The British Museum is dedicated to human history and culture, and is located in the Bloomsbury area of London. The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the physician, the museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, in Montagu House, on the site of the current building. Although today principally a museum of art objects and antiquities. Its foundations lie in the will of the Irish-born British physician, on 7 June 1753, King George II gave his formal assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. They were joined in 1757 by the Old Royal Library, now the Royal manuscripts, together these four foundation collections included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving copy of Beowulf. The British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king, freely open to the public, sloanes collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests.
The addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary, the body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The Trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost. With the acquisition of Montagu House the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts. A list of donations to the Museum, dated 31 January 1784, in the early 19th century the foundations for the extensive collection of sculpture began to be laid and Greek and Egyptian artefacts dominated the antiquities displays. Gifts and purchases from Henry Salt, British consul general in Egypt, beginning with the Colossal bust of Ramesses II in 1818, many Greek sculptures followed, notably the first purpose-built exhibition space, the Charles Towneley collection, much of it Roman Sculpture, in 1805.
In 1816 these masterpieces of art, were acquired by The British Museum by Act of Parliament. The collections were supplemented by the Bassae frieze from Phigaleia, Greece in 1815, the Ancient Near Eastern collection had its beginnings in 1825 with the purchase of Assyrian and Babylonian antiquities from the widow of Claudius James Rich. The neoclassical architect, Sir Robert Smirke, was asked to draw up plans for an extension to the Museum. For the reception of the Royal Library, and a Picture Gallery over it, and put forward plans for todays quadrangular building, much of which can be seen today. The dilapidated Old Montagu House was demolished and work on the Kings Library Gallery began in 1823, the extension, the East Wing, was completed by 1831. The Museum became a site as Sir Robert Smirkes grand neo-classical building gradually arose
Isthmian Games or Isthmia were one of the Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece, and were named after the Isthmus of Corinth, where they were held. As with the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games were held both the year before and the year after the Olympic Games, while the Pythian Games were held in the year of the Olympiad cycle. In Roman times, Melicertes was worshipped in the region, theseus arranged with the Corinthians for any Athenian visitors to the Isthmian games to be granted the privilege of front seats. Another version states that Kypselos, tyrant of Corinth in the 7th century BC, if we are to accept the traditional date of the first Olympic Games, we can say that the first Isthmian Games would have been held in 582 BC. At least until the 5th century BC the winners of the Isthmian games received a wreath of celery, victors could be honored with a statue or an ode. Besides these prizes of honor, the city of Athens awarded victorious Athenians with an extra 100 drachmas, from 228 BC or 229 BC onwards the Romans were allowed to take part in the games.
The Games of 196 BC were used by Titus Quinctius Flamininus to proclaim the freedom of the Greek states from Macedonian hegemony. Thereupon there was great shouting and rejoicing and a scene of rapturous tumult and they threw crowns and fillets upon the general and voted statues for him in their cities. They sent ambassadors with golden crowns to the Capitol at Rome to express their gratitude, such was the end of the second war between the Romans and Philip. Since the games inception, Corinth had always been in control of them, when Corinth was destroyed by the Romans in 146 BC, the Isthmian games continued, but were now administered by Sicyon. Corinth was rebuilt by Caesar in 44 BC, Corinth recovered ownership of the Games at some point between 7 BC and AD3. The Isthmian Games thereafter flourished until Theodosius I suppressed them as a pagan ritual, among other competitions were, Chariot races Pankration Wrestling Musical and poetical contests, in which women were allowed to compete. Boxing In 216 BC, Kleitomachos of Thebes won wrestling, before the Games began, a truce was declared by Corinth to grant athletes safe passage through Greece.
In 412 BC, even though Athens and Corinth were at war, the Temple of Poseidon at Isthmia The Sanctuary of Poseidon at the Hellenic Ministry of Culture. University of Chicago Excavations at Isthmia
Pergamon /ˈpɜːrɡəmən/ or /ˈpɜːrɡəmɒn/ or Pergamum /ˈpɜːrɡəməm/ was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis. It is located 26 kilometres from the coastline of the Aegean Sea on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus. Many remains of its monuments can still be seen and especially the outstanding masterpiece of the Pergamon Altar. It became the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon during the Hellenistic period under the Attalid dynasty in 281–133 BC, Pergamon is cited in the Book of Revelation as one of the seven churches of Asia. Xenophon provides the earliest surviving mention of Pergamon. Captured by Xenophon in 399 BC and immediately recaptured by the Persians, in 261 BC he bequeathed his possessions to his nephew Eumenes I, who increased them greatly, leaving as heir his cousin Attalus I. The Attalids became some of the most loyal supporters of Rome in the Hellenistic world, for their support against the Seleucids, the Attalids were rewarded with all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor.
As a consequence of its rise to power, the city expanded greatly, until 188 BC, it had not grown significantly since its founding by Philetaerus, and covered c.21 hectares. After this year, a new city wall was constructed,4 kilometres long and enclosing an area of approximately 90 hectares. The Attalids ruled with intelligence and generosity, many documents survive showing how the Attalids supported the growth of towns by sending in skilled artisans and by remitting taxes. They allowed the Greek cities in their domains to maintain nominal independence and they sent gifts to Greek cultural sites like Delphi and Athens. They remodeled the Acropolis of Pergamon after the Acropolis in Athens, when Attalus III died without an heir in 133 BC, he bequeathed the whole of Pergamon to Rome in order to prevent a civil war. Not everyone in Pergamon accepted Romes rule, who claimed to be Attalus brother as well as the son of Eumenes II, an earlier king, led a revolt among the lower classes with the help of Blossius.
The revolt was put down in 129 BC, and Pergamon was divided among Rome, Pergamon was briefly the capital of the Roman province of Asia, before the capital was transferred to Ephesus. After a slow decline, the city was favoured by several imperial initiatives under Hadrian, in addition, at the city limits the shrine to Asclepius was expanded into a lavish spa. This sanctuary grew in fame and was considered one of the most famous therapeutic, after Hippocrates the most famous physician of antiquity, was born at Pergamon and received his early training at the Asclepeion. Pergamon reached the height of its greatness under Roman Imperial rule and was home to about 200,000 inhabitants, the city was an early seat of Christianity and was granted a bishopric by the 2nd century. The city suffered badly during the century and was badly damaged by an earthquake in 262 and was sacked by the Goths shortly after
Quintus Minucius Rufus
Quintus Minucius Rufus was a consul of the Roman Republic in 197 BC. In 211 BC, Minucius was an officer serving under Q, fulvius Flaccus when Roman forces took back Capua after their defeat the previous year by Hannibal. He was a plebeian aedile in 201, as praetor in 200, Minucius was assigned to Bruttium, where he investigated thefts from the temple of Proserpina at Locri. His imperium was prorogued as propraetor into 199 so he could continue to look into the sacrilege, the year was plagued by bad omens, Minucius reported two from his province, a foal born with five feet, and three chickens born with three feet each. In his study of the praetorship during the Republic, T, the word coniuratio during this period carried multiple connotations, literally a swearing together or oath, it could refer both to a ritualized oath-taking and to a political conspiracy. Those whom Minucius arrested at Bruttium for sacrilege were sent to Rome, as consul in 197, Minucius fought against Gauls and Ligurians.
Both consuls of this year were assigned military commands in Italy, Minucius advanced to Genua and proceeded to Liguria, where he fought a campaign. He crossed the Apennines and ravaged the country of the Gallic Boii, cornelius Cethegus, fought against Insubres and Cenomani, but achieved his victory in a single pitched battle that resulted in the mass slaughter of 35,000 men and the capture of 5,200. The reports sent by the two commanders were greeted by a decree of a four-day supplicatio, or thanksgiving, and both presented themselves at the Temple of Bellona to ask jointly for a triumph. Two tribunes, came forward to block Minuciuss request, Cethegus resubmitted his request, which the senate approved omnium consensu, with the consent of all. The senate denied Minucius the same honor in part because, Livy says and it was further alleged that he had lost too many men in a series of battles that had decided little. Minucius staged his own triumph over the Boii and Ligurians on the Alban Mount, in the wake of the Galatian War, he was among the ten legati sent in 189–188 BC with the proconsul Manlius Vulso to work out the terms of a treaty with Antiochus.
The controversy indicates an early anxiety that the imperium exercised by a magistrate or promagistrate acting abroad could distort power relations within the system of government. In 183, Minucius served on an embassy to Transalpine Gaul to try to prevent the Celts from entering northern Italy. In 174, he may have been the Quintus Minucius who was sent to Crete with ten ships to settle unrest
Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, Southern Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Taranto and is an important commercial port as well as the main Italian naval base and it is the third-largest continental city of Southern Italy, according to 2011 population census, it has a population of 200,154. Taranto is an important commercial and military port and it has well-developed steel and iron foundries, oil refineries, chemical works, some shipyards for building warships, and food-processing factories. In ancient times around 500 BC the city was one of the largest in the world with population estimates up to 300,000 people, Tarantos pre-history dates back to 706 BC when it was founded as a Greek colony, established by the Spartans. The islets of S. Pietro and S. Paolo, collectively known as Cheradi Islands, protect the bay, called Mar Grande, another bay, called Mar Piccolo, is formed by the peninsula of the old city, and has flourishing fishing. Mar Piccolo is a port with strategic importance.
At the end of the 19th century, a channel was excavated to allow ships to enter the Mar Piccolo harbour. In addition, the islets and the coast are strongly fortified, because of the presence of these two bays, Taranto is called the city of the two seas. The Greek colonists from Sparta called the city Taras, after the mythical hero Taras, while the Romans, the natural harbor at Taranto made it a logical home port for the Italian naval fleet before and during the First World War. During World War II, Taranto became famous as a consequence of the November 1940 British air attack on the Regia Marina naval base stationed here, which today is called the Battle of Taranto. Taranto is the origin of the name of the Tarantula spider family, Theraphosidae. In ancient times, residents of the town of Taranto, upon being bitten by the large local Wolf Spider, Lycosa tarentula and this was done in order to sweat the venom out of their pores, even though the spiders venom was not fatal to humans. The frenetic dance became known as the Tarantella, in geology, Taranto gives its name to the Tarantian Age of the Pleistocene Epoch.
It is 14.5 metres above sea level and it was built on a plain running north/north-west–southeast, and surrounded by the Murgia plateau from the north-west to the east. Its territory extends for 209.64 square kilometres and is mostly underwater and it is characterised by three natural peninsulas and a man-made island, formed by digging a ditch during the construction of Aragon Castle. The Big Sea is frequently known as the Big Sea bay as that is where ships harbour and it is separated from the Little Sea by a cape which closes the gulf, leading to the artificial island. This island formed the heart of the city and it is connected to the mainland by the Ponte di Porta Napoli. The latter form an archipelago which closes off the arc creating the natural Big Sea bay
Jean-Pierre Saint-Ours was a Swiss painter. Jean-Pierre was born in Geneva, Switzerland and he began studying with his father Jacques who was himself a renowned painter. He continued his studies in Paris, in 1769, with Joseph-Marie Vien, in 1780, he obtained the Prix de Rome, but was denied a place at the French Academy in Rome, because of nationality issues and he began the journey at his own expense. In 1792, Saint-Ours was forced to return to his due to the events of Revolution. On 6 April 1809 he died in Geneva and his works may be seen in several museums, including the Louvre, in Paris, and the Musée dArt et dHistoire of Geneva. Works Koller, Mylène, Zur Genfer Historienmalerei von Jean-Pierre Saint-Ours, New York, OCLC35143635 Herdt, Anne de, Saint-Ours et la Révolution, Genève, Musée dart et dhistoire,1989
Achaea or Achaia, sometimes transliterated from Greek as Akhaïa, is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of West Greece and is situated in the part of the Peloponnese peninsula. Since 2001, the population has exceeded 300,000, Achaea is bordered by Elis to the west and southwest, Arcadia to the south, and Corinthia to the east and southeast. The Gulf of Corinth lies to its northeast, and the Gulf of Patras to its northwest, the mountain Panachaiko, though not the highest of Achaea, dominates the coastal area near Patras. Higher mountains are found in the south, such as Aroania, other mountain ranges in Achaea are Skollis, Omplos and Movri. Its main rivers ordered from west to east are the Larissos, Peiros, Selinountas, most of the forests are in the mountain ranges, though several are in the plains including the extreme west. There are grasslands around the areas and barren lands in the highest areas. Achaea has hot summers and mild winters, sunny days dominate during the summer months in areas near the coast, while the summer can be cloudy and rainy in the mountains.
Snow is very common during the winter in the mountains of Erymanthos, winter high temperatures are around the 10 °C mark throughout the low-lying areas. The regional unit Achaea is subdivided into 5 municipalities and these are, Aigialeia Erymanthos Kalavryta Patras West Achaea As a part of the 2011 Kallikratis government reform, the regional unit Achaea was created out of the former prefecture Achaea. The prefecture had the territory as the present regional unit. At the same time, the municipalities were reorganised, according to the table below, Province of Aigialeia - Aigio Province of Kalavryta - Kalavryta Province of Patras - Patras Note, Provinces no longer hold any legal status in Greece. The Achaean League was a Hellenistic-era confederation of city states in Achaea and it grew until it included most of Peloponnese, much reducing the Macedonian rule in the area. After Macedons defeat by the Romans in the late 2nd century BC, however, as the Roman influence in the area grew, the league erupted into an open revolt against Roman domination, in what is known as Achaean War.
The Achaeans were defeated at the Battle of Corinth, and the League was dissolved by the Romans, in AD 51/52, Lucius Junius Gallio Annaeanus was proconsul of Achaea, and presided over the trial of the Apostle Paul in Corinth. This event provides a date for the book of the Acts of the Apostles within the Bible. Achaea remained a province of the Byzantine Empire after the fall of the western Roman Empire, in the 6th and 7th centuries, Slavs invaded the Peloponnese, and settled in parts of Achaea as well. By the 9th century, the peninsula was under Byzantine control again
Antikyra or Anticyra is a port on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth in modern Boeotia, Greece. It appeared in the Homeric Catalogue of Ships as the port of ancient Phocis. It was famed in antiquity for its black and white hellebore, Antikyra was destroyed and rebuilt during the 4th- and 3rd-century BC wars of Macedonia and Rome and following a 7th-century AD earthquake. During the 14th century, it was held by Catalan mercenaries and it now forms a unit of the unified municipality of Distomo-Arachova-Antikyra and is a center of Greek aluminum production. The municipal unit has an area of 23.332 km2 and its population in 2011 was 1,537. Antikyra has been identified with the Kyparissos or Cyparissus which appears in the Homeric Catalogue of Ships as the port of ancient Phocis. It became known as Antikirrha or Anticirrha from its position on the side of a peninsula from Kirra. This name became Antikyrrha or Anticyrrha and Antikyra, the last was followed by the Romans, Latinized as Anticyra. During its period under the Catalans, it was known as Port de Arago, under the Ottomans, it became known as Aspra Spitia for its white houses but its former name was restored in the early 20th century.
Under the former BGN/PCGN standard, it was romanized as Andikira in America, Antikyra is situated on the Bay of Antikyra on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth. It lies 2 or 3 kilometers southwest of Paralia Distomou and 10 kilometers southewast of Desfina and it is separated from Delphi by Mount Cirphis and from the Crissaean Gulf by the Opus peninsula. The municipal unit contains the villages of Agia Sotira and Agios Isidoros, in antiquity, Antikyra was associated with the still-older settlement of Kyparissos which was noted as the primary port of Mycenaean Phocis in Homers Iliad. The name literally means cypress but was glossed as deriving from the mythical founder Cyparissus, son of Orchomenus. The Catalogue of Ships states the Phocians who joined the Trojan War sailed from Kyparissos to join the fleet at Aulis before it sailed for Troy. The reputed graves of the heroes Schedios and Epistrophos, the Phocian admirals, were maintained through Roman times, the name Antikyra was said to have derived from an Antikyreos or Anticyreus who cured Herculess insanity with local hellebore.
Black and white hellebore were the reason for the towns fame in the ancient world. Both grew nearby and were regarded by Greek medicine as cures for forms of insanity, the circumstance gave rise to a number of Greek and Latin expressions and to frequent allusions in Greek and Roman literature. Antikyra was destroyed in 346 BC by Philip II of Macedon amid the Third Sacred War and it recovered enough to quickly begin construction of a temple to Artemis with a cult statue commissioned to Praxiteles by 330 BC
A consul was the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic, and the consulship was considered the highest level of the cursus honorum. Each year, two consuls were elected together, to serve for a one-year term, the consuls alternated in holding imperium each month, and a consuls imperium extended over Rome and the provinces. Originally, consuls were called praetors, referring to their duties as the military commanders. By at least 300 BC the title of Consul was being used, in Greek, the title was originally rendered as στρατηγός ὕπατος, strategos hypatos, and simply as ὕπατος. The consul was believed by the Romans to date back to the establishment of the Republic in 509 BC. These remained in place until the office was abolished in 367/366 BC, consuls had extensive powers in peacetime, and in wartime often held the highest military command. Additional religious duties included certain rites which, as a sign of their formal importance, consuls read auguries, an essential step before leading armies into the field.
Two consuls were elected each year, serving together, each with power over the others actions. It is thought that only patricians were eligible for the consulship. Consuls were elected by the Comitia Centuriata, which had a bias in its voting structure which only increased over the years from its foundation. If a consul died during his term or was removed from office, a consul elected to start the year - called a consul ordinarius - held more prestige than a suffect consul, partly because the year would be named for ordinary consuls. The first plebeian consul, Lucius Sextius, was elected the following year and it is possible that only the chronology has been distorted, but it seems that one of the first consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus, came from a plebeian family. Another possible explanation is that during the 5th century social struggles, during times of war, the primary qualification for consul was military skill and reputation, but at all times the selection was politically charged. With the passage of time, the became the normal endpoint of the cursus honorum.
When Lucius Cornelius Sulla regulated the cursus by law, the age of election to consul became. Beginning in the late Republic, after finishing a year, a former consul would usually serve a lucrative term as a proconsul. The most commonly chosen province for the proconsulship was Cisalpine Gaul, throughout the early years of the Principate although the consuls were still formally elected by the Comitia Centuriata, they were in fact nominated by the princeps. It was a post that would be occupied by a man halfway through his career, in his early thirties for a patrician, emperors frequently appointed themselves, or their protégés or relatives, even without regard to the age requirements
The Achaean League was a Hellenistic-era confederation of Greek city states on the northern and central Peloponnese. The league was named after the region of Achaea in the northwestern Peloponnese, the first league was formed in the 5th century BC. The second Achaean League was established in 280 BC, as a rival of Antigonid Macedon and an ally of Rome, the league played a major role in the exapansion of the Roman Republic into Greece. This process eventually led to the Leagues conquest and dissolution by the Romans in 146 BC, the League represents the most successful attempt by the Greek city states to develop a form of federalism, which balanced the need for collective action with the desire for local autonomy. Through the writings of the Achaean statesman Polybius, this structure has had an influence on the constitution of the United States, the first Achaean League became active in the fifth century in the northwestern Peloponnese. After the catastrophic destruction of the ancient capital Helike by an earthquake and tsunami in 373 BC, it appears to have lapsed sometime in the fourth century.
The regional Achaean League was reformed in 281/0 BC by the communities of Dyme, Patrae and Tritaea, joined in 275 by Aegium, the league grew quickly to include the entire Achaean heartland, and after a decade it had ten or eleven members. Since the Sicyonians were of Dorian and Ionian origin, their inclusion opened the League for other national elements, only twenty years old, rapidly grew to become the leading politician of the League. In the thirty two years between 245 and his death in 213, Aratus would hold the office of general a total of sixteen times. In other cities of the Peloponnese, namely Argos, Orchomenus and he used the money to challenge the Macedonian hold on the Peloponnese. Aratus greatest success came when he captured Corinth and the fortress of Acrocorinth in 243 BC in a night attack. This effectively blocked Macedonian access to the Peloponnese by land, isolating their allies at Megalopolis, Antigonus Gonatas finally made peace with the Achaean League in a treaty of 240 BC, ceding the territories that he had lost in Greece.
Corinth was followed by Megalopolis in 235 BC and Argos in 229 BC, however the league soon ran into difficulties with the revived Sparta of Cleomenes III. Aratus was forced to call in the aid of the Macedonian King, Antigonus III Doson, Antigonus Doson re-established Macedonian control over much of the region. In 220 BC, the Achaean League entered into a war against the Aetolian League, the young king Philip V of Macedon sided with the Achaeans and called for a Panhellenic conference in Corinth, where the Aetolian aggression was condemned. After Aratuss death, the League joined Rome in the Second Macedonian War, the Achaean League was one of the main beneficieries. Under the leadership of Philopoemen, the League was able to defeat a heavily weakened Sparta. The Leagues dominance was not to last long, however, in 146 BC, the leagues relations with Rome completely collapsed, leading to the Achaean War
A Roman legion was the largest unit of the Roman army involving from 3000 men in early times to over 5200 men in imperial times, consisting of centuries as the basic units. Until the middle of the first century,10 cohorts made up a Roman Legion and this was changed to nine cohorts of standard size and one cohort, the first cohort, of double strength. In the early Roman Kingdom the legion may have meant the entire Roman army but sources on this period are few, Legions included a small ala or cavalry unit. By the third century AD, the legion was a smaller unit of about 1,000 to 1,500 men. In the fourth century AD, East Roman border guard legions may have even smaller. The Roman army, for most of the Imperial period, consisted mostly of auxiliaries rather than legions, because legions were not permanent units until the Marian reforms, and were instead created and disbanded again, several hundred legions were named and numbered throughout Roman history. To date, about 50 have been identified, toward the end of the 2nd Century BC, Rome started to experience manpower shortages brought about by property and financial qualifications to join the army.
In the time of Augustus, there were nearly 50 upon his succession but this was reduced to about 25–35 permanent standing legions, a legion consisted of several cohorts of heavy infantry known as legionaries. The recruitment of non-citizens was rare but appears to have occurred in times of great need, For example, Caesar appears to have recruited the Legio V Alaudae mostly from non-citizen Gauls. In the period before the raising of the legio and the years of the Roman Kingdom. These centuries were grouped together as required and answered to the leader who had hired or raised them, the roles of century leader, second in command and standard bearer are referenced in this early period. Much Roman history of the era is shrouded in legend, but it is believed that during the reign of Servius Tullius, the census was introduced. Joining the army was both a duty and a mark of Roman citizenship, during the entire pre-Marian period the wealthiest land owners performed the most years of military service.
These individuals would have had the most to lose should the state have fallen. The first and wealthiest common class was armed in the fashion of the hoplite with spear, helmet, breast plate and round shield, there were 82 centuries of these, Roman soldiers had to purchase their own equipment. The second and third class acted as spearmen but were heavily armoured and carried a larger oval or rectangular shield. The fourth class could afford no armour, perhaps bearing a shield and armed with spear. All three of the latter made up about 26 centuries
Philhellenism and philhellene, from the Greek φίλος philos friend, lover and ἑλληνισμός hellenism Greek, was an intellectual fashion prominent mostly at the turn of the 19th century. It contributed to the sentiments that led Europeans such as Lord Byron or Charles Nicolas Fabvier to advocate for Greek independence from the Ottoman Empire, the 19th-century European Philhellenism was largely to be found among the Classicists. In antiquity, the term philhellene was used to describe both non-Greeks who were fond of Greek culture and Greeks who patriotically upheld their culture, the lyric poet Quintus Horatius Flaccus was another philhellene. Roman emperors known for their philhellenism include Nero, Marcus Aurelius, another popular subject of interest in Greek culture at the turn of the 19th century was the shadowy Scythian philosopher Anacharsis, who lived in the 6th century BCE. It had a impact on the growth of philhellenism in France. It inspired European sympathy for the Greek War of Independence and spawned sequels, 20th century heirs of the 19th-century view of an unchanging, immortal quality of Greekness are typified in J. C.
Lawsons Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion or R. and E. The Philhellenic movement led to the introduction of Classics or Classical studies as a key element in education, in England the main proponent of Classics in schools was Thomas Arnold, headmaster at Rugby School. Philhellenism created a renewed interest in the movement of Neoclassicism. Very much at second hand, through the writings of the first generation of art historians, like Johann Joachim Winckelmann, many well known philhellenes supported the Greek Independence Movement such as Shelley, Thomas Moore, Leigh Hunt, Cam Hobhouse, Walter Savage Landor and Jeremy Bentham. Some, notably Lord Byron, even took up arms to join the Greek revolutionaries, many more financed the revolution or contributed through their artistic work. Throughout the 19th century, philhellenes continued to support Greece politically and militarily, for example, Ricciotti Garibaldi led a volunteer expedition in the Greco-Turkish War of 1897. », in Regards sur le philhellénisme, alexandre Stourdza et lEurope de la Sainte-Alliance.
ISBN 978-2-7453-1669-1 Konstantinou, Evangelos and Philhellenism, European History Online, Institute of European History,2010, emile Malakis, French travellers in Greece, An early phase of French Philhellenism Suzanne L. Marchand,1996. Down from Olympus and Philhellenism in Germany, 1750-1970 M. Byron Raizis,1971, american poets and the Greek revolution, 1821–1828, A study in Byronic philhellenism Terence J. Sad relic, Literary philhellenism from Shakespeare to Byron Hellenic Resources Network