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Tobacco

Tobacco is the common name of several plants in the Nicotiana genus and the Solanaceae family, the general term for any product prepared from the cured leaves of the tobacco plant. More than 70 species of tobacco are known; the more potent variant N. rustica is used around the world. Tobacco contains the addictive stimulant alkaloid nicotine as well as harmala alkaloids. Dried tobacco leaves are used for smoking in cigarettes and cigars, as well as pipes and shishas, they can be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco and snus. Tobacco use is a risk factor for many diseases. In 2008, the World Health Organization named tobacco use as the world's single greatest preventable cause of death; the English word "tobacco" originates from the Spanish and Portuguese word "tabaco". The precise origin of this word is disputed, but it is thought to have derived at least in part, from Taino, the Arawakan language of the Caribbean. In Taino, it was said to mean either a roll of tobacco leaves or to tabago, a kind of L-shaped pipe used for sniffing tobacco smoke.

However coincidentally, similar words in Spanish and Italian were used from 1410 for certain medicinal herbs. These derived from the Arabic طُبّاق ṭubbāq, a word dating to the 9th century, referring to various herbs. Tobacco has long been used in the Americas, with some cultivation sites in Mexico dating back to 1400–1000 BC. Many Native American tribes traditionally use tobacco. People from the Northeast Woodlands cultures have carried tobacco in pouches as a accepted trade item, it was smoked both and ceremonially, such as to seal a peace treaty or trade agreement. In some Native cultures, tobacco is seen as a gift from the Creator, with the ceremonial tobacco smoke carrying one's thoughts and prayers to the Creator. Following the arrival of the Europeans to the Americas, tobacco became popular as a trade item. Hernández de Boncalo, Spanish chronicler of the Indies, was the first European to bring tobacco seeds to the Old World in 1559 following orders of King Philip II of Spain; these seeds were planted in the outskirts of Toledo, more in an area known as "Los Cigarrales" named after the continuous plagues of cicadas.

Before the development of the lighter Virginia and white burley strains of tobacco, the smoke was too harsh to be inhaled. Small quantities were smoked at a time, using a pipe like the midwakh or kiseru, or newly invented waterpipes such as the bong or the hookah. Tobacco became so popular that the English colony of Jamestown used it as currency and began exporting it as a cash crop; the alleged benefits of tobacco contributed to its success. The astronomer Thomas Harriot, who accompanied Sir Richard Grenville on his 1585 expedition to Roanoke Island, mistakenly explained that the plant "openeth all the pores and passages of the body" so that the natives’ "bodies are notably preserved in health, know not many grievous diseases, wherewithal we in England are times afflicted." Production of tobacco for smoking and snuffing became a major industry in Europe and its colonies by 1700. Tobacco has been a major cash crop in Cuba and in other parts of the Caribbean since the 18th century. Cuban cigars are world-famous.

In the late 19th century, cigarettes became popular. James Bonsack invented a machine to automate cigarette production; this increase in production allowed tremendous growth in the tobacco industry until the health revelations of the late 20th century. Following the scientific revelations of the mid-20th century, tobacco was condemned as a health hazard, became recognized as a cause for cancer, as well as other respiratory and circulatory diseases. In the United States, this led to the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement, which settled the many lawsuits by the U. S. states in exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco products. In the 1970s, Brown & Williamson cross-bred a strain of tobacco to produce Y1, a strain containing an unusually high nicotine content, nearly doubling from 3.2-3.5% to 6.5%. In the 1990s, this prompted the Food and Drug Administration to allege that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes.

In 2003, in response to growth of tobacco use in developing countries, the World Health Organization rallied 168 countries to sign the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The convention is designed to push for effective legislation and enforcement in all countries to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco; the desire of many addicted smokers to quit has led to the development of tobacco cessation products. Many species of tobacco are in the genus of herbs Nicotiana, it is part of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America, south west Africa, the South Pacific. Most nightshades contain varying amounts of a powerful neurotoxin to insects. However, tobaccos tend to contain a much higher concentration of nicotine than the others. Unlike many other Solanaceae species, they do not contain tropane alkaloids, which are poisonous to humans and other animals. Despite containing enough nicotine and other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids (varying between

Mahinārangi Tocker

Mahinārangi Tocker was a singer-songwriter from New Zealand. Tocker wrote more than 600 songs in a 25-year career, her vocal style has been compared to that of Tracy Chapman. She gave lectures around New Zealand about the use of music and creativity to boost learning and self-esteem, was an adult literacy tutor and poet. Tocker was born in Taumarunui and was of Ngāti Raukawa, Ngāti Tūwharetoa, Ngāti Maniapoto and Celtic ancestry, she was an open lesbian. In the 2008 New Year Honours, Tocker was appointed a Member of the New Zealand Order of Merit for services to music. Tocker died on 15 April 2008 in Auckland's North Shore hospital following a severe asthma attack, she was 52. Albums 1985 Clothesline Conversation 1987 I'm Going Home 1996 Mahinarangi 1997 Te Ripo 2002 Hei Ha! 2002 Touring 2005 The Mongrel in Me

Jean-Baptiste Thibault

Jean-Baptiste Thibault was a Roman Catholic priest and missionary noted for his role in negotiating on behalf of the Government of Canada during the Red River Rebellion of 1869–1870. He established the first Roman Catholic mission in what would become Alberta, at Lac Sainte Anne in 1842. Thibault was born at Saint-Joseph-de-la-Pointe-de-Lévy 14 December 1810, studied at the seminary of Quebec, he set out for the Northwest and arrived at Saint-Boniface in June 1833, began to study the Cree and Chippewa languages. The following September, he was ordained by Bishop Provencher, vicar general of the Northwest for the Archdiocese of Quebec. Thibault made his first missionary journey in 1842, riding horseback across the plains as far as the Hudson's Bay Company's Edmonton House, he performed an acquired a greater knowledge of the area. For the next ten years, he visited HBC outposts, met with the Indians and Metis. In 1852, he returned to Saint-Boniface. In 1844, he founded the Lac Ste. Anne mission in Alberta.

Thibault renamed the lake called "Devil's Lake" in honor of Saint Anne. In 1845 he was made Vicar-General of the Apostolic Vicariate of James Bay. In 1846, Thibault furthered his missionary work in travelling to the northern trading post of Île-à-la-Crosse where he noted that the Métis peoples could be converted to the Catholic faith. After petitioning the Bishop, Joseph-Norbert Provencher, gaining the approval of the governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, George Simpson, Thibault was able to arrange for two priests from the superior Oblates of Canada to be sent to build a mission; this mission would be named as the Saint-Jean-Baptiste mission and was in operation from 1845-1898. Thibault was in Quebec in 1869; as he was respected by the Metis, the government asked him to accompany a group heading to the Red River Colony to negotiate a union with Canada. "A reserved and prudent man, Thibault was content to remain in the background" during the mission. Works by or about Jean-Baptiste Thibault at Internet Archive Dorge, Lionel.

"Thibault, Jean-Baptiste". In Hayne, David. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. X. University of Toronto Press