Kraft Foods Inc.
Kraft Foods Inc. was an American multinational confectionery and beverage conglomerate. It marketed many brands in more than 170 countries,12 of its brands annually earned more than $1 billion worldwide, Jacobs, Kraft, LU, Maxwell House, Nabisco, Oscar Mayer, Trident, Tang. Forty of its brands are at least a century old, the company was headquartered in Northfield, Illinois, a Chicago suburb. Its European headquarters was in Glattpark, Switzerland, near Zürich, Kraft was listed on the New York Stock Exchange and became a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average on September 22,2008, replacing the American International Group. In August 2011, the announced plans to split into a North American grocery business. The snack company, Mondelēz International Inc. is recognized as Kraft Foods legal successor, while the company was named Kraft Foods. Kraft Foods traced its roots to the National Dairy Products Corporation, formed on December 10,1923, the firm was initially set up to execute on a rollup strategy in the fragmented United States ice cream industry.
Through acquisitions it expanded into a range of dairy products. By 1930 it was the largest dairy company in the United States, McInnerney operated the Hydrox Corporation, an ice cream company located in Chicago, Illinois. In 1923 he went to Wall Street to convince investment bankers there to finance his scheme for consolidating the United States ice cream industry and he initially found hard sledding with one banker saying the dairy industry lacked dignity. He persevered and convinced a consortium including Goldman Sachs and Lehman Brothers to finance a roll-up strategy, as a result of his efforts, National Dairy Products Corporation was formed in 1923 in a merger of McInnerneys Hydrox with Rieck McJunkin Dairy Co of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The resulting firm was listed on the New York Stock Exchange with the offer of 125,000 shares having been oversubscribed. The firm grew quickly through a number of acquisitions. As it is typical in a strategy, acquisitions were primarily for stock in National rather than cash.
However, the business took hold and Kraft was joined by his four brothers to form J. L. Kraft, as early as 1911, circulars and advertisements were in use by the company. In 1912, the company established its New York City, New York, by 1914, thirty-one varieties of cheeses were being sold around the U. S. because of heavy product development, expansion by marketing, and opening a wholly owned cheese factory in Illinois. In 1915, the company had invented pasteurized processed cheese that did not need refrigeration, the process was patented in 1916 and about six million pounds of the product were sold to the U. S. Army for military rations during World War I. In 1916, the company began advertising and had made its first acquisition—a Canadian cheese company
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia. It is located in the northwest of the country, along the Sava river, Zagreb lies at an elevation of approximately 122 m above sea level. In the last official census of 2011 the population of the City of Zagreb was 792,875, the wider Zagreb metropolitan area includes the City of Zagreb and the separate Zagreb County bringing the total metropolitan area population up to 1,237,887. It is the biggest metropolitan area in Croatia, and the one with a population of over one million. Zagreb is a city with a history dating from the Roman times to the present day. The oldest settlement located in the vicinity of the city was the Roman Andautonia, the name Zagreb is recorded in 1134, in reference to the foundation of the settlement at Kaptol in 1094. Zagreb became a royal town in 1242. In 1851 Zagreb had its first mayor, Janko Kamauf, and in 1945 it was made the capital of Croatia when the demographic boom, the city extends over 30 kilometres east-west and around 20 kilometres north-south.
The transport connections, concentration of industry and research institutions, Zagreb is the seat of the central government, administrative bodies, and almost all government ministries. Almost all of the largest Croatian companies and scientific institutions have their headquarters in the city and it is a city known for its diverse economy, high quality of living, museums and entertainment events. Its main branches of economy are high-tech industries and the service sector, the etymology of the name Zagreb is unclear. It was used of the city only from 1852, but it had been in use as the name of the Zagreb dioecese since the 12th century. The name is first recorded in a charter by Ostrogon archbishop Felician, dated 1134, the older form of the name is Zagrab, the modern Croatian form Zagreb is first recorded in a 1689 map by Nicolas Sanson. An even older form is reflected in Hungarian Zabrag, for this, Desy proposes the etymology of Chabrag, a well-attested hypocorism of the name Cyprian. The same form is reflected in a number of Hungarian toponyms, the name Agram was used in German in the Habsburg period, this name has been classified as probably of Roman origin but according to Desy it could be an Austrian German reanalysis of *Zugram.
In Middle Latin and Modern Latin, Zagreb is known as Agranum, in Croatian folk etymology, the name of the city has been derived from either the verb za-grab-, meaning to scoop or to dig. One folk legend illustrating this derivation ties the name to a drought of the early 14th century, in another legend, a city governor is thirsty and orders a girl named Manda to scoop water from Manduševac well, using the imperative, Mando. The oldest settlement located near todays Zagreb was a Roman town of Andautonia, now Šćitarjevo and Kaptol were united in 1851 by ban Josip Jelačić, who was credited for this, with the naming the main city square, Ban Jelačić Square in his honour
Volkswagen Type 2
Following – and initially deriving from Volkswagens first model, the Type 1 – it was given the factory designation Type 2. European competition included the 1947-1981 Citroën H Van, the 1959-1980 Renault Estafette, japanese manufacturers introduced similar vehicles, such as the Nissan Caravan, Toyota LiteAce and Subaru Sambar. Brazil contained the last factory in the world that produced the T2, production in Brazil ceased on December 31,2013, due to the introduction of more stringent safety regulations in the country. This marks the end of an era with the rear-engine Volkswagens manufactured, the concept for the Type 2 is credited to Dutch Volkswagen importer Ben Pon. He first sketched the van in a doodle dated April 23,1947, proposing a payload of 690 kg, production would have to wait, however, as the factory was at capacity producing the Type 1. When capacity freed up, a prototype known internally as the Type 29 was produced in a three months. The stock Type 1 pan proved to be too weak so the prototype used a chassis with unit body construction.
Coincidentally the wheelbase was the same as the Type 1s, engineers reused the reduction gear from the Type 81, enabling the 1.5 ton van to use a 25 hp flat four engine. Although the aerodynamics of the first prototypes were poor, engineers used the tunnel at the Technical University of Braunschweig to optimize the design. Simple changes such as splitting the windshield and roofline into a vee helped the production Type 2 achieve Cd=0.44, only two models were offered, the Kombi, and the Commercial. The Microbus was added in May 1950, joined by the Deluxe Microbus in June 1951, in all 9,541 Type 2s were produced in their first year of production. An ambulance model was added in December 1951 which repositioned the fuel tank in front of the transaxle, put the spare tire behind the front seat and these features became standard on the Type 2 from 1955 to 1967. 11,805 Type 2s were built in the 1951 model year and these were joined by a single-cab pickup in August 1952, and it changed the least of the Type 2s until all were heavily modified in 1968.
However, only generations T1 to T3 can be seen as related to the Beetle. The Type 2, along with the 1947 Citroën H Van, are among the first forward control vans in which the driver was placed above the front roadwheels. They started a trend in Europe, where the 1952 GM Bedford CA,1958 RAF-977,1959 Renault Estafette,1960 BMC Morris J4, except for the Greenbrier and various 1950s–70s Fiat minivans, the Type 2 remained unique in being rear-engined. The Type 2 was available as a, Panel van, a van without side windows or rear seats. Double-door Panel Van, a van without side windows or rear seats
Chocolat Frey AG, based in Buchs in the Swiss Canton of Aargau, manufactures chocolate and chewing gum. The products of the chocolate manufacturer on the Swiss chocolate market are sold both in Switzerland and abroad under the brand name of Frey as well as additional private labels. The company, founded in 1887, is a business entreprise of the M-Industry and has been a part of the Migros Group since 1950, Frey was founded in 1887 by the brothers Robert and Max Frey. Both had already gained experience with the manufacture of chocolate before establishing the family business, Max completed his commercial apprenticeship with the company Cramer-Frey in Zurich, for which he was eventually active in Brazil. On 17 December 1887, they founded the general partnership R. & M. Frey in Aarau, the development of the conche in 1879 advanced the industrial production of chocolate greatly. Robert was already familiar with this technique and he was able to integrate it in his company, from the very beginning production was carried out by electric machines.
In 1906 the firm decided to become a public company, from on they manufactured chocolate bars and chocolate powder, but soups and tonics. However, the latter were removed from the range of to focus on the manufacture of chocolate. During the First World War the company benefited from Switzerland’s neutral position, open customs facilitated the export of chocolate. However, the procurement of raw materials such as cocoa proved to be more difficult. As a result of good sales prices abroad, business interruptions could be prevented, through export, turnover could even be almost doubled, from 882,000 Swiss francs to CHF1,465,000. Back the chocolate was available in Germany and Sweden, with the end of the war exports slumped severely. Germany and France were too preoccupied with the reconstruction and were no longer trading partners and this forced the company to downgrade sales to the domestic market. At the beginning of the 1920s, the company teetered on the brink of collapse, production stood still for days at a time.
It was not until the economy recovered around the mid-1920s, that the Board of Directors took heart to develop the market again. However, this failed due to the global economic crisis. During these years Robert Frey junior gradually took over the company management and his father had already familiarised him with the company early on. This way he was able to ensure that the company remained family-owned
Manchester is a major city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, with a population of 514,414 as of 2013. It lies within the United Kingdoms second-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.55 million, Manchester is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority is Manchester City Council and it was historically a part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated during the 20th century. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a township but began to expand at an astonishing rate around the turn of the 19th century. Manchesters unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and its fortunes declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation.
The city centre was devastated in a bombing in 1996, but it led to extensive investment, in 2014, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city, the highest-ranked British city apart from London. Manchester is the third-most visited city in the UK and it is notable for its architecture, musical exports, media links and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the worlds first inter-city passenger railway station and in the city scientists first split the atom, the name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians. These are generally thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, both meanings are preserved in languages derived from Common Brittonic, mam meaning breast in Irish and mother in Welsh. The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English ceaster and their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Salford and Stretford.
Central Manchester has been settled since this time. A stabilised fragment of foundations of the version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield. After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell, much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North. Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor and constructed a church for the parish in 1421. The church is now Manchester Cathedral, the premises of the college house Chethams School of Music. The library, which opened in 1653 and is open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom. Manchester is mentioned as having a market in 1282, around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the regions textile industry
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
In most of the English-speaking world, chocolate bar refers to a typically snack-sized bar coated with or substantially consisting of chocolate but containing other ingredients. A chocolate bar made exclusively from chocolate contains some or all of the components, cocoa solids, cocoa butter, sugar. The relative presence or absence of these define the subclasses of chocolate bar made of chocolate, milk chocolate. In addition to main ingredients a chocolate bar may contain flavorings such as vanilla. While vanilla is the most common flavouring, many other flavours are available, including mint, Chocolate bars containing other ingredients feature a wide variety of layerings or mixtures that include nuts, caramel and fondant. A popular example is a Snickers bar, which consists of a nougat mixed with caramel, Chocolate bars are often loosely called candy bars in American English, a term that encompasses similar treats produced without chocolate, such as the Zagnut and Bit-o-Honey bars. A wide selection of similar chocolate treats are produced with added sources of protein and these include energy bars, protein bars and granola bars sold as snacks and/or nutritional supplements.
Up to and including the 19th century, confectionery of all sorts was typically sold in pieces to be bagged. The introduction of chocolate as something that could be eaten as is, rather used to make beverages or desserts, resulted in the earliest bar forms. At some point, chocolates came to mean any chocolate-covered sweets, whether nuts, caramel candies and it was considerably cheaper to buy candy loose, or in bulk. In 1847, Joseph Fry found a way to mix the ingredients of cocoa powder, subsequently, his chocolate factory, known as the Frys chocolate factory and located in Bristol, began mass-producing chocolate bars and they became very popular. The firm began producing the Frys Chocolate Cream bar in 1866, over 220 products were introduced in the following decades, including production of the first chocolate Easter egg in UK in 1873 and the Frys Turkish Delight in 1914. In 1896, the became a registered private company and was run by the Fry family, with Joseph Storrs Fry II, grandson of the first Joseph Storrs Fry.
Although chocolate bars had their beginnings in the 19th century, their sales grew most rapidly in the early-20th century. In North America, Ganong Bros. Ltd. of St. Stephen, New Brunswick, the Hershey Chocolate Company took the lead in the U. S. The worlds largest chocolate bar was produced as a stunt by Thorntons plc on 7 October 2011 and it weighed 5,792.50 kg and measured 4m by 4m by 0. 35m. A very old preserved chocolate bar is two pieces of white and dark chocolate made between 1764 and 1795 for the king of Poland, Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, as a gift for his courtiers. Each bar, possibly made by the royal confectioner in Warsaw, bears the Kings monogram, SAR, energy bar Granola bar List of chocolate bar brands List of chocolate-covered foods United States military chocolate History of Candy Bar Wrappers, Dave
Wilmslow Road is a major road in Manchester, running from Parrs Wood northwards to Rusholme. There it becomes Oxford Road and the changes again to Oxford Street when it crosses the River Medlock. The road runs through the centres of Didsbury and Fallowfield, including the student residential campus of Owens Park. Oxford Road passes through the University of Manchester campus and the All Saints campus of the Manchester Metropolitan University, several hospitals including the Christie Hospital and Manchester Royal Infirmary have been built along the road. It features parks and gardens such as Fletcher Moss Gardens, Platt Fields. The road is part of a major bus corridor with bus movements of one a minute at peak times and is a key centre for business, culture. Wilmslow Road was designated the A34 until 1967, many sections of the route have been re-designated when motorways and bypasses took the A34 away from its original route and they took names such as the A3400 and A44. The ancient route goes via Cheadle, Cheadle Hulme, Congleton, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Birmingham, Stratford-upon-Avon, Oxford Road and Oxford Street are the continuation of Wilmslow Road into the centre of Manchester.
Wilmslow Road starts at the junction with Hathersage Road 53°27′33″N 2°13′39″W and it crosses the River Mersey over the Cheadle Bridge into Cheadle. Its route is called Manchester Road for a short time, Oxford Street and a section of Oxford Road together form part of the A34. The B5117 consists of part of Oxford Road and part of Wilmslow Road, though a continuous thoroughfare, part of Wilmslow Road contains part of the A6010, the whole of the B5093, part of the A5145 and the whole of the B5095. In 1755 the Trust built the first stone bridge over the Mersey and this collapsed in 1756 and was rebuilt in 1758. The bridge was replaced in 1780 and again in 1861, the improved transport links spurred the development of villages such as Rusholme and Withington along the route. These villages eventually merged and became part of the city of Manchester, Chorlton-on-Medlock, the district nearest the town centre, was developed as a residential suburb in 1793–94 by the three landowners. Most of the important streets were given names, Oxford Street, Cambridge Street.
Over the next fifty years residential development spread southwards as far as High Street, the very few remaining dwellings of that period include Waterloo Place,323,325,327 and 333 Oxford Road and Grove House. In 1861 the Turnpike Trust was threatened with abolition but survived by offering to build Palatine Road from Withington to West Didsbury, All turnpike trusts in the United Kingdom were abolished in 1881. Until some time in the 1880s all of Oxford Road and Oxford Street was called Oxford Street, the present street and road with different series of house numbers were introduced so that Oxford Street ended at the old township border of the River Medlock
Poundland is a British variety store chain founded in 1990 that sells most items in its stores for £1, stocking over 3,000 products and employing 18,000 staff. Like many of its rivals, Poundland operate a constantly rotating product line, including brand name and it was soon followed by other stores, most notably on The High Street, Meadowhall. By the end of the first year, Poundland was operating from several stores and had turned over £1million, growth continued throughout the early 1990s, with six stores by December 1991 and a further seven a year later. In 1995, Smith failed to plan for more warehouse space, in response to unacceptably high stock theft, a new 130, 000-square-foot warehouse was built, although at a cost of heavy profit losses, from £850,000 in 1994 to £400,000 in 1995. The retailer managed to resolve their operational difficulties throughout 1996 when their new office in Hong Kong opened to support product sourcing and operations in the UK. Following a management buy-out in 2002 by Advent International for £50m, Poundland reported strong sales in a time of economic crisis, with 2008–2009 revenue just short of £400m, up from £330m for 2007–2008.
Despite this, Poundland was not totally immune to the recession, having been forced to close stores not financially viable. Such was the case with their store in West Ealing, where it is believed high rental costs were one of the reasons why the company pulled out of the area. The retailer had a good start into 2010 when they announced they had seen a surge in sales by nearly 35% over the 2009–2010 festive period. In early 2010, Poundlands then-owners Advent International were planning on cashing in on the resurgence in value retailers by preparing to put the chain up for sale. On Tuesday 4 May 2010, it was announced that Poundland had been sold to US private equity firm Warburg Pincus for £200 million and was the subject of an Initial Public Offering in March 2014, Poundlands shareholders approved the takeover in September 2016. The business has converted the 99p Stores under the Poundland brand, for much of its history, Poundland promoted their sales strategy through the slogan, Everythings £1.
The retailer is able to dismiss concerns whenever the pound becomes weak, as this means shipping and freight costs reduce, Poundland offer a range of approximately 3500 products, of which 1000 are branded products with the majority being food and drink. Stock typically is categorised as either ongoing core lines, seasonal ranges or clearance stock, as well as their in-house brand line, the retailer sells many products from other familiar brands, such as Colgate and Cadburys. Whilst some Pep and Co outlets would share space with larger Poundland outlets. It was reported in March 2017 that around 85% of the country has at some point shopped in a Poundland store, some consolidation has since taken place in 2015 with the acquisition of 99p Stores, its closest competitor in the sector at the time. Other larger chains have felt the impact of discount retailers, with some budget-conscious customers switching from traditional larger supermarket retailers for everyday necessities. Asda announced in January 2009 that many branded products such as Colgate toothpaste has reduced to £1