Nukunu once widely spoke Nukunu language. The Ngaiawang of the Murray River used the term Nokunno as the name of a mythical being who went about by night killing people, the Kaurna tribe term has a meaning of an imaginary being, like a man, who prowls at night and kills, an assassin. The Nukunu were the southeastern-most tribe to practise subincision, in addition to circumcision, barngarla men used the pronunciation Nukuna for the name. The few Nukunu survivors of the British invasion of South Australia were settled at Baroota inland from Port Germein where they are known as Barutadura,1988, Solid Town, The history of Port Augusta, R. J. 1847, Savage Life and Scenes in Australia and New Zealand, vols 1 &2, Smith Elder & Co, London. Barwick, D.1984, ‘Mapping the Past, an Atlas of Victorian Clans 1835 – 1904’, Aboriginal History, Department of Pacific and Southeast Asian History, Australian National University, vol. Basedow, H.1929, The Australian Aboriginal, F. W. Preece & Sons, beddome, H. L.1886, ‘Marachowie’, in E. M.
Curr ed. The Australian Race, its Origin, Customs, Place of Landing in Australia,1993, A World That Was, The Yaraldi of the Murray Lakes, South Australia, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne. Black, J. M.1917, Vocabularies of Three South Australian Native Languages – Wirrung, capell, A.1963, Linguistic Survey of Australia, Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Sydney. 1955, Aboriginal Bird Names – South Australia, The South Australian Ornithologist, Curr, E. M. ed.1886, The Australian Race, its Origin, Customs, Place of Landing in Australia, and the Routes by Which It Spread Itself, vol. Davidson, D. S.1938, A Preliminary Register of Australian Tribes and Hordes, The American Philosophical Society, davis, S.1993, Australias Extant and Imputed Traditional Aboriginal Territories, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne. Ed.1976, Grammatical Categories in Australian Languages, Linguistic Series no,22, Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies & Humanities Press, Canberra. Donahue, M.1991, ‘AIATSIS Library Language Names and Community/Established Language Names’, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies,1889, ‘The Aborigines of South and Central Australia’ Royal Society of South Australian Field Naturalists Section Proceedings, pp. 1–11.
Elkin, A. P.1931, ‘The Social Organisation of South Australian Tribes’, elkin, A. P.1938, ‘Kinship in South Australia’, vol. Ellis, C. J. & Hercus, L.1966, ‘Recordings made during 1963-65 field work’,1845, Journals of Expeditions Into Central Australia and Overland…, vol. 1, T. & W. Boone, Libraries Board of South Australia, gray, J.1930, ‘Notes On Native Tribe Formerly Resident at Orroroo, South Australia’, The South Australian Naturalist, vol. 1879, ‘The Mount Remarkable Tribe’, in G. Taplin ed. 64–66,1998, Aboriginal Australia, Centre for Historical Aboriginal and International Research, Queensland. Hercus, L.1965, ‘Report on Work on Aboriginal Languages’, April–June 1965, Hercus, L.1971, ‘Summary Of Recent Work Carried Out…And Plans For Further Work’, AIATSIS PMS2223
Warriparinga is a nature reserve comprising 3.5 hectares in the metropolitan suburb of Bedford Park, in the southern suburbs of Adelaide, South Australia. It has historical and environmental significance as a traditional Kaurna ceremonial meeting place, Warriparinga has particular significance to the Kaurna people through its association with the Tjilbruke Dreaming story and as the beginning of the Tjilbruke Trail. An interpretive museum, the Living Kaurna Cultural Centre is located on the site, the area has historical significance as an early European settlement site, as it was settled in the 1840s soon after the establishment of South Australia. In 1998 the site was redeveloped as a native wetland, stocked with native vegetation and fish, the wetland was designed to filter water from the Sturt River before it reached the Patawalonga. The site is traversed by the Sturt River which emerges from Sturt Gorge to enter Warriparinga as it starts to make its way along the Adelaide Plains, eventually joining the Patawalonga River.
Warriparinga was a ground for the indigenous population, with kangaroos and wallabies in the area. In the Dreaming, Tjilbrukes nephew, joined Tjilbruke and his brothers and Tetjawi. Tjilbruke became separated from his nephews as he followed the tracks of an emu and this was against local law, as the emu now belonged to Tjilbruke. Kulultuwi apologised, accepting his apology, Tjilbruke continued on his journey, with Tjilbruke gone, Kulultuwi was slain by his half brothers, on the grounds that Kulultuwi had broken the law by killing Tjilbrukes emu. They bore his body to Warriparinga, where they intended to prepare it for burial, Tjilbruke came looking for Kulultuwi, determining that Kulultuwi had been murdered by his half brothers, killed Jurawi and Tetjawi at the site. Picking up his nephews body, Tjilbruke carried him south to Patparno for burial, where he rested his tears created freshwater springs, after Kulultuwi was buried, Tjilbrukes body turned to iron pyrite as his grief led him to choose to give up life as a man.
With the death of his body, his spirit transformed into a glossy ibis – a motif that is featured in many aspects of Warriparinga today, after the establishment of the City of Adelaide, the land was granted to George Fife Angas in 1839. Named after a ford, Fairford consisted of land and a single-roomed cottage. In 1843 George Angas leased the site to Henry William Trimmer, Trimmer worked the land for many years, eventually purchasing the site from the South Australian Company in 1862 for the sum of £1,118. Under Trimmers custodianship, Fairford was developed to include over 13 acres of vineyards – incorporating Gouais, Black Portugal and Grenache varieties – and various fruit trees. Upon Trimmers death in 1867, the property was passed to Trimmers wife, Eliza Catherine Trimmer, Henry Laffer continued farming the land, although his son, chose to focus more on fruit trees than vineyards and grazing. The Laffer family remained on the property for 112 years, earning it the new name of Laffers Triangle, over the years the property was considered for a number of projects, and parts of the land have been sold to various commercial and government interests.
Projects that did go ahead included a park, a restaurant, call centres, a science park as part of the failed Multifunction Polis project
A creation myth is a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it. While in popular usage the term often refers to false or fanciful stories, formally. Cultures generally regard their creation myths as true, in the society in which it is told, a creation myth is usually regarded as conveying profound truths, metaphorically and sometimes in a historical or literal sense. They are commonly, although not always, considered cosmogonical myths – that is, Creation myths often share a number of features. They often are considered sacred accounts and can be found in all known religious traditions. They are all stories with a plot and characters who are either deities, human-like figures, or animals and they are often set in a dim and nonspecific past that historian of religion Mircea Eliade termed in illo tempore. Creation myths develop in oral traditions and therefore typically have multiple versions, found throughout human culture, Creation myth definitions from modern references, A symbolic narrative of the beginning of the world as understood in a particular tradition and community.
Creation myths are of importance for the valuation of the world, for the orientation of humans in the universe. Creation myths tell us how things began, all cultures have creation myths, they are our primary myths, the first stage in what might be called the psychic life of the species. As cultures, we identify ourselves through the collective dreams we call creation myths, … Creation myths explain in metaphorical terms our sense of who we are in the context of the world, and in so doing they reveal our real priorities, as well as our real prejudices. Our images of creation say a deal about who we are. A philosophical and theological elaboration of the myth of creation within a religious community. Religion professor Mircea Eliade defined the word myth in terms of creation, Myth narrates a history, it relates an event that took place in primordial Time. All creation myths are in one sense etiological because they attempt to explain how the world was formed, in the past historians of religion and other students of myth thought of them as forms of primitive or early-stage science or religion and analyzed them in a literal or logical sense.
However they are seen as symbolic narratives which must be understood in terms of their own cultural context. Charles Long writes, The beings referred to in the myth – gods, the myths should not be understood as attempts to work out a rational explanation of deity. While creation myths are not literal explications they do serve to define an orientation of humanity in the world in terms of a birth story. They are the basis of a worldview that reaffirms and guides how people relate to the world, to any assumed spiritual world
John Dowie (artist)
John Stuart Dowie AM was an Australian painter and teacher. He was born in the suburb of Prospect in Adelaide, South Australia, the painter Penny Dowie is a niece. During World War II, Dowie worked in the Military History Unit of the Australian Imperial Force, as a soldier, he was one of the Rats of Tobruk. After studying art in London and Florence, Dowie returned to Australia and he was nominated for Senior Australian of the Year in 2005, and was made a Member of the Order of Australia in 1981 in recognition of service to the arts as a sculptor and painter. Dowie died on 19 March 2008, aged 93, in an Adelaide nursing home, after having suffered a stroke the week before, john Dowie, A Life in the Round, autobiography ed. Tracey Lock-Weir, Wakefield Press Adelaide ISBN 1-86254-550-2
Rapid Bay, South Australia
Rapid Bay is the name of both a locality including a small seaside town and a small bay on the west coast of the Fleurieu Peninsula, South Australia. It lies within the District Council of Yankalilla and its township is approximately 100 km south of the state capital and it is well known for its limestone quarry and its pair of jetties which are popular sites for recreational fishing, scuba diving and snorkelling. Rapid Bay features in the myths of both the Kaurna and Ramindjeri people, most notably as the burial site of creation ancestor Tjilbrukes nephew. South Australia Colonial Surveyor General Colonel William Light made his first landfall on mainland South Australia at Rapid Bay on 8 September 1836, the site was named after Lights ship, the 162 ton brig Rapid. John Rapid Hoare, the first European child born on mainland South Australia, was delivered at Rapid Bay on 7 November 1836. For a short time Rapid Bay was considered a site for the new state capital. The limestone was used as a flux in the steelworks at Whyalla in South Australia.
On 1 January 1982, ownership of the jetty was transferred to the Government of South Australia from BHP at no cost, the quarry was purchased by Adelaide Brighton Cement. Rapid Bay is known for its cliffs, beach. A resident leafy seadragon population inhabits the bay and weedy seadragons are sometimes seen and it is considered to be one of Australias premiere scuba diving sites, and has been listed featured on SportDiver as one of the worlds top 9 dives. The ecological communities on the jetty pylons are well established and attract large schools of fish including Old Wives, at least 49 species of fish have been recorded in the vicinity of the Rapid Bay jetties. Giant Australian Cuttlefish and Blue-ringed octopus can be found on the sea floor and it is a popular recreational fishing site, though the longer historic jetty is closed to fishermen due to its state of natural decay. The BHP Jetty was originally 490 metres long, with a T section of 200 metres length for ship-loading, the jetty terminated in 9.1 metres of water.
Originally built by BHP and operated by Adelaide Brighton Cement and it suffered storm damage in 2004, after which it was progressively closed in stages for the purpose of ensuring public safety. Above the water, the jetty is slowly decaying and is off-limits to the general public, below the water, the jetty provides habitat for a wide variety of temperate marine species. Since its closure, the structure has become an increasingly valuable roost for seabirds. Construction of a new jetty of 240 metres length located 50 metres east of the BHP jetty was completed in 2009 to replace the public amenity lost by the closure of the BHP jetty. The new jetty has since been colonised by marine life and augments the more established ecological communities on, at the seaward end, a staircase provides safe and easy entry to the water for divers and snorkellers
Cape Jervis (headland)
It is the eastern end of the opening to Gulf St Vincent. The cape is described by one source as being. a high bold headland having and it is intersected by gullies and has several cliffy projections. It was named by Matthew Flinders after John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent on 23 March 1802, since 1871, it has been the site of a navigation aid in the form of a lighthouse. Since 2012, the waters adjoining its shoreline are within the Encounter Marine Park
Gulf St Vincent
Gulf St Vincent is a large inlet of water on the southern coast of Australia, in the state of South Australia. Adelaide, the South Australian capital, lies midway along the gulfs east coast, other towns located on the gulf, from west to east include Edithburgh, Port Vincent and Port Wakefield and Normanville. It was named Gulph of St. Vincent by Matthew Flinders on 30 March 1802, prior to then, it had been known as Golphe Josephine. The Adelaide Desalination Plant which is located on Gulf St Vincents eastern shore in Lonsdale, South Australia, the Gulf teems with crustacea and polychaeta, as well as various species of sea squirts and sea urchins. The benthos is a soft sediment shelf, with species of zosteraceae around the mouth of the Port River, Gulf St Vincent Important Bird Area South Australian State Gazetteer PlaceNames Online Search Friends of Gulf St Vincent Accessed 14 February 2014
Marion, South Australia
Marion is a suburb in the City of Marion in Adelaide around 10 km south-west of the CBD. Founded as a village in 1838 on the banks of the Sturt River, Marion was found to have rich soil. Colonel William Light laid out the plan for the village, as he had done with the City of Adelaide itself. Marion is bordered on the north by Oaklands Road, on the east by Marion Road, on the south by Sturt Road and on the west by a roughly straight line from Finniss Street in the south to The Parade. The township of Marion was laid out by William Light and B. T. Finniss in 1838, stone fruits and grapes were all produced in Marion. Richard Hamilton started the first vineyard in 1838 and his family continues its wine making tradition to this day, by the late 19th century Marion was home to a number of industries such as a mining and brick making. However, the population at time was still very small – around 350 people. Gradually the Adelaide sprawl crept up to Marion. Marion is home to a number of parks and reserves, the large sporting complex off Sturt Road contains ovals and a basketball stadium.
There are parks on Norfolk Road, Tilley Crescent, Nicholas Road, Oakleigh Road, George Street, Marion shares the Oaklands Reserve with Oaklands Park. The City of Marion Swimming Centre is situated adjacent to the suburb of Marion, the Sturt River Linear Park is a trail which follows the Sturt River through the south-western metropolitan area from Marion to Glenelg. The large private school, Westminster, is situated along Alison Avenue near the railway line and it caters to many families in the area for all grades from Reception to Year 12. Marion High School, a school in the area closing in 1996, was situated on York Avenue. The school serviced the youth of the area for forty years until its closure. The area has now been redeveloped primarily for housing, with just the school hall remaining, churches of various denominations are located Marion. The Marion Returned and Services League of Australia Club is located on Norfolk Road, there are two bowling clubs in the suburb of Marion, one on Norfolk Road, near the RSL club and another on Sturt Road adjacent to Sturt Oval.
He was joined at the opening by Marion Mayor Felicity-ann Lewis and Rann had championed the project for some years to enable Olympic standard aquatic sports to occur in South Australia. It is part of the City of Marion, the council offices for the whole city are located in nearby Sturt. Marion is split between the electorates of Elder and Mitchell and is situated in the Federal Division of Boothby
The Pitjantjatjara are an Aboriginal people of the Central Australian desert. They are closely related to the Yankunytjatjara and Ngaanyatjarra and their languages are, to a large extent and they refer to themselves as Anangu. The land is an inseparable and important part of their identity, the name Pitjantjatjara derives from the word pitjantja, a form of the verb go which, combined with the comitative suffix -tjara means something like pitjantja-having. This distinguishes it from its near neighbour Yankunytjatjara which has yankunytja for the same meaning and this naming strategy is the source of the names of Ngaanyatjarra and Ngaatjatjarra but in that case the names contrast the two languages based on their words for this. The two languages Pitjantjatjara and Yankunytjatjara may be grouped together under the name Nyangatjatjara which contrasts them with Ngaanyatjarra and Ngaatjatjarra, the name Pitjantjatjara is usually pronounced with elision of one of the repeated syllables -tja-, pitjantjara.
In more careful speech all syllables will be pronounced, from 1950 onwards, many Anangu were forced to leave their homelands due to British nuclear tests at Maralinga. Some Anangu were subsequently contaminated by the fallout from the atomic tests. Their experience of issues of rights and native title in South Australia has been unique. The Maralinga Tjarutja Land Rights Act,1984 granted freehold title of an area of 80,764 square kilometres to Maralinga Tjarutja, the subsequently named Mamungari Conservation Park) with 21,357.8 km² was transferred to the Maralinga Tjarutja in 2004. Ayers Rock and The Olgas are separated from the Pitjantjatjara Lands by the border between the Northern Territory and South Australia and have become a major tourist attraction and a National Park. The Central Land Council laid claim to the Ayers-Rock-Mount Olga National Park and some adjoining vacant Crown land in 1979, but this claim was challenged by the Northern Territory government. After years of lobbying by the Land Council, on 11 November 1983.
This was implemented in 1985, after further negotiations extended the period from 50 to 99 years. The Arrernte land is land in central Australia. It is controlled by Arrernte Council which in turn is controlled by Central Land Council from Alice Springs, wiltja, a shelter made by the Pitjantjatjara people and other indigenous Australian groups Duguid, Charles. New Revised edition of Pitjantjatjara texts, Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. The People in Between, The Pitjantjatjara People of Ernabella, minyma Tjuta Tjunguringkula Kunpuringanyi, Women Growing Strong Together. Ngaanyatjarra, Yankunytjatjara Womens Council 1980-1990, Growing Up the Country, The Pitjantjatjara struggle for their land
The Ngadjuri people are a group of Indigenous Australians whose traditional lands lie in the mid north of South Australia with a territory extending from Gawler in the south to Orroroo in the north. Although the lands of the Ngadjuri were extensive, their camping and burial grounds are believed to have been at Clare, Macaw Creek. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province, under the act the native inhabitants were assumed to have become British subjects. Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities. In the 1840s and 1850s, one Ngadjuri community was noted to wander in a circuit around Burra, Munjibbie. By the 1870s few of the Ngadjuri remained on their traditional lands, although there were some late attempts to arrest their decline, by the end of the nineteenth century the language group, as it had been, had ceased to exist. Elements of the vocabulary were recorded by Samuel Le Brun, stepson of one of the Canowie Station proprietors R.
Boucher James. Their word for water, cowie or kowi, appears frequently as a suffix within Ngadjuri-based nomenclature of the region, such as Yarcowie, Caltowie, Warcowie. The Ngadjuri used petroglyphs, body art, and other art forms to express their culture, parallel striations are a very familiar theme, but the usual panoply of Australian indigenous art emblems were used. The Ngadjuri practiced formalised burial practices with bodies sometimes smoked or dried before burial, large groups of up to a hundred men would hold mass possum hunts through the timbered hills. Although ceremonies were usually male-only private events, by the 1860s they had begun to commercialise them with the dominant capitalist culture spectators accepted and donations solicited