Toad is a common name for certain frogs of the family Bufonidae, that are characterized by dry, leathery skin, short legs, large bumps covering the parotoid glands. A distinction between frogs and toads is not made in scientific taxonomy, but is common in popular culture, in which toads are associated with drier, rougher skin and more terrestrial habitats. In scientific taxonomy, toads are found in the families Bufonidae, Calyptocephalellidae, Myobatrachidae, Rhinophrynidae and Microhylidae; the largest of the bumps on the skin of a toad are those that cover the parotoid glands. The bumps are called warts, but they have nothing to do with pathologic warts, being fixed in size, present on healthy specimens and not caused by infection. Frogs travel from non-breeding to breeding areas of lakes. Bogert suggests. Toads, like many amphibians, exhibit breeding site fidelity. Individual American toads return to their natal ponds to breed where they are to encounter siblings as potential mates. Although inbred examples within a species is possible, siblings mate.
Toads avoid mating with close kin. Advertisement vocalizations given by males appear to serve as cues. Kin recognition thus allows avoidance of consequent inbreeding depression. In Kenneth Grahame's novel The Wind in the Willows, Mr. Toad is a likeable and popular, if selfish and narcissistic, comic character. Mr. Toad reappears as the lead character in A. A. Milne's play Toad of Toad Hall, based on the book. Mr. Toad's Wild Ride planned as a roller coaster but adapted by Walt Disney as a family-friendly dark ride, is one of the few Disneyland attractions operational since the Anaheim, California park opened in 1955; the ride is based on the film The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad, itself developed from Grahame's novel. A Magic Kingdom version of the ride operated upon Disneyworld in Orlando, when it opened in 1971, but was closed and replaced by The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh in 1998. In Chinese culture, the Money Toad Jin Chan appears as a Feng Shui charm for prosperity. True toad Common toad "Toad".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 26. 1911. P. 1035
Dr. Antonio S. Pedreira, was a Puerto Rican author and educator. Pedreira was born into a well-to-do family in San Juan, his father was a Spaniard, his mother was Puerto Rican. Both died when he was quite young, he was thereafter raised by his godparents in Caguas, he became interested in the art of writing stories as a child during his primary and secondary school years. He attended the University of Puerto Rico after graduating from high school and earned his teachers certificate. In 1920, Pedreira traveled to New York City with the intention of becoming a medical doctor and enrolled in the school of medicine of Columbia University in that city, he was exposed to the realities of racial discrimination, rampant in the city at that time, during his brief stay. This was one of the many factors which influenced Pedreira decision to join the Puerto Rican Nationalist movement while at the same time becoming an open advocate for Puerto Rico's independence, he returned to Puerto Rico. In Puerto Rico, he was granted a scholarship by the government and attended the University of Puerto Rico once again.
In 1925, Pedreira earned a Bachelor of Arts degree. He in 1928 earned a master's degree in Letters. Pedreria moved to Spain to pursue a doctorate in Philosophy and Letters at the Central University of Madrid, which he earned in 1932, he returned to his homeland upon graduation. Pedreira held the position of professor of Spanish literature at both the University of Puerto Rico and Columbia University; the University of Puerto Rico named him Director of the Department of Hispanic Studies. Pedreira believed that Puerto Rico was in danger of losing its cultural identity and expressed his beliefs in a daily column titled "Aclaraciones y críticas", published in El Mundo newspaper, he founded and co-edited a magazine that went by the title "Indice". A handful of scholars have studied the work of Eugenio María de Hostos. In 1934, Pedreira authored his most important book, Insularismo, in which he explores the meaning of being Puerto Rican; this includes an in-depth study of the intertwining of the Spanish and African cultures.
In his book he talks about the cultural survival of the Puerto Rican identity after the island was invaded by the United States. Other works by Pedreira are: Artistas Hostos, ciudadano de América La actualidad del jíbaro El año terrible del 87' Dr. Antonio S. Pedreira died of pneumonia on October 23, 1939 in San Juan. Puerto Rico has honored his memory by naming a main avenue with his name, he was an active member of Phi Eta Mu fraternity, besides that, other associations recognized his importance in the Puerto Rican culture. The best example is that starting in 1940, Phi Sigma Alpha fraternity gave the annual "Premio Antonio S. Pedreira" award to the most outstanding student in Puerto Rican Literature in the University of Puerto Rico. List of Puerto Rican writers List of Puerto Ricans Puerto Rican literature
Gereja Ayam is a "prayer house" referred to as a church in the area of Magelang on the island of Java, Central Java, Indonesia. The structure instead reminds many onlookers of a hen; the building was erected during the 1990s by Daniel Alamsjah, who claimed to have been inspired by God to build a prayer house through a dream he had in 1989. Alamsjah is Christian, but envisioned Gereja Ayam as a place to welcome followers of any religion for prayer or meditation. Due to financial difficulties and local resistance, the construction was never finished; the construction was halted in 2000 and the building has since been left to deteriorate. In spite of this, in recent years the place has become reasonably frequented by tourists, as well as by couples seeking either to take wedding photographs or to be wed in the building. Besides serving in a religious capacity, the building has been used to rehabilitate handicapped children or drug addicts, or as an insane asylum. Following depictions of the site in several films over the past decade, the church has achieved a level of fame and is now a tourist attraction.
The documentary Into the Inferno from 2016 devotes a segment to the church. It argues that the church was intended to have a connection with a local volcano, as the head of the dove points in the direction of the volcano