said Elizabeth Grey, in manner and form above-said.

The document claimed that Elizabeth Woodville and her mother had used witchcraft to get the king to marry her. Since Richard's brother George, Duke of Clarence, had been executed and attainted, his descendants forfeited all rights to the throne, leaving Richard the true heir. For good measure, the document hinted that George and Edward were themselves illegitimate and stated Richard, "born within this land" was the "undoubted son and heir of Richard, late Duke of York". Edward's reign was criticised, he was said to have led by "sensuality and concupiscence" and delighted in "adulation and flattery" and to have been influenced by "persons insolent, vicious and of inordinate avarice", a reference to the Woodville family. In contrast, Richard was said to have been a man distinguished by "great wit, justice, princely courage, memorable and laudable acts in diverse battles." After Richard was overthrown, the Act was repealed by the first parliament of the new king, Henry VII. The repeal was important because the new King and his supporters viewed Richard III's rule as a usurpation and because Henry VII's prospective wife, Elizabeth of York, whom he had pledged to marry if he gained the throne, was the eldest daughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville and the Act had made her illegitimate as well.

Henry ordered his subjects to destroy all copies of it and all related documents without reading them. His orders carried out so well that only one copy of the law has been found; that copy was transcribed by a monastic chronicler into the Croyland Chronicle, where it was discovered by Sir George Buck more than a century during the reign of James I. The Repealing Act was passed in the first Parliament of Henry VII, stating that the original Titulus Regius was void, repelled, of noe force ne effecte and that the original be destroyed, that any copies should be either destroyed or returned to Parliament on pain of fine and imprisonment. A law report from his reign stated:...that the said Bill and Record, be annulled and utterly destroyed, that it be ordained by the same Authority, that the same Act and Record be taken out of the Roll of Parliament, be cancelled and brent, be put in perpetual oblivion. Henry succeeded in suppressing the Titulus Regius; the 100-year gap during which Titulus Regius was censored coincided with the ruling period of the Tudor dynasty.

It was known that Richard had claimed that a marriage pre-contract invalidated Edward's sons' right to the throne, but it was not known who Edward's supposed "real" wife was. Thomas More assumed that the Act referred to Edward's longtime mistress, Elizabeth Lucy, a view, repeated until Buck discovered the original document. Edward IV's first son, though Titulus Regius annulled his reign, is still counted as Edward V to emphasize that Richard III was an usurper. Thus, Henry VII's grandson was numbered Edward VI. Act of Accord Original text of Titulus Regius

Greg Millen

Gregory H. Millen is a Canadian hockey commentator analyst and was an ice hockey goaltender in the National Hockey League, he is the colour commentator partnered with play-by-play announcer Paul Romanuk, John Bartlett, for local television broadcasts of Toronto Maple Leafs hockey games on Sportsnet Ontario. He works on Hockey Night in Canada. Millen made over 600 appearances for six teams during his 14 NHL seasons; as a youth, Millen played in the 1968, 1969 and 1970 Quebec International Pee-Wee Hockey Tournaments with minor ice hockey teams from Toronto. The Toronto native was chosen 102nd overall by the Pittsburgh Penguins in the 1977 NHL Amateur Draft, while he was in the midst of a fine OHA career with the Sault Ste. Marie Greyhounds, he played for the Peterborough Petes in the OHL from 1974 to 1977. In 1978–79, he looked solid in 28 games as a rookie and became a fan favourite at the "Igloo." Two years he won 25 games and nearly led his team to a first round upset over the St. Louis Blues, losing the decisive fifth game in double overtime.

In June 1981, the Hartford Whalers signed him as a free agent. After playing in 55 games for the Whalers in 1981–82, Millen represented Canada at the World Championships. In 1983 -- 84, he led the NHL while toiling on one of the league's worst teams. Millen joined the St. Louis Blues in February 1985, following a major trade that involved Mike Liut, he formed a solid goalkeeping tandem with Rick Wamsley and helped the club reach the Conference Finals in 1986, where they were defeated in seven games by the Calgary Flames. During the Divisional semifinal round against the Minnesota North Stars Millen only started in two games, but won both of them including the series clinching game 5 as the Blues advanced winning the series 3-2. In the Division Final round St. Louis defeated the Toronto Maple Leafs 4 games to 3, he posted a record of 4-2 and once again was in net for the series clincher. He would only play in two of the Campbell Conference final games as Wamsley was the starter for the majority of them.

In 1988–89, Millen registered an NHL-high six shutouts along with 22 wins. Late in his career, he spent time with the Quebec Nordiques, Chicago Blackhawks, Detroit Red Wings before retiring in 1992. After ending his career, Millen became the colour commentator on television broadcasts for the expansion Ottawa Senators. During his eleven seasons affiliated with the Senators, his play-by-play partners included Don Chevrier, Rob Faulds, Dean Brown, he paired with Chevrier as the lead broadcasting team for CTV's ice hockey coverage at the 1994 Winter Olympics. Beginning in the 1995 season, he joined the CBC's Hockey Night in Canada. After a year with CTV Sportsnet, he rejoined HNIC in 1999–2000 as the colour commentator of the network's secondary broadcast team, first paired with Chris Cuthbert and Jim Hughson covering the second game of weekly doubleheader and three playoff rounds, he was promoted to the lead team in 2007. In this role he worked on CBC's coverage of the 2008 Stanley Cup Finals. In 2005, he moved from the Senators to the Maple Leafs local broadcast team, in 2007 he became the Leafs' lead television colour commentator, working alongside Joe Bowen on Sportsnet Ontario and Leafs TV.

As of 2014 he works for Rogers Communications, both on telecasts that are part of the national television contract under the Hockey Night in Canada, Rogers Hometown Hockey or Scotiabank Wednesday Night Hockey banners, on the half of the Maple Leafs regional package that appears on Sportsnet Ontario. Millen's son Charlie is a goaltender for the Orlando Solar Bears. Greg Millen's Homepage Greg Millen career statistics at The Internet Hockey Database Greg Millen @

Rochester Zen Center

The Rochester Zen Center is a Sōtō and Rinzai Zen Buddhist sangha in the Kapleau lineage, located in Rochester, New York and established in 1966 by Philip Kapleau. It is one of the oldest Zen centers in the United States. Since its founding, the Rochester Zen Center has become one of the largest Buddhist centers in North America. From those first twenty-two individuals, membership has grown to more than six hundred, with sitting groups and affiliate centers in Mexico and Germany, throughout the U. S. In 1981 Rochester Zen Center community split, when Toni Packer left the Center to form the Springwater Center, located an hour south of Rochester; the Rochester Zen Center has contributed to the intellectual development of American Zen, through Philip Kapleau's books, The Zen of Living and Dying, Zen Merging of East and West, To Cherish All Life, the recent Awakening to Zen and the writings of its members and its decennial anniversary conferences. In 1986, the 20th Anniversary Conference focused on "Buddhism and Nonviolence," and the 1996 Thirtieth Anniversary explored "Buddhism in America."

Since 1986 the head abbot at Rochester Zen Center has been Bodhin Kjolhede, sanctioned to teach by Kapleau. The community offers intensive Zen sesshin retreats, introductory workshops and training programs throughout the year and is open to guests; the Rochester Zen Center has a 135-acre country retreat named Chapin Mill, donated by Ralph Chapin. Each year the center has several sesshin at Chapin Mill; the retreat center held a groundbreaking in April 2000. Building began in 2003, was completed in 2007. Timeline of Zen Buddhism in the United States Farrer-Halls, Gill; the Illustrated Encyclopedia of Buddhist Wisdom. Quest Books. P. 150. ISBN 978-0-8356-0786-5. Ryūken Williams, Duncan. American Buddhism: Methods and Findings in Recent Scholarship. RoutledgeCurzon. P. 93. ISBN 978-0-7007-1081-2. Ford, James Ishmael. Zen Master Who?: A Guide to the People and Stories of Zen. Wisdom Publications. P. 759. ISBN 0-86171-509-8. McDaniel, Richard Bryan. Cypress trees in the garden: the second generation of Zen teaching in North America.

Sumeru Press. ISBN 9781896559261. Kraft, Kenneth. Zen and Transition. Grove Press. P. 190. ISBN 978-0-8021-3162-1. Media related to Rochester Zen Center at Wikimedia Commons Rochester Zen Center


Minibridge is a simplified form of the complex card game Contract Bridge designed to expose newcomers to declarer and defensive playing techniques without the burden of learning a detailed bridge bidding system. The game was first introduced in France and the Netherlands in the 1990s; the variant described in this article is the one advertised by the English Bridge Union for use in primary schools as a way to improve pupils' performance in mathematics. Like other forms of bridge, Minibridge is played by four players in fixed partnerships, sitting crosswise. A full pack of 52 cards is dealt to the players, each receiving 13 cards; as in contract bridge, it is decided which player becomes declarer, but a key innovation of Minibridge is that this decision is taken out of the players' hands. Declarer's partner lays open their hand, declarer announces a contract; this is a trump suit or no trumps, together with an undertaking to win more than half the tricks or to win 100 trick points or more. The remainder of the game is similar to contract bridge.

In particular, declarer's partner becomes dummy. Each player announces the result; the partnership with more combined high-card points plays the hand. If both partnerships have the same number of high-card points, the hand is redealt. Of this partnership, the partner with more high-card points becomes the declarer; the partner with fewer high-card points becomes the dummy: this player's hand is put face up on the table, is played by declarer in addition to declarer's own hand. If both partners have the same number of high-card points, the one who states his high-card point count first is the declarer. Having consulted dummy's hand, declarer decides the denomination, whether to be in game or a partscore. For partscore, declarer needs to win 7 tricks in order to score. For game, 9–11 tricks are necessary, depending on the denomination. Declarer's decision is based on a few simple guidelines: Two balanced hands require about 25 high-card points to score a game bonus. With eight cards in either Major suit, that suit should be the trump suit.

Without a "Golden Fit" in a Major suit, play notrump. Card play is as in any other form of Bridge; the player to the left of declarer leads to the first trick. Players must follow suit; the winner of a trick leads to the next trick. The declarer must always win at least 7 of the 13 tricks played; each trick beyond 6 scores 30 trick points, or 20 trick points in case of a minor suit contract. For a notrumps contract, 10 trick points are added to the trick points total; when a partscore contract is won, declarer's partnership scores their trick points plus 50 bonus points. To win a game contract, declarer must achieve at least 100 trick points; when a game contract is won, declarer scores the trick points plus 30 points for each trick beyond the minimum number needed to win the contract, or 20 trick points in case of a minor suit contract, plus a bonus of 300 points. If declarer does not win the necessary number of tricks declarer's partnership scores 0 points and the opposing party scores 50 points for every missing trick.

In the table this is written as negative scores. MiniBridge – Information from American Contract Bridge League. Http:// - Interactive / Learn to Play Online - How to Play and Win at MiniBridge Minibridge section of Auction Bridge article from card games website. Https:// Wilson, Gavin. Minibridge — A Beginner's Guide. Claygate, Surrey, UK: Org2B Press. ASIN B082XH8TWH

Madama Butterfly

Madama Butterfly is an opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini, with an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa. It is based on the short story "Madame Butterfly" by John Luther Long, which in turn was based on stories told to Long by his sister Jennie Correll and on the semi-autobiographical 1887 French novel Madame Chrysanthème by Pierre Loti. Long's version was dramatized by David Belasco as the one-act play Madame Butterfly: A Tragedy of Japan, after premiering in New York in 1900, moved to London, where Puccini saw it in the summer of that year; the original version of the opera, in two acts, had its premiere on 17 February 1904 at La Scala in Milan. It was poorly received, despite having such notable singers as soprano Rosina Storchio, tenor Giovanni Zenatello and baritone Giuseppe De Luca in lead roles; this was due in part to a late completion by Puccini. Puccini revised the opera, splitting the second act in two, with the Humming Chorus as a bridge to what became Act III, making other changes.

Success ensued. Madama Butterfly has become a staple of the operatic repertoire around the world, ranked 6th by Operabase. Puccini wrote five versions of the opera; the original two-act version, presented at the world premiere at La Scala on 17 February 1904, was withdrawn after the disastrous premiere. Puccini substantially rewrote it, this time in three acts; this second version was performed on 28 May 1904 in Brescia, where it was a great success, with Solomiya Krushelnytska as Cio-Cio-san. It was this second version that premiered in the United States in 1906, first in Washington, D. C. in October, in New York in November, performed by Henry Savage's New English Opera Company. In 1906, Puccini wrote a third version, performed at the Metropolitan Opera in New York. In 1907, Puccini made several changes in the orchestral and vocal scores, this became the fourth version, performed in Paris. In 1907, Puccini made his final revisions to the opera in a fifth version, which has become known as the "Standard Version" and is the one, most performed around the world.

However, the original 1904 version is performed, such as for the opening of La Scala's season on 7 December 2016, with Riccardo Chailly conducting. Premieres of the standard version in major opera houses throughout the world include those in the Teatro de la Opera de Buenos Aires on 2 July 1904, under Arturo Toscanini, this being the first performance in the world outside Italy, its first performance in Britain was in London on 10 July 1905 at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, while the first US performance was presented in English on 15 October 1906, in Washington, D. C. at the Columbia Theater. The first performance in New York took place on 12 November of the same year at the Garden Theatre; the Metropolitan Opera first performed the work on 11 February 1907 in the presence of the composer with Geraldine Farrar as Cio-Cio San, Enrico Caruso as Pinkerton, Louise Homer as Suzuki, Antonio Scotti as Sharpless, Arturo Vigna conducting. Three years the first Australian performance was presented at the Theatre Royal in Sydney on 26 March 1910, starring Amy Eliza Castles.

Between 1915 and 1920, Japan's best-known opera singer Tamaki Miura won international fame for her performances as Cio-Cio-san. A memorial to this singer, along with one to Puccini, can be found in the Glover Garden in the port city of Nagasaki, where the opera is set. Time: 1904. Place: Nagasaki, Japan. In 1904, a U. S. naval officer named Pinkerton rents a house on a hill in Nagasaki, for himself and his soon-to-be wife, "Butterfly". Her real name is Ciocio-san, she is a 15-year-old Japanese girl whom he is marrying for convenience, he intends to leave her once he finds a proper American wife, since Japanese divorce laws are lax. The wedding is to take place at the house. Butterfly had been so excited to marry an American that she had earlier secretly converted to Christianity. After the wedding ceremony, her uninvited uncle, a bonze, who has found out about her conversion, comes to the house, curses her and orders all the guests to leave, which they do while renouncing her. Pinkerton and Butterfly prepare to spend their first night together.

Three years Butterfly is still waiting for Pinkerton to return, as he had left shortly after their wedding. Her maid Suzuki keeps trying to convince her that he is not coming back, but Butterfly will not listen to her. Goro, the marriage broker who arranged her marriage, keeps trying to marry her off again, but she does not listen to him either; the American consul, comes to the house with a letter which he has received from Pinkerton which asks him to break some news to Butterfly: that Pinkerton is coming back to Japan, but Sharpless cannot bring himself to finish it because Butterfly becomes excited to hear that Pinkerton is coming back. Sharpless asks Butterfly, she reveals that she gave birth to Pinkerton's son after he had left and asks Sharpless to tell him. From the hill house, Butterfly sees Pinkerton's ship arriving in the harbour, she and Suzuki prepare for his arrival, they wait. Suzuki and the child Butterfly stays up all night waiting for him to arrive. Suzuki wakes up in the morning and Butterfly falls asleep.

Sharpless and Pinkerton arrive at the house, along with Pinkerton

M. Grazia Speranza

Maria Grazia Speranza is an Italian applied mathematician and operations researcher. Her research involves the application of mathematical optimization to problems including portfolio optimization and the combination of inventory management with vehicle routing, she is a professor of operations research in the faculty of economics and business of the University of Brescia, a former vice chancellor and dean at the University, the former president of the Association of European Operational Research Societies and the INFORMS Transportation Science and Logistics Society, the president of the International Federation of Operational Research Societies. Speranza earned a master's degree in applied mathematics in 1980 and an advanced degree in applied mathematics in 1983 at the University of Milan. After working as an assistant professor at the University of Milan from 1983 to 1987, as an associate professor at the University of Udine from 1987 to 1990, she moved to the University of Brescia, she obtained a full professorship there in 1994.

From 2000 to 2002, Speranza was the vice chancellor of the University of Brescia. Afterwards, until 2008, she was dean of the faculty of economics and business, she was president of the Association of European Operational Research Societies from 2011 to 2012, president of the INFORMS Transportation Science and Logistics Society for 2013. She is president of the International Federation of Operational Research Societies for 2019–2021. Speranza is the co-author, with Renata Mansini and Włodzimierz Ogryczak, of the book Linear and Mixed Integer Programming for Portfolio Optimization. Home page M. Grazia Speranza publications indexed by Google Scholar