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Titus Salt

Sir Titus Salt, 1st Baronet, born in Morley, near Leeds, was a manufacturer and philanthropist in Bradford, West Riding of Yorkshire, England. He is best known for having built Salt's Mill, a large textile mill, together with the attached village of Saltaire. Salt's father Daniel was a drysalter, a farmer, sent Titus to a school in Batley, identified in some sources as Batley Grammar School, to another near Wakefield, named in some sources as Heath School, his mother Grace was the daughter of Isaac Smithies, of The Manor House, Morley. The Salt family lived at Manor Farm in Crofton, near Wakefield between 1813 and 1819. After working for two years as a wool-stapler in Wakefield he became his father's partner in the business of Daniel Salt and Son; the company used Russian Donskoi wool, used in the woollens trade, but not in worsted cloth. Titus visited the spinners in Bradford trying to interest them in using the wool for worsted manufacture, with no success, so he set up as a spinner and manufacturer.

In 1836, Salt came upon some bales of Alpaca wool in a warehouse in Liverpool and, after taking some samples away to experiment, came back and bought the consignment. Though he was not the first in England to work with the fibre, he was the creator of the lustrous and subsequently fashionable cloth called'alpaca'.. In 1833 he took over his father's business and within twenty years had expanded it to be the largest employer in Bradford. In 1848 Titus Salt became mayor of Bradford. Smoke and pollution emanated from mills and factory chimneys and Salt tried unsuccessfully to clean up the pollution using a device called the Rodda Smoke Burner. In 1848, by now the senior Alderman of Bradford, Salt became Liberal MP, although he lost the seat two years later. Around 1850, he decided to build a mill large enough to consolidate his textile manufacture in one place, but he "did not like to be a party to increasing that over-crowded borough", bought land three miles from the town in Shipley next to the River Aire, the Leeds and Liverpool Canal and the Midland Railway and began building in 1851.

He opened Saltaire Mills with a grand banquet on his 50th birthday, 20 September 1853, set about building houses, bathhouses, an institute, hospital and churches, that make up the model village of Saltaire. He built the Congregational church, now Saltaire United Reformed Church, at his own expense in 1858–59, donated the land on which the Wesleyan Chapel was built by public subscription in 1866–68, he forbade'beershops' in Saltaire, but the common supposition that he was teetotal himself is untrue. He was a county JP, a Deputy Lord Lieutenant. Salt was a private man, left no written statement of his purposes in creating Saltaire. In David James's assessment: "Salt's motives in building Saltaire remain obscure, they seem to have been a mixture of sound economics, Christian duty, a desire to have effective control over his workforce. There were economic reasons for moving out of Bradford, the village did provide him with an amenable, handpicked workforce, yet Salt was religious and sincerely believed that, by creating an environment where people could lead healthy, godly lives, he was doing God's work.

Diffident and inarticulate as he was, the village may have been a way of demonstrating the extent of his wealth and power. Lastly, he may have seen it as a means of establishing an industrial dynasty to match the landed estates of his Bradford contemporaries. However, Saltaire provided no real solution to the relationship between worker, its small size, healthy site, comparative isolation provided an escape rather than an answer to the problems of urban industrial society." Salt was Chief Constable of Bradford before its incorporation as a borough in 1847, afterwards a senior alderman. He was the second mayor, in office from 1848–49, was Deputy Lieutenant for the West Riding of Yorkshire. In 1857 he was President of the Bradford Chamber of Commerce, served as Liberal Member of Parliament for Bradford from 1859 until he retired through ill health on 1 February 1861. On 30 October 1869 he was created a Baronet, of Crow Nest in the County of York, he died at Crow Nest, near Halifax in 1876 and was buried at Saltaire Congregational Church.

"Estimates vary, but the number of people lining the route exceeded 100,000." Sir Titus Salt married Caroline, daughter of George Whitlam, of Great Grimsby on 21 August 1830, had five sons and three daughters. Sir William Henry Salt, 2nd baronet, married in 1854 Emma Dove Octaviana Harris, only child of John Dove Harris and Emma Shirley of Knighton, Leicester George Salt married in 1875, Jennie Louisa Fresco of Florence Edward Salt of Bathampton House married firstly in 1861, Mary Jane Susan, eldest daughter of Samuel Elgood, of Leicester. Joseph Rowntree Geo


Hoodia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Apocynaceae, under the subfamily Asclepiadoideae, native to Southern Africa. One species of Hoodia in particular, Hoodia gordonii, has achieved a degree of fame and controversy, after being investigated for use as a possible appetite suppressant; the group was first described as a genus in 1844. Hoodia are stem succulents, described as "cactiform" because of their remarkable similarity to the unrelated cactus family, they have a branching, shrub-like form, the largest species can grow to the size of a tree — over 2 m in height. The flowers are variable in size — from less than 1 cm, to 20 cm in diameter, depending on the species. Flowers appear in large numbers, always near the tops of the stems; those of larger-flowered species are a papery pink-tan colour, plate-shaped, with an unpleasant smell to attract their fly pollinators. The smaller, darker flowers of some species have a far stronger and more unpleasant smell than the larger flowers.

The genus Hoodia is restricted to the arid regions in the western part of southern Africa, ranging from western South Africa to central Namibia and as far north as southern Angola. It is common in the Namib desert and in the Orange River valley. Typical habitat is open stone plains. Plants germinate in the shelter of bushes or rocks, but survive in the open as adult plants. Species Several of the small-flowered species of Hoodia were in a separate genus, but have been moved into the genus Hoodia, the two groups are now synonymous. Phylogenetic studies have shown the genus Hoodia to be monophyletic, most related to the stapeliad genus Lavrania. Marginally more distantly related is a sister branch of related genera including Larryleachia and Notechidnopsis. Hoodia gordonii is traditionally used by the San people of the Namib desert as an appetite suppressant as part of their indigenous knowledge about survival in the harsh desert conditions. In 2006, the plant became internationally known, after a marketing campaign falsely claimed that its use as a dietary supplement was an appetite suppressant for weight loss.

As of 2018, there is no high-quality clinical research showing that hoodia has actions as an appetite suppressant or is effective for weight loss. In a case of biopiracy, bioprospectors from South Africa’s Council for Scientific and Industrial Research realized that the plant was marketable and patented its use as an appetite suppressant without recognizing the Sans' traditional claims to the knowledge of the plant and its uses; the patent was sold to Unilever, which marketed hoodia products as diet supplements. In 2003, the South African San Council entered into a benefit sharing agreement with CSIR in which they would receive from 6 to 8% of the revenue from the sale of Ho. gordonii products, money which would be deposited in a trust for all San peoples across Southern Africa. Several species are grown as garden plants, one species, H. gordonii, is being investigated for use as an appetite suppressant. However, in 2008, UK-based Unilever PLC, one of the largest packaged-food firms in the world, abandoned plans to use hoodia in a range of diet products.

In a document on Unilever's website entitled "Sustainable Development 2008: An Overview", signed by Paul Polman, CEO, Unilever states: "During 2008, having invested 20 million in R&D, Unilever abandoned plans to use the slimming extract hoodia in a range of diet products. We stopped the project because our clinical studies revealed that products using hoodia would not meet our strict standards of safety and efficacy." Many Hoodia species are protected plants. Hoodia is listed in Appendix II to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, which includes species not considered endangered but are at risk if trade is not controlled. Media related to Hoodia at Wikimedia Commons Germplasm Resources Information Network: Hoodia

Jukunoid languages

The Jukunoid languages are a branch of the Central Nigerian languages spoken by the Jukun and related peoples of Nigeria and Cameroon. They are distributed throughout Taraba State and surrounding regions, their asymmetrical nasal consonants are atypical for West Africa. Gerhardt and Güldemann suggest that Jukunoid may be part of the Plateau languages, as it shares similarities with various Plateau groups Tarokoid. However, Blench argues that Jukunoid is spearate from Plateau; the following classification is from Glottolog. Ethnologue leaves the Wurbo language Shoo-Minda-Nye as unclassified within Jukun–Mbembe–Wurbo, includes the unclassified Benue–Congo language Tita in its place. Lau was recently reported by Idiatov. Below is a list of language names and locations from Blench. Comparison of numerals in individual languages: List of Proto-Jukunoid reconstructions Shimizu, Kiyoshi. 1980. Comparative Jukunoid, 3 vols.. Vienna: Afro-Pub. ComparaLex, database with Jukunoid word lists

Quantitative easing

Quantitative easing known as large-scale asset purchases, is a monetary policy whereby a central bank buys predetermined amounts of government bonds or other financial assets in order to inject liquidity directly into the economy. An unconventional form of monetary policy, it is used when inflation is low or negative, standard expansionary monetary policy has become ineffective. A central bank implements quantitative easing by buying specified amounts of financial assets from commercial banks and other financial institutions, thus raising the prices of those financial assets and lowering their yield, while increasing the money supply; this differs from the more usual policy of buying or selling short-term government bonds to keep interbank interest rates at a specified target value. Expansionary monetary policy to stimulate the economy involves the central bank buying short-term government bonds to lower short-term market interest rates. However, when short-term interest rates approach or reach zero, this method can no longer work.

In such circumstances, monetary authorities may use quantitative easing to further stimulate the economy, by buying specified quantities of financial assets without reference to interest rates, by buying riskier or longer maturity assets, thereby lowering interest rates further out on the yield curve. Quantitative easing can help bring the economy out of recession and help ensure that inflation does not fall below the central bank's inflation target. Risks include the policy being more effective than intended in acting against deflation, or not being effective enough if banks remain reluctant to lend and potential borrowers are unwilling to borrow. According to the International Monetary Fund, the US Federal Reserve System, various other economists, quantitative easing undertaken following the global financial crisis of 2007–08 has mitigated some of the economic problems since the crisis. Standard central bank monetary policies are enacted by buying or selling government bonds on the open market to reach a desired target for the interbank interest rate.

However, if a recession or depression continues when a central bank has lowered interest rates to nearly zero, the central bank can no longer lower interest rates — a situation known as the liquidity trap. The central bank may implement quantitative easing by buying financial assets without reference to interest rates; this policy is sometimes described as a last resort to stimulate the economy. A central bank enacts quantitative easing by purchasing, regardless of interest rates, a predetermined quantity of bonds or other financial assets on financial markets from private financial institutions; this action increases the excess reserves. The goal of this policy is to ease financial conditions, increase market liquidity, facilitate an expansion of private bank lending. Quantitative easing affects the economy through several channels: Credit channel: By providing liquidity in the banking sector, QE makes it easier and cheaper for banks to extend loans to companies and households, thus stimulating credit growth.

Additionally, if the central bank purchases financial instruments that are riskier than government bonds, it can increase the price and lower the interest yield of these riskier assets. Portfolio rebalancing: By enacting QE, the central bank withdraws an important part of the safe assets from the market onto its own balance sheet, which may result in private investors turning to other financial securities; because of the relative lack of government bonds, investors are forced to "rebalance their portfolios" into other assets. Additionally, if the central bank purchases financial instruments that are riskier than government bonds, it can lower the interest yield of those assets. Exchange rate: Because it increases the money supply and lowers the yield of financial assets, QE tends to depreciate a country's exchange rates relative to other currencies, through the interest rate mechanism. Lower interest rates lead to a capital outflow from a country, thereby reducing foreign demand for a country's money, leading to a weaker currency.

This increases demand for exports, directly benefits exporters and export industries in the country. Fiscal effect: By lowering yields on sovereign bonds, QE makes it cheaper for governments to borrow on financial markets, which may empower the government to provide fiscal stimulus to the economy. Quantitative easing can be viewed as a debt refinancing operation of the "consolidated government", whereby the consolidated government, via the central bank, retires government debt securities and refinances them into central bank reserves. Signalling effect: Some economists argue that QE's main impact is due to its effect on the psychology of the markets, by signalling that the central bank will take extraordinary steps to facilitate economic recovery. For instance, it has been observed that most of the effect of QE in the Eurozone on bond yields happened between the date of the announcement of QE and the actual start of the purchases by the ECB; the US Federal Reserve belatedly implemented policies similar to the recent quantitative easing during the Great Depression of the 1930s.

Banks' excess reserves exceeded 6 percent in 1940, whereas they vanished during the entire postwar period until 2008. Despite this fact, many commentators called the scope of the Federal Reserve quantitative easing program after the 2008 crisis "unprecedented". A policy termed "

Alicja Kotowska

Alicja Jadwiga Kotowska was a Polish nun, head of the Resurrectionist convent in Wejherowo between 1934 and 1939, a blessed of the Roman Catholic Church and a martyr killed by the Germans in 1939 in the Mass murders in Piaśnica. She was beatified by Pope John Paul II on 13 June 1999 as one of the 108 Polish Martyrs of World War II. Like a Drop of Water in the Ocean: The Life and Martyrdom of Blessed Sister Alice Kotowska, Sister of the Resurection. Congregation of the Sisters of the Resurrection. 1999. ISBN 9788391177532.. Błgosławiona siostra Alicja Kotowska. Wydawnictwo Duszpasterstwa Rolników. 2001. ISBN 9788388743511.. Miłość jest wierna do końca: błogosławiona Alicja Kotowska Zmartwychwstanka. Zgromadzenie Sióstr Zmartwychwstania Pańskiego. 2001. ISBN 9788391177525.. Alicja Marie Jadwiga Kotowska, in Wielka encyklopedia Jana Pawła II. 1. Wydawn: Edipresse. 2005. ISBN 9788372986436

List of Slovak submissions for the Academy Award for Best International Feature Film

Slovakia has submitted films for the Academy Award for Best International Feature Film since 1993. The award is handed out annually by the United States Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to a feature-length motion picture produced outside the United States that contains non-English dialogue; the Slovak submission is decided annually by the Slovak Television Academy. As of 2019, twenty-three Slovak films have been submitted for consideration, none of which have been nominated for an Oscar. Six of these have been directed by Martin Šulík; until 1993, the Slovak Republic was a constituent republic within Czechoslovakia, Czech and Slovaks collaborated on national productions. The Shop on Main Street, which won the Best Foreign Film Oscar in 1966 for Czechoslovakia, was a Slovak-language production, it was the first Czechoslovak film to be nominated for an Oscar. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences has invited the film industries of various countries to submit their best film for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film since 1956.

The Foreign Language Film Award Committee reviews all the submitted films. Following this, they vote via secret ballot to determine the five nominees for the award. Below is a list of the films that have been submitted by the Slovak Republic for review by the Academy for the award by the year of the submission and the respective Academy Award ceremony. Most films were at least in Slovak, although All My Loved Ones was in Czech and Return of the Storks and King of Thieves had much of their dialogue in German. In 2008 the producers of Bathory protested the decision of the Slovak Academy not to consider their film, the most expensive in Slovak history, for an Oscar nomination; the Slovak Academy said the multi-national production, filmed in Slovak- and English-language versions, did not qualify as a majority-Slovak production, in part because none of the lead cast came from Slovakia. The Academy instead chose. List of Czechoslovak submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film List of Academy Award winners and nominees for Best Foreign Language Film List of Academy Award-winning foreign language films Cinema of Slovakia The Official Academy Awards Database The Motion Picture Credits Database IMDb Academy Awards Page