Tobruk or Tobruck is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean coast, near the border with Egypt. It is the capital of the Butnan District and has a population of 120,000. Tobruk was the site of an ancient Greek colony and of a Roman fortress guarding the frontier of Cyrenaica. Over the centuries, Tobruk served as a waystation along the coastal caravan route. By 1911, Tobruk had become an Italian military post, but during World War II, Allied forces the Australian 6th Division, took Tobruk on 22 January 1941; the Australian 9th Division pulled back to Tobruk to avoid encirclement after actions at Er Regima and Mechili and reached Tobruk on 9 April 1941 where prolonged fighting against German and Italian forces followed. Although the siege was lifted by Operation Crusader in November 1941, a renewed offensive by Axis forces under Erwin Rommel the following year resulted in Tobruk being captured in June 1942 and held by the Axis forces until November 1942, when it was recaptured by the Allies.
Rebuilt after World War II, Tobruk was expanded during the 1960s to include a port terminal linked by an oil pipeline to the Sarir oil field. King Idris of Libya had his palace at Bab Zaytun. Tobruk was traditionally a stronghold of the Senussi royal dynasty and one of the first to rebel against Colonel Gaddafi in the Arab Spring. Tobruk has a strong protected deep harbour, it is the best natural port in northern Africa, although due to the lack of important nearby land sites it is not the most popular. The city is surrounded by a desert populated with nomadic herdsmen who travel from oasis to oasis. There are many escarpments to the south of Tobruk; these escarpments have their high sides to the south and their low sides to the north. This constitutes a substantial physical barrier between the north and south of Libya in the Tobruk area. Tobruk was some 470 km from Benghazi through the Libyan Coastal Highway, but this distance was shortened to 450 km after the construction of the Charruba–Timimi Road between the years 1975 and 1985.
Construction of the Tobruk–Ajdabiya Road reduced the distance between those two cities from 620 km to about 410 km. Because it is 150 km away from Egypt by land, Tobruk is an important hub for merchants from both Egypt and Libya, for travellers between the two countries as well as those from Bayda and Derna. However, Tobruk suffers a serious saltwater intrusion problem. A factory for the desalination of sea water has been built there. Tobruk features a hot desert climate An Ancient Greek agricultural colony, Antipyrgus was once on the site of modern Tobruk, the ancient name is still in use; the name meant "across from Pyrgos", referring to a location in Crete across the Mediterranean Sea from Antipyrgos. In the Roman era, the town became. With the spread of Christianity, Antipyrgus became. Only one of its ancient bishops is known by name: Aemilianus, who took part in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553. No longer a residential bishopric, Antipyrgus is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.
The site became a way station on the caravan route that ran along the coast. The Hotel Tobruk was built in 1937. At the beginning of World War II, Libya was an Italian colony and Tobruk became the site of important battles between the Allies and Axis powers. Tobruk was strategically important to the conquest of Eastern Libya the province of Cyrenaica, for several reasons. Tobruk had a deep and protected harbour, which meant that if the port were bombed, ships would still be able to anchor there and be safe from squalls, so the port could never be rendered wholly useless regardless of military bombardment; this was of critical importance, as it made Tobruk an excellent place to supply a desert warfare campaign. It was heavily fortified by the Italians prior to their invasion of Egypt in November 1940. In addition to these prepared fortifications, there were a number of escarpments and cliffs to the south of Tobruk, providing substantial physical barriers to any advance on the port over land. Tobruk was on a peninsula, allowing it to be defended by a minimal number of troops, which the Allies used to their advantage when the port was under siege.
An attacker could not bypass the defenders, for if they did, the besieged would sally forth and cut off the nearby supply lines of the attacker, spoiling their advance. But Tobruk was strategically significant, due to its location with regard to the remainder of Cyrenaica. Attackers from the east who had secured Tobruk could advance through the desert to Benghazi, cutting off all enemy troops along the coast, such as those at Derna; this advance would be protected from counterattack, due to escarpments that were quite difficult for a military force to climb, running from Tobruk to Suluq. Due to the importance of maintaining supply in the desert, getting cut off in this area was disastrous. Therefore, whoever held both Tobruk controlled the majority of Cyrenaica. 24 km south of the port was the largest airfield in eastern Libya. This was significant due to the importance of air power in desert warfare. Italian forces invaded Egypt in early Septemb
Ryan Jared Thomas is a New Zealand professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for PSV Eindhoven in the Eredivisie and the New Zealand national team. Thomas played for various clubs across the Waikato region of New Zealand, before signing professional terms with Eredivisie club PEC Zwolle in 2013. Since Thomas has spent his footballing career in the Netherlands, signing for reigning champions PSV Eindhoven in 2018. Thomas is additionally a regular for the New Zealand national team, featuring in the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup and lifting the OFC Nations Cup in 2016. Thomas was born in Te Puke, New Zealand, played his childhood football at local Waikato club Melville United in the NRFL Premier, he made his debut off the bench on 30 July 2011, alongside fellow current professional Jesse Edge, scored in the 3–1 win against Forrest Hill Milford. Thomas was announced as part of the squad for New Zealand Football Championship side Waikato FC at the beginning of the 2011–12 season, joining other future New Zealand international Tyler Boyd.
Thomas was convinced by his previous Waikato FC manager, Declan Edge, to leave his current side to join the Olé Academy in Wellington, along with several other Waikato players. During this time, Thomas played for the Olé Academy-affiliated club Western Suburbs. Noting Thomas' exceptional talent, Edge organised a trial for the 18-year-old at Eredivisie club PEC Zwolle. Following a successful trial period in the Netherlands, Thomas signed for PEC Zwolle in September 2013, made his debut for the club on 30 October 2013 against amateur side Wilhelmina'08 in the third round of the KNVB Cup, scoring the first goal in a 4–0 win, he became a key winger for the club. Thomas continued to impress for PEC Zwolle in the following seasons following his transition to a holding midfielder, with his rise being compared to that of Dutch legend Arjen Robben by former manager Ron Jans. In a 2017 interview, Jans stated that "it would not surprise me if he ended up at Real Madrid". On 10 August 2018, Thomas joined reigning Eredivisie champions PSV Eindhoven for an undisclosed fee on a three-year contract.
The move was described by former New Zealand and Eredivisie footballer Ivan Vicelich as one of the biggest deals by a New Zealander. Just days after signing, Thomas sustained a knee injury in training; as part of his rehabilitation, Thomas spent time working with Olympic swimming champion Pieter van den Hoogenband. On 6 October 2019, after 14 months out injured, Thomas made his debut for PSV as an 85th minute substitute for Érick Gutiérrez in a 4−1 win over VVV Venlo. Thomas made his international debut for New Zealand when he played in a 2–4 friendly loss to Japan in March 2014, he scored his first international goals on 28 March 2017, netting a brace in a 2–0 win over Fiji. Scores and results list New Zealand's goal tally first. Waikato FC NZF Cup runner-up: 2011–12PEC Zwolle KNVB Cup: 2013–14.
Komsomolsk Nature Reserve is a Russian'zapovednik', encompassing the confluence of the Gorin River and the Amur River in the Russian Far East. The reserve protects a meeting zone of multiple ecoregions in the lower Amur, including the northernmost reach of Manchurian taiga, it is located about 50 km downstream of Komsomolsk-on-Amur, in the Komsomolsky District of Khabarovsk Krai. The reserve was created in 1963, covers an area of 64,278 ha; the Komsomolsk Reserve is located at a narrow passage of the Amur River where is passes through the Sikhote-Alin mountains to the east, the Lower Amur mountains to the west. Upstream are the floodplains of the lower Amur River valley, downstream is the Amur delta leading into the Sea of Okhotsk; the territory covers the delta of the Gorin River, a left tributary of the Amur, entering from the west. The Gorin River bisects the reserve down the middle, running southeasterly; the river is 1.5–2 km wide at the northern edge of the reserve, 4–5 km wide at the mouth where it enters the Amur.
The confluence features extensive terraced floodplains and river islands. The reserve is rectangular, measuring 20 km north-south, 30 km west-east; the highest point in the territory is Mt. Chokkety at 800 meters; the main ridge north of the Gorin runs parallel to the river for about 25 km with an average grade of 14 degrees. Komsomolsk is located in the Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga ecoregion; this ecoregion is the southernmost taiga in Eurasia. At low elevations the forests are light-needle taiga such as larch; the climate of Komsomolsk is Humid cool summer. This climate is characterized by high variation in temperature, both daily and seasonally. Average temperatures range from -25 C in January to +20 C in July; the wind blows from the east during the warm period, bringing 80-90% of the precipitation, blows west to east during the cold season. 80% of the terrain is forested. In the lower levels of the Gorin River, the forests are cedar-broadleaf, while spruce and larch dominate more to the north; the vegetation communities meeting in Komsomolsky show representation of the three floristic complexes.
From the south, the Manchu complex finds more heat-loving plants left over from the pre-glaciation period. The Bering Sea complex from the northeast features Ayan fir; the East Siberian complex to the north features larch and sedge. Fighting forest fires is a major concern of reserve management. Located on an important migratory route for birds and waterfowl, the reserve has recorded 233 species of birds; the aquatic life is rich with 50 species of fish, 24 of which are endemic to the Amur.. As a strict nature reserve, the Komsomolsk Reserve is closed to the general public, although scientists and those with'environmental education' purposes can make arrangements with park management for visits. Visits by the public requires permission; the main office is in the city of Komsomolsk-on-Amur. List of Russian Nature Reserves National parks of Russia Protected areas of Russia "Call of the Taiga", Video Tour of Komsomolsky Reserve Map of Komsomolsky reserve, OpenStreetMap Map of Komsomolsky reserve, ProtectedPlanet