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Toby Keith

Toby Keith Covel is an American country singer, songwriter and record producer. Keith released his first four studio albums—1993's Toby Keith, 1994's Boomtown, 1996's Blue Moon and 1997's Dream Walkin', plus a Greatest Hits package for various divisions of Mercury Records before leaving Mercury in 1998; these albums all earned Gold or higher certification, produced several Top Ten singles, including his debut "Should've Been a Cowboy", which topped the country charts and was the most-played country song of the 1990s. The song has received three million spins since its release, according to Broadcast Music Incorporated. Signed to DreamWorks Records Nashville in 1998, Keith released his breakthrough single "How Do You Like Me Now?!" in late 1999. This song, the title track to his 1999 album of the same name, was the number one country song of 2000, one of several chart-toppers during his tenure on DreamWorks Nashville, his next three albums, Pull My Chain and Shock'n Y'all, produced three more number ones each, all of the albums were certified 4x Platinum.

A second Greatest Hits package followed in 2004, after that, he released Honkytonk University. When DreamWorks closed in 2005, Keith founded the label Show Dog Nashville, which merged with Universal South Records to become Show Dog-Universal Music in December 2009, he has released ten studio albums through Show Dog/Show Dog-Universal: 2006's White Trash with Money, 2007's Big Dog Daddy, 2008's That Don't Make Me a Bad Guy, 2009's American Ride, 2010's Bullets in the Gun, 2011's Clancy's Tavern, 2012's Hope on the Rocks, 2013's Drinks After Work, 2015's 35 MPH Town, 2017's The Bus Songs, as well as the compilation 35 Biggest Hits in 2008. Keith made his acting debut in 2006, starring in the film Broken Bridges, co-starred with comedian Rodney Carrington in the 2008 film Beer for My Horses, inspired by his song of the same name. Keith has released 19 studio albums, two Christmas albums, five compilation albums, he has charted 61 singles on the Billboard Hot Country Songs charts, including 20 number one hits and 21 additional top 10 hits.

His longest-lasting number one hits are "Beer for My Horses" and "As Good as I Once Was", at six weeks each. Keith was born in Clinton, Oklahoma, to Carolyn Joan and Hubert K. Covel, Jr. and is of English ancestry. He has a brother; the family lived in Fort Smith, for a few years when Keith was in grade school, but moved to Moore, when he was still young. Before the family moved to Moore, he visited his grandmother in Fort Smith during the summers, his grandmother owned Billie Garner's Supper Club in Fort Smith, where Keith became interested in the musicians who came there to play. He did odd jobs around the supper club and started getting up on the bandstand to play with the band, he got his first guitar at the age of eight. After the family moved to Moore, Keith attended Highland West Junior High and Moore High School, where he played defensive end on the football team. Keith worked as a derrick hand in the oil fields, he worked his way up to become an operation manager. When Keith was 20, he and his friends Scott Webb, Keith Cory, David "Yogi" Vowell and Danny Smith, with a few others, formed the Easy Money Band, which played at local bars as he continued to work in the oil industry.

At times, he would have to leave in the middle of a concert if he was paged to work in the oil field. In 1982, the oil industry in Oklahoma began Keith soon found himself unemployed, he fell back on his football training and played defensive end with the semi-pro Oklahoma City Drillers while continuing to perform with his band. He returned to focus once again on music, his family and friends were doubtful he would succeed, but, in 1984, Easy Money began playing the honky tonk circuit in Oklahoma and Texas. In the early 1990s, Keith went to Nashville, where he hung out and busked on Music Row and at a place called Houndogs, he distributed. There was no interest by any of the record labels, Keith returned home feeling depressed, he had promised himself and God to have a recording contract by the time he was 30 years old or give up on music as a career. A flight attendant and fan of his gave a copy of Keith's demo tape to Harold Shedd, a Mercury Records executive, while he was traveling on a flight she was working.

Shedd enjoyed what he heard, went to see Keith perform live and signed him to a recording contract with Mercury. Keith's debut single, "Should've Been a Cowboy", went to number one on the U. S. Billboard Hot Country Songs chart in 1993, it reached number 93 on the Billboard Hot 100; this song led off his self-titled debut album. By the end of the decade, "Should've Been a Cowboy" received more than three million spins at radio, thus making it the most-played country song of the 1990s. Certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America for shipments of one million copies, the album produced three more Top 5 hits on the country charts with "He Ain't Worth Missing", "A Little Less Talk and a Lot More Action" and "Wish I Didn't Know Now". Stephen Thomas Erlewine of Allmusic wrote of the album, "It is given a production that's a bit too big, clean and cavernous for Keith's good — it fits

Tejano Music Awards

The Tejano Music Awards is an accolade created by former arts teacher and musician Rudy Trevino in 1980. The accolade recognizes outstanding performers of Tejano music, a German polka-based Latin music genre recorded in Spanish or English-language; the annual presentation ceremony features performances by Tejano artists and bands and the presentation of all awards. The Tejano Music Awards are annually presented in San Antonio, though the ceremony was presented in other host cities such as Eagle Pass, Texas; the first Tejano Music Awards was held in 1980 and recognized Tejano musicians and recordings of 1980. The ceremony awarded Tejano musicians in 11 categories: Male Vocalist of the Year, Female Vocalist of the Year, Vocal Duo of the Year, Album of the Year – Orchestra, Album of the Year – Conjunto, Single of the Year, Male Entertainer of the Year, Female Entertainer of the Year, Song of the Year, Songwriter of the Year, Most Promising Band of the Year. Tejano music enjoyed a wider success in the 1990s as it entered in its first renaissance and marketable era.

This was due to the popularity of American singer Selena, called the "Queen of Tejano music". Selena dominated the female-only awards, while American singer Emilio Navaira was called the "King of Tejano music"; the Tejano Music Awards celebrated their "quinceañera" year in 1995 and awarded Tejano musicians in 14 categories. By the 20th annual Tejano Music Awards, the genre suffered and its popularity wane after Selena was shot and killed in 1995; the Lifetime Achievement Award was erected in 1999 and was awarded to Tejano artists to had a major impact on the genre. At the 2005 Tejano Music Awards, the ceremony celebrated their "silver anniversary" and awarded Tejano artists in 14 categories, the most categories since 1995; the 30th annual Tejano Music Awards was celebrated in 2010 with a decade-ballot category, awarding artists in specific categories that they reign in the 1980s, 1990s, the 2000s. The 2016 Tejano Music Awards is awarding artists in 12 categories. Aside from the awards ceremony, the annual Fan Fair is celebrated weeks in advance from the Tejano Music Awards.

Song of the Year: "Elida's Medley" by Elida Reyna Male Vocalist of the Year: Jay Perez Female Vocalist of the Year: Elida Reyna Entertainer of the Year: Jay Perez Album of the Year: 35th Anniversary by Ruben Ramos and the Mexican Revolution Album of the Year: Chuco's by Los Garcia Brothers Crossover Song of the Year: "His House" by Jimmy Gonzalez y Grupo Mazz Vocal Duo of the Year: Shelly Lares and Sunny Sauceda Most Promising Band: Tex-Mex Kadillaks Showband of the Year: Jay Perez Lifetime Achievement Awards: Joey Lopez, Arturo Villarreal, Freddie Martinez Song of the Year: "Juntos Hasta Morir" by Elida Reyna and Jesse Turner Male Vocalist of the Year: Jesse Turner of Grupo Siggno Female Vocalist of the Year: Elida Reyna Entertainer of the Year: Elida Reyna Album of the Year: Lo Que Me Dejaste by Grupo Siggno Album of the Year: Manteniendo La Promesa by The Hometown Boys Vocal Duo of the Year: Elida Reyna and Jesse Turner for "Juntos Hasta Morir" Best New Male of the Year: Ricky Valenz Best New Female of the Year: Jessica Sanchez Best New Group of the Year: Tejano Highway 281 Lifetime Achievement Awards: Elsa Garcia, Mingo Saldivar, Johnny Canales Tejano Music Awards website

Implantation (human embryo)

In humans, implantation is the stage of pregnancy at which the embryo adheres to the wall of the uterus. At this stage of prenatal development, the conceptus is called a blastocyst, it is by this adhesion that the embryo receives oxygen and nutrients from the mother to be able to grow. In humans, implantation of a fertilized ovum is most to occur around nine days after ovulation; the reception-ready phase of the endometrium of the uterus is termed the "implantation window" and lasts about 4 days. The implantation window occurs around 6 days after the peak in luteinizing hormone levels. With some disparity between sources, it has been stated to occur from 7 days after ovulation until 9 days after ovulation, or days 6-10 postovulation. On average, it occurs during the 20th to the 23rd day after the last menstrual period; the implantation window is characterized by changes to the endometrium cells, which aid in the absorption of the uterine fluid. These changes are collectively known as the plasma membrane transformation and bring the blastocyst nearer to the endometrium and immobilize it.

During this stage the blastocyst can still be eliminated by being flushed out of the uterus. Scientists have hypothesized that the hormones cause a swelling that fills the flattened out uterine cavity just prior to this stage, which may help press the blastocyst against the endometrium; the implantation window may be initiated by other preparations in the endometrium of the uterus, both structurally and in the composition of its secretions. To enable implantation, the uterus goes through changes in order to be able to receive the conceptus; the endometrium increases thickness, becomes vascularized and its glands grow to be tortuous and boosted in their secretions. These changes reach their maximum about 7 days after ovulation. Furthermore, the surface of the endometrium produces a kind of rounded cells, which cover the whole area toward the uterine cavity; this happens about 9 to 10 days after ovulation. These cells are called decidual cells, which emphasises that the whole layer of them is shed off in every menstruation if no pregnancy occurs, just as leaves of deciduous trees.

The uterine glands, on the other hand, decrease in activity and degenerate around 8 to 9 days after ovulation in absence of pregnancy. The decidual cells originate from the stromal cells. However, the decidual cells make up the decidua; the rest of the endometrium, in addition, expresses differences between the luminal and the basal sides. The luminal cells form the zona compacta of the endometrium, in contrast to the basalolateral zona spongiosa, which consists of the rather spongy stromal cells. Decidualization succeeds predecidualization; this is an expansion of it, further developing the uterine glands, the zona compacta and the epithelium of decidual cells lining it. The decidual cells become filled with lipids and glycogen and take the polyhedral shape characteristic for decidual cells, it is that the blastocyst itself makes the main contribution to this additional growing and sustaining of the decidua. An indication of this is that decidualization occurs at a higher degree in conception cycles than in nonconception cycles.

Furthermore, similar changes are observed when giving stimuli mimicking the natural invasion of the embryo. The embryo releases serine proteases which causes the epithelial cell membrane to depolarize and activates the epithelial Na+ channel; this triggers a Ca2+ influx and phosphorylation of CREB. Phosphorylation of CREB upregulates the expression of COX-2, which leads to the release of prostaglandin E2 from epithelial cells. PGE2 acts on the stroma cells activating cAMP-related pathways in stromal cell leading to decidualization; the decidua can be organized into separate sections. Decidua basalis - This is the part of the decidua, located basalolateral to the embryo after implantation. Decidua capsularis - Decidua capsularis grows over the embryo on the luminal side, enclosing it into the endometrium, it surrounds the embryo together with decidua basalis. Decidua parietalis - All other decidua on the uterine surface belongs to decidua parietalis. After implantation the decidua remains, at least through the first trimester.

However, its most prominent time is during implantation. Its function as a surrounding tissue is replaced by the definitive placenta. However, some elements of the decidualization remain throughout pregnancy; the compacta and spongiosa layers are still observable beneath the decidua in pregnancy. The glands of the spongiosa layer continue to secrete during the first trimester, when they degenerate. However, before that disappearance, some glands secrete unequally much; this phenomenon of hypersecretion is called the Arias-Stella phenomenon, after the pathologist Javier Arias-Stella. Pinopodes are finger-like protrusions from the endometrium, they appear between day 21 of gestational age. This corresponds to a fertilization age of five to seven days, which corresponds well with the time of implantation, they only persist for two to three days. The development of them inhibited by estrogens. Pinopodes endocytose uterine fluid and macromolecules in it. By doing so, the volume of the uterus decreases, taking the walls closer to the embryoblast floating in it.

Thus, the period of active pinocytes might limit the implantation window. Pinopodes continue to absorb fluid, removes most of it during the early stages of implantation. Not only the lining of the uterus transforms, but in addition, the secretion from its epithelial glands changes; this change is induced by increased