click links in text for more info


A toboggan is a simple sled, a traditional form of transport used by the Innu and Cree of northern Canada. In modern times, it is used on snow to carry one or more people down a hill or other slope for recreation. Designs vary from traditional models to modern engineered composites. A toboggan differs from sleighs in that it has no runners or skis on the underside; the bottom of a toboggan rides directly on the snow. Some parks include designated toboggan hills where ordinary sleds are not allowed and which may include toboggan runs similar to bobsleigh courses. Toboggans can vary depending on the geographical region; such examples are Tangalooma where toboggans are made from Masonite boards and used for travelling down steep sand dunes at speeds up to 40 km/h. The traditional toboggan is made of bound, parallel wood slats, all bent up and backwards at the front to form a recumbent'J' shape. A thin rope is run across the edge of end of the curved front to provide rudimentary steering; the frontmost rider sits on the flat bed.

Modern recreational toboggans are manufactured from wood or plastic or aluminum. Larger, more rugged models are made for commercial or rescue use; the Mountaineer method is the only one adapted for the interior parts of the country: their sleds are made of two thin boards of birch. Each individual, able to walk, is furnished with one of these. On them they stow all their goods, their infants; the two ends of a leather thong are tied to the corners of the sled. The men go first; the toboggan is a recurring prop in the Hobbes comic. Comic author Bill Watterson uses it as "a simple device to add some physical comedy to the strip, most use it when Calvin gets longwinded or philosophical."In the film Home Alone, eight-year-old Kevin McCallister rides a toboggan down the stairs after his family "disappears". Bobsled Luge Pulk, a Scandinavian low, flat load-carrying sled. Skeleton Sled Toboggan Bum slider "Toboggan". New International Encyclopedia. 1905

Adán Zapata

Adán Zapata Mireles or Adán Zapata was a Mexican singer within the genre of Hip-Hop / Rap. He was lived in the colony Mexico Lindo in San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo Leon. From 2006 he belonged to the group called Mente En Blanco where he was lead vocalist and was the one that raised the group, until his murder in the colony "Los Morales" San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo Leon on June 1, 2012 At the age of 21 by an armed command of organized crime together with 3 other young members of the same group "Blank Mind", two of them were children of a former secretary of public security. Adán Zapata was assassinated on June 1, 2012 in the work of organized crime, he was in a van with 3 other members of the Blank Mind: Iván de Jesús Serna González, 25, known as DJ Esus, brothers Diego Salvatore and Hector Daniel Almaraz Huerta, aged 20 and 19 respectively. The latter were children of the former Secretary of Public Security of the municipality of Guadalupe José Santos Almaraz. 2006 Anticuados 2007 Zapata Producciones 2010 Borrachos y Grifos 2011 The North Side Kings 2012 Soy de Barrio List of murdered hip hop musicians

Pangako Sa 'Yo (season 1)

The first season of Pangako Sa'Yo, a Philippine romantic melodrama television series, a remake of the 2000 television series of the same title on ABS-CBN, premiered on May 25, 2015 on ABS-CBN's Primetime Bida evening block and worldwide on The Filipino Channel and concluded on November 13, 2015, with a total of 125 episodes. Directed by Rory Quintos, Dado Lumibao, Olivia Lamasan, the series stars Kathryn Bernardo and Daniel Padilla as Yna Macaspac and Angelo Buenavista, together with an ensemble cast consisting of Jodi Sta. Maria, Angelica Panganiban, Ian Veneracion, Amy Austria-Ventura, Ronnie Lazaro, Andrea Brillantes, Diego Loyzaga, Dominic Roque, Bernard Palanca, Joem Bascon. Jodi Sta. Maria, who portrays Amor Powers, was part of the original 2000 television series and played Lia Buenavista; the story begins with a nursing student whose dream was to become a chef. She was a scholar of Buena Mines, a mining company owned by the Buenavista family, in the town of Punta Verde. To aid her family with expenses, she sells food to generate income.

She sells her food at the Buena Mines corporate offices, where Eduardo, the eldest Buenavista son, works. Amor confronts Eduardo regarding the mining of her hometown that kills workers and is afraid that more people, including her father, would be casualties. Amor and Eduardo develop a friendship that turns into romance, much to his younger brother, Diego's, despair. Meanwhile, Doña Benita Buenavista refuses to accept Eduardo's relationship, she forces Eduardo to marry Claudia Salameda, the illegitimate child of the incumbent governor of Punta Verde for business purposes. Claudia has lived with her physically impaired mother and was joyous of having to marry Eduardo for a better life though she is in love with Simon, she promises Simon. Eduardo refuses to marry Claudia, Diego puts himself forward to marry Claudia instead for the family. Claudia becomes upset and consummates her love with Simon — Eduardo consummates with Amor. After publicly announcing the engagement of Eduardo and Claudia without knowledge and consent, Amor becomes heartbroken.

Diego rushes to her side. He visits her to explain that his brother was not at fault. One day, he insists that he just wants to comfort her, he admits that he has always been in love with her and rapes her. Meanwhile, Claudia has witnessed the entire scene, not stopping Diego. Diego is influenced by his mother not to tell Eduardo the truth. Desperate not to be jailed, Diego insists he did not rape her. Amor goes to Eduardo against her father, Pepe's, best friend, Betty Mae's, wishes, she asks him. Eduardo, hurt by his previous relationship, could not make up his mind. However, during his engagement party, he realized that he could not leave Amor and rushes to her house to beg her to forgive him only to find out that he was to late; the de Jesus family no longer lived there, unknown to him that his mother, Doña Benita, evicted Amor and her family from the town. Amor learns, she lives a quiet life with her daughter named Maria Amor. She leaves Maria Amor to her stepmother, Pepe, stepbrother Lester, younger sister Neneth, goes to Hong Kong as a caregiver to fulfill her dream of giving her family a stable life.

The Buenavistas' mining company, now managed by Claudia Buenavista, has been mining in Talimpao, the town where Amor's family now resides. Claudia refuses to listen to the warnings of dangers of the mine and forces the miners to work — causing a landslide to occur; the landslide kills Amor's entire family — except her daughter, Maria Amor, saved by a lowly policeman, Francisco Macaspac. She is named "Yna" by the policeman, after noticing the broken necklace she wore — "Yna" "Ynamorata", a gift of promise from Eduardo to Amor. Maria Amor was misidentified by Betty Mae when she saw the dead bodies of Amor's stepmother and her neighbor, Irma's, daughter, she tells Amor. Amor returns to the Philippines and to the now-ruined Talimpao, swearing that one day she will avenge all that has happened to her family. Twenty years Maria Amor — now Yna Macaspac, is as kindhearted and hard working as her biological mother, Amor; the Macaspac family that adopted her is good mannered. Eduardo, now the governor of Punta Verde, Claudia have two children: Angelo and Lia.

Fate brings Yna to Angelo. Just like her mother, Yna's passion is cooking, she works a chef in Casa Corazon. Angelo's restaurant gives Yna scholarship to properly study. Soon Angelo and Yna fall in love — and despite Claudia's attempts to ruin and sabotage Yna — fights for their love together. Meanwhile, Amor returns to the Philippines from the United States as Amor Powers, a widow of a wealthy but abusive American businessman named James Powers. Amor has returned to avenge the death of her family by destroying the Buenavistas, which unwittingly will hurt her own daughter, Yna, in the process. An all-out war begins between Claudia Buenavista. Kathryn Bernardo as Yna Macaspac / Maria Amor de Jesus Daniel Padilla as Angelo Buenavista Jodi Sta. Maria as Amor de Jesus-Powers Angelica Panganiban as Madam Claudia Salameda-Buenavista Ian Veneracion as Eduardo Buenavista Official website

Panasonic Lumix DMC-G2

The Panasonic Lumix DMC-G2 is a digital mirrorless interchangeable lens camera adhering to the Olympus and Panasonic developed Micro Four Thirds System system design standard. Introduced as successor to the Panasonic Lumix DMC-G1, the G2 included 720p HD video capability using both AVCHD Lite and Motion JPEG recording formats; the G2 has a resistive touchscreen to control many camera functions including easy selection of a focus point within the live view frame. The touchscreen interface allows control duplicating the numerous dials and buttons on the G2; the G2 shipped with a new Panasonic 14–42 mm kit zoom lens, a lighter, less expensive, version of the original Panasonic 14–45 mm kit zoom sold that shipped with the Panasonic G1. The G2 was announced at the March 2010 along with a lesser featured Panasonic Lumix DMC-G10; the United States MSRP with 14–42 mm kit zoom lens was US$800.00. Available colors were black and blue; the Micro Four Thirds system design standard was jointly announced in 2008 by Olympus and Panasonic, as a further evolution of the named predecessor Four Thirds System pioneered by Olympus.

The Micro Four Thirds system standard uses the same sized sensor as the original Four Thirds system. One potential advantage of the smaller MFT system sensor is smaller and lighter lenses; the smaller MFT sensor with reduced image circle allows the development of smaller and lighter native lenses. The MFT sensor has a crop factor of 2.0 when compared to 35mm film equivalent full frame sensors. By comparison, the more popular consumer DSLRs such as those made by Canon and Sony have 1.5 to 1.6 crop factor APS-C sensors, which means larger and heavier lens designs. For example, a typical Olympus MFT M. Zuiko 14-42mm f/3.5-5.6 kit lens weighs 112g, is 56mm in diameter and 50mm in length. The equivalent Canon APS-C DSLR EF-S 18-55mm f3.5–5.6 kit lens weighs 190g, is 69mm in diameter and 80mm in lengthWhile the older Four Thirds system design standard allowed the incorporation of a single lens reflex camera design including a mirror box and pentaprism based optical viewfinder system, the MFT system design standard sought to pursue a technically different camera, slimmed down the key physical specifications which eliminated the ability to include the traditional complex optical path and the bulky mirror box needed for a SLR optical viewfinder.

Instead, MFT uses either a built-in or optional compact electronic viewfinder and/or LCD back panel displaying a Live view from the main image sensor. Use of an EVF/back panel LCD and smaller four thirds image sensor format and allows for smaller and lighter camera bodies and lenses; the MFT system standard specifically includes seamless switching between still photography and HD video recording as a design criterion. MFT cameras are physically slimmer than most interchangeable lens cameras because the standard specifies a much reduced lens mount flange to imaging sensor plane distance of just 20mm; this so-called flange focal distance is over 40mm on most interchangeable lens cameras. The MFT system design flange focal length distance allows for, through use of an adapter, the possibility to mount any manufacturer's existing and legacy still camera interchangeable lens to an MFT body, albeit using manual focus and manual aperture control. For example, many theoretically obsolete 35mm film camera lenses, as well as existing current lenses for APS-C and full frame DSLR's are now usable on MFT cameras.

As an example, an older, but still high quality, 50mm f/1.8 "standard" lens from a 35mm film camera can be used on a MFT camera body. With MFT sensors having a crop factor of 2.0, the old 50mm f/1.8 "standard" lens becomes a high-speed 100mm f/1.8 telephoto portrait lens. So the MFT system allows the re-use of expensive lenses that may have outlived their 35mm film format camera, can be used on a modern digital camera body capable of both still and HD video recording; the MFT system design allows current DSLR lenses to be used as well, although only with manual focus and aperture control. Upon introduction in March 2010, the Panasonic Lumix DMC-G2 was marketed as the world's first interchangeable lens camera with an articulated, touch control LCD. Added was 720p HD video and a redesigned physical user interface, changing placement of dials and button controllers, an electronic viewfinder. Notably, the G2 was not capable of full 1080p HD video as was the top-of-the-line Panasonic GH1; the ability to choose the focus point by touching the desired area on the screen was implemented in all Panasonic MFT cameras introduced after the G2.

Other manufacturers such as Sony with its new NEX family of cameras, Olympus in its PEN E-P3 MFT camera incorporated use of the touch screen feature for camera controls. The "new" 14-42mm kit zoom lens was less expensive than the original optical image stabilized 14-45mm f/3.5-5.6 kit zoom lens that came with the G1. The 14-42mm kit lens is lighter, but longer than the original 14-45mm kit lens, features a plastic, rather than metal lens mount, omits on-off switch for the in lens optical image stabilization system. However, the 14-42mm optical image stabilization system on-off could be controlled through camera menus. Many enthusiasts regard the 14-42mm kit lens as a step down in both optical image quality and build quality from the original 14-45mm kit lens; the camera was available in three colors — black and blue. MSRP in the United States for the body and 14-42mm kit z

Yukon Striker

Yukon Striker is a steel roller coaster located at Canada's Wonderland in Vaughan, Ontario. Designed as a dive coaster from manufacturer Bolliger & Mabillard, the ride opened to the general public on 3 May 2019 in place of SkyRider, a roller coaster, removed from the park in 2014. Featuring a height of 68 metres, a length of 1,105 metres, a maximum speed of 130 km/h, Yukon Striker is the world's tallest and fastest Dive Coaster, sharing its height record with Valravn at Cedar Point, its four inversions and drop length of 75 metres set world records among Dive Coaster models. Following the park's removal of SkyRider in 2014, Canada's Wonderland began preparations for a new ride; the park requested a geotechnical investigation of the area, extracting soil samples to assess building a roller coaster's concrete foundation. On 19 December 2017, Canada's Wonderland filed an application for a permit to build nine support footers on the water and amend the waterway with a tunnel traveling under the pond within the park.

A permit was required from the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority, as parts of the ride, the pond beneath it, fall within the Don River watershed. The application was approved by the TRCA on 9 January 2018, with construction on the ride's foundations beginning that month; the diversionary channel was built under the pond in order to facilitate the creation of the underwater tunnel, as well as prevent silt runoff downstream. Construction for the diversionary channel, as well as the ride's underwater tunnel, required the temporary removal of two track pieces and a few supports belonging to Vortex, a roller coaster adjacent to Yukon Striker. Work on the tunnel was completed before the park opened for 2018, with the installation of four track pieces and two water pumps to pump rainwater out of the tunnel. With the tunnel completed, the removed pieces from Vortex were reinstalled, allowing for Vortex to be operational by the time the park reopened for the 2018 season. In July 2018, following continuous construction during the operating season, the park began teasing a planned announcement scheduled the following month.

On 15 August 2018, the roller coaster was introduced. Additional renderings and details about the ride were revealed. Construction for the roller coaster was completed on 4 February 2019, with the installation of the last track piece onto the 360-loop. Installation of the ride train, landscaping of the surrounding area began after construction was completed. On 24 April 2019, seventy-two people who helped raise funds for The Hospital for Sick Children were invited to test ride Yukon Striker. In the days that followed, members of the media from Ontario, neighbouring Buffalo, New York, were invited to ride Yukon Striker; the ride was opened to the general public on 3 May 2019, during the park's opening day for the 2019 season. The ride was designed by Bolliger & Mabillard, with the Canadian construction firm, E. S. Fox, contracted to build the ride. Secant Engineers, a local structural engineering firm, was contracted to design the ride's tunnel, as well as the ride's foundations, it is the first Dive Coaster to be built in the park.

The steel track is 1,105 metres long and the lift is 68 metres high. The track is made up of 107 individual orange-coloured steel track pieces, the total of which weights 1,213 metric tonnes. There are 42 support columns used to support the ride; the steel used to build the roller coaster originated from Clermont Steel Fabricators in Batavia, Ohio. After departing the station, the train turns 180 degrees to the right and ascends 68 metres up the lift hill, traveling at an angle of 47 degrees, it turns 90 degrees to the right, halting at the 90-degree drop, where a portion of the train hangs over. After pausing for three seconds, riders plunge 75 metres through the middle of Vortex's turnaround and into an underwater tunnel, reaching a top speed of 130 km/h. After exiting the tunnel, the train rises into the world's largest Immelmann loop; the Immelmann loop itself is 57 metres above the floor of the tunnel, 45 metres above the exit of the tunnel, 50 metres above the water Vortex sits on. Following the Immelmann loop, the train enters a zero-g roll.

This is followed by a complete 360-degree vertical loop, a first for a Dive Coaster and a second Immelmann loop before reaching the mid-course brake run. The train dives down another steep drop into an airtime hill and proceeds counterclockwise through a 360-degree helix that ends at the final brake run. One cycle of the ride lasts 205 seconds. Upon opening in May 2019, Yukon Striker broke four Dive Coaster records and matched another Dive Coaster record; the roller coaster is presently the fastest Dive Coaster, with trains travelling at 130 kilometres per hour. With four inversions, Yukon Striker features the most inversions out of any Dive Coaster. Upon its opening, Yukon Striker is the only dive coaster in the world to feature a 360-degree loop. In addition to breaking four Dive Coaster records, Yukon Striker matched the record for the tallest dive coaster in the world. At a height of 68 metres, Yukon Striker shares the record as the tallest Dive Coaster in the world, with Valravn, a Dive Coaster in Cedar Point.

The Golden Ticket Awards is an annual set of awards given out by Amusement Today, a newspaper published for the amusement industry. The rankings are selected by an international poll conducted by the newspaper. In 2019, Yukon Striker was ranked as the 34th best steel roll

National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty

The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty known as the National Trust, is an independent charity and membership organisation for environmental and heritage conservation in England and Northern Ireland. The trust describes itself as "a charity that works to preserve and protect historic places and spaces—for for everyone"; the trust was founded in 1895 and given statutory powers, starting with the National Trust Act 1907. The Trust acquired land by gift and sometimes by public subscription and appeal, but after World War II the loss of English country houses resulted in many such properties being acquired either by gift from the former owners, or through the National Land Fund the National Heritage Memorial Fund and the National Lottery. Country Houses and Estates still make up a significant part of its holdings, but it is known for its protection of wild landscapes such as in the Lake District and Peak District, historic urban properties, nature reserves such as Wicken Fen.

In Scotland, there is a independent National Trust for Scotland. The National Trust has a unique special power to prevent its inalienable land being sold off, although this can be over-ridden by Parliamentary procedure; the National Trust has been the beneficiary of bequests. It owns over 500 heritage properties, which include many historic houses and gardens, industrial monuments, social history sites. Most of these are open to the public for a charge. Others are leased to tenants on terms that manage to preserve their character whilst providing for more limited public access; the Trust is one of the largest private landowners in the United Kingdom, owning over 248,000 hectares of land. The Trust, one of the largest UK charities financially, is funded by membership subscriptions, entrance fees and revenue from gift shops and restaurants within its properties, it has been accused of focusing too much on country estates, in recent years, the Trust has sought to broaden its activities by acquiring historic properties such as former mills, early factories and the childhood homes of Paul McCartney and John Lennon.

In 2015, the Trust undertook a governance review to mark the 10th anniversary of the current governance structure. The review led to the downsizing of the limitation of tenure to two terms; the National Trust was incorporated in 1895 as an "association not for profit" under the Companies Acts 1862–90, in which the liability of its members was limited by guarantee. It was incorporated by six separate Acts of Parliament: The National Trust Acts 1907, 1919, 1937, 1939, 1953, 1971, it is a charitable organisation registered under the Charities Act 2006. It was set up with the purpose of: The trust was founded on 12 January 1895 by Octavia Hill, Sir Robert Hunter and Hardwicke Rawnsley, prompted in part by the earlier success of Charles Eliot and the Kyrle Society. In the early days, the trust was concerned with protecting open spaces and a variety of threatened buildings; the trust's first nature reserve was Wicken Fen, its first archaeological monument was White Barrow. The trust has been the beneficiary of numerous donations of money.

From 1924 to 1931, the trust's chairman was John Bailey, of whom The Times said in 1931, "The strong position which the National Trust now occupies is due to him, it will never be known how many generous gifts of rural beauty and historic interest the nation owes, directly or indirectly, to his persuasive enthusiasm." At the same time, a group of anonymous philanthropists set up the Ferguson's Gang. The focus on country houses and gardens, which now comprise the majority of its most visited properties, came about in the mid 20th century when the private owners of many of the properties were no longer able to afford to maintain them. Many were donated to the trust in lieu of death duties; the diarist James Lees-Milne is credited with playing a central role in the main phase of the trust's country house acquisition programme, though he was in fact an employee of the trust, was carrying through policies decided by its governing body. Sir Jack Boles, Director General of the Trust between 1975 and 1983, oversaw the acquisition of Wimpole Hall, Canons Ashby and Kingston Lacy.

Corfe Castle, Studland Bay, Badbury Rings and a host of commercial and domestic buildings and land. One of the biggest crises in the trust's history erupted at the 1967 annual general meeting, when the leadership of the trust was accused of being out of touch and placing too much emphasis on conserving country houses. There followed motions for change; the chair, Lord Antrim, asked the respected Len Clark to intervene, Clark's suggestion of looking at the trust's governance avoided division and was followed by Sir Henry Benson's chairing of an advisory committee to review the structure of the trust. Following the publication of the Benson Report in 1968, much of the administration of the trust was devolved to the regions. In the 1990s, a dispute over whether deer hunting should be permitted on National Trust land caused bitter disputes within the organisation, was the subject of much debate at annual general meetings, but it