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Tocantins River

The Tocantins River is a river in Brazil, the central fluvial artery of the country. In the Tupi language, its name means "toucan's beak", it runs from south to north for about 2,450 km. It is not a branch of the Amazon River, since its waters flow into the Atlantic Ocean alongside those of the Amazon, it flows through four Brazilian states and gives its name to one of Brazil's newest states, formed in 1988 from what was until the northern portion of Goiás. The Tocantins is one of the largest clearwater rivers in South America, it rises in the mountainous district known as the Pireneus, west of the Federal District, but its western tributary, the Araguaia River, has its extreme southern headwaters on the slopes of the Serra dos Caiapós. The Araguaia flows 1,670 km before its confluence with the Tocantins, to which it is equal in volume. Besides its main tributary, the Rio das Mortes, the Araguaia has twenty smaller branches, offering many miles of canoe navigation. In finding its way to the lowlands, it breaks into waterfalls and rapids, or winds violently through rocky gorges, until, at a point about 160 km above its junction with the Tocantins, it saws its way across a rocky dyke for 20 km in roaring cataracts.

Two other tributaries, called the Maranhão and Paranatinga, collect an immense volume of water from the highlands which surround them on the south and south-east. Between the latter and the confluence with the Araguaia, the Tocantins is obstructed by rocky barriers which cross it at a right angle; the Tocantins River Basin is the home of several large aquatic mammals such as Amazonian manatee, Araguaian river dolphin and tucuxi, larger reptiles such as black caiman, spectacled caiman and yellow-spotted river turtle. The Tocantins River Basin has a high richness of fish species, although it is low by Amazon Basin standards. More than 350 fish species have been registered, including more than 175 endemics; the most species rich families are Characidae and Rivulidae. While most species are of Amazonian origin, there are some showing a connection with the Paraná and São Francisco rivers; the Tocantins and these two rivers flow in different directions, but all have their source in the Brazilian Plateau in a region where a low watershed allows some exchange between them.

There are several fish species that migrate along the Tocantins to spawn, but this has been restricted by the dams. Following the construction of the massive Tucuruí dam, the flow of the river changed; some species have been adversely affected and there has been a substantial reduction in species richness in parts of the river. The São Domingos karst in the upper Tocantins River basin is home to an unusually high number of cavefish species: Ancistrus cryptophthalmus, several Ituglanis species, Pimelodella spelaea, Aspidoras mephisto, an undescribed Cetopsorhamdia species and Eigenmannia vicentespelaea; the last is the only known cave-adapted knifefish and one of only two known non-catfish in caves of the South American mainland. In its lower reaches the Tocantins separates the Tocantins-Araguaia-Maranhão moist forests ecoregion to the east from the Xingu-Tocantins-Araguaia moist forests ecoregion to the west, it acts as a barrier that prevents dispersal of fauna between these ecoregions. Downstream from the Araguaia confluence, in the state of Pará, the river used to have many cataracts and rapids, but they were flooded in the early 1980s by the artificial lake created by the Tucuruí dam, one of the world's largest.

When the second phase of the Tucuruí project was completed in November 30th, 2010, a system of locks called Eclusas do Tucuruí was established with the goal of making a long extension of the river navigable. In total there are five dams on the river, of which the largest are the Tucuruí and the Serra da Mesa dam; the flat, broad valleys, composed of sand and clay, of both the Tocantins and its Araguaia branch are overlooked by steep bluffs. They are the margins of the great sandstone plateaus, from 300 to 600 metres elevation above sea-level, through which the rivers have eroded their deep beds. Around the estuary of the Tocantins the great plateau has disappeared, to give place to a part of the forest-covered, half submerged alluvial plain, which extends far to the north-east and west; the Pará River called one of the mouths of the Amazon, is only the lower reach of the Tocantins. If any portion of the waters of the Amazon runs round the southern side of the large island of Marajó into the river Para, it is only through tortuous, natural canals, which are in no sense outflow channels of the Amazon.

The Tocantins River records a mean discharge rate of 13,598 m³/s and a specific discharge rate of 14.4 l/s/km². The sub-basins have the following specific discharge rates: Tocantins, Pará and Guamá. Basin map Rio Tocantins at GEOnet Names Server

Steam injection (oil industry)

Steam injection is an common method of extracting heavy crude oil. It is considered an enhanced oil recovery method and is the main type of thermal stimulation of oil reservoirs. There are several different forms of the technology, with the two main ones being Cyclic Steam Stimulation and Steam Flooding. Both are most applied to oil reservoirs, which are shallow and which contain crude oils which are viscous at the temperature of the native underground formation. Steam injection is used in the San Joaquin Valley of California, the Lake Maracaibo area of Venezuela, the oil sands of northern Alberta. Another contributing factor that enhances oil production during steam injection is related to near-wellbore cleanup. In this case, steam reduces the viscosity that ties paraffins and asphaltenes to the rock surfaces while steam distillation of crude oil light ends creates a small solvent bank that can miscibly remove trapped oil; this method known as the Huff and Puff method, consists of 3 stages: injection and production.

Steam is first injected into a well for a certain amount of time to heat the oil in the surrounding reservoir to a recover 20% of the Original Oil in Place, compared to steam assisted gravity drainage, reported to recover over 50% of OOIP. It is quite common for wells to be produced in the cyclic steam manner for a few cycles before being put on a steam flooding regime with other wells; the mechanism proceeds through cycles of steam injection and oil production. First, steam is injected into a well at a temperature of 300 to 340° Celsius for a period of weeks to months. Next, the well is allowed to sit for days to weeks to allow heat to soak into the formation; the hot oil is pumped out of the well for a period of weeks or months. Once the production rate falls off, the well is put through another cycle of injection and production; this process is repeated until the cost of injecting steam becomes higher than the money made from producing oil. The CSS method has the advantage that recovery factors are around 20 to 25% and the disadvantage that the cost to inject steam is high.

Canadian Natural Resources use "employs cyclic steam or "huff and puff" technology to develop bitumen resources. This technology requires one well bore and the production consists of the injection and production phases. First steam is "injected for several weeks, mobilizing cold bitumen"; the flow "on the injection well is reversed producing oil through the same injection well bore. The injection and production phases together comprise one cycle. "Steam is re-injected to begin a new cycle when oil production rates fall below a critical threshold due to the cooling of the reservoir. Artificial lift method of production may be used at this stage. After a few cycles, it may not be economical to produce by the puff method. Steam flooding is considered for further oil recovery if other conditions are favorable, it has been observed that recovery from huff and puff can be achieved up to 30% and from steam flooding recovery can be up to 50% " In a steam flood, sometimes known as a steam drive, some wells are used as steam injection wells and other wells are used for oil production.

Two mechanisms are at work to improve the amount of oil recovered. The first is to heat the oil to higher temperatures and to thereby decrease its viscosity so that it more flows through the formation toward the producing wells. A second mechanism is the physical displacement employing in a manner similar to water flooding, in which oil is meant to be pushed to the production wells. While more steam is needed for this method than for the cyclic method, it is more effective at recovering a larger portion of the oil. A form of steam flooding that has become popular in the Alberta oil sands is steam assisted gravity drainage, in which two horizontal wells are drilled, one a few meters above the other, steam is injected into the upper one; the intent is to reduce the viscosity of the bitumen to the point where gravity will pull it down into the producing well. In 2011 Laricina Energy combined solvent injection with steam injection in a process called solvent cyclic steam-assisted gravity drainage.

Laricina claims that combining solvents with steam reduces the overall steam oil ratio for recovery by 30%. The alternative to surface generated steam is downhole steam generation that reduces heat loss and generates high-quality steam in the reservoir that allows for more heavy oil and oil sands production at a faster rate. Downhole steam generators were first proposed by the major oil companies in the early 1960s. Over the last 50 years multiple downhole steam technologies have been developed such as the DOE and SANDIA downhole combustion system known as Project Deep Steam, field tested in Long Beach, CA in 1982, but was a failure; the only downhole steam generator that has proved successful is branded as eSteam. Butler, Roger M.. Thermal Recovery of Oil and Bitumen. ISBN 0-9682563-0-9

Simon Nye

Simon Nye is an English comic television writer. He wrote the hit sitcom Men Behaving Badly, all of the four ITV Pantos, he co-wrote the 2006 film Flushed Away, created an adaption of the Just William in the same-name CBBC series of 2010, wrote the drama series The Durrells. Nye was born in Sussex. Nye was educated at Collyer's School and Bedford College, University of London, where he studied French and German, he started his writing career as a translator, publishing translations of books on Richard Wagner, Henri Matisse and Georges Braque, before turning his hand to novel writing in 1989 with Men Behaving Badly. This was followed in 1991 by Wideboy, which he adapted into the TV show Frank Stubbs Promotes. Nye's TV writing career began in 1990 when he was persuaded by producer Beryl Vertue to adapt his first novel for the small screen; the two series of Men Behaving Badly was broadcast on ITV in 1992. The show soon went on to achieve critical and commercial success, winning the Writers' Guild of Great Britain Award for Best Situation Comedy in 1995, the Royal Television Society Award for Best Situation Comedy/Comedy Drama in 1996.

The show became the most-repeated comedy show in the 1990s. Nye appeared in the show playing a prospective tenant in the episode "Gary and Tony", he played one of Gary's friends, Clive, in the episode where Gary and Dorothy plan to get married. Though best known for sitcoms – such as Is It Legal?, How Do You Want Me?, Hardware and Carrie and Barry – he has written comedy dramas such as Frank Stubbs Promotes, as well as literary adaptations such as The Railway Children. In addition, he has written a number of comic adaptations of pantomimes including Jack and the Beanstalk, Cinderella and Dick Whittington, he wrote the short-lived 2001 sitcom The Savages, contributed an episode to the 2010 series of Doctor Who, titled "Amy's Choice." Nye continues to write translations, focusing in recent years on dramatic works. His translation of Molière's Don Juan was first performed at the Crucible Theatre in Sheffield in 2001, his translation of Dario Fo's Accidental Death of an Anarchist premiered at the Donmar Warehouse in London in 2003.

He wrote a pilot episode Felix and Murdo, which starred Alexander Armstrong and Ben Miller. He wrote the screenplay for the 2005 BBC of My Family And Other Animals based on Gerald Durrell's Corfu Trilogy. In 2016 Nye wrote ITV's The Durrells, another adaptation of the trilogy, starring Keeley Hawes as Louisa Durrell; the Sex Pistols Vs. Bill Grundy The Durrells Tommy Cooper: Not Like That, Like This Just William Doctor Who – Amy's Choice Reggie Perrin, with David Nobbs) My Family And Other Animals Carrie and Barry Hardware Wild West The Savages Beast The Railway Children How Do You Want Me? Is It Legal? Frank Stubbs Promotes Men Behaving Badly Wideboy ISBN 0-670-83254-5 Men Behaving Badly ISBN 0-06-016069-1 Accidental Death of an Anarchist ISBN 0-413-77342-6 Matisse: The Graphic Work ISBN 0-8478-0932-3 Georges Braque: Life and Work ISBN 0-8478-0986-2 Vienna Opera ISBN 0-8478-0811-4 Simon Nye on IMDb Simon Nye entry on the BBC Comedy Guide Interview with Simon Nye BBC Press Office biography Nobleman Behaving Badly

British Trust for Ornithology

The British Trust for Ornithology is an organisation founded in 1932 for the study of birds in the British Isles. In 1931 Max Nicholson wrote: In the United States, Hungary and elsewhere a clearing-house for research is provided by the state: in this country such a solution would be uncongenial, we must look for some alternative centre of national scope not imposed from above but built up from below. An experiment on these lines has been undertaken at Oxford since the founding of the Oxford Bird Census in 1927; the scheme now has a full-time director, Mr W. B. Alexander, it is intended to put this undertaking on a permanent footing and to build it up as a clearing-house for bird-watching results in this country. This led to a meeting at the British Museum in February 1932, which in turn led to the foundation of an organisation to develop the Oxford scheme; the name British Trust for Ornithology was used from May 1933 and an appeal for funds was published in The Times on 1 July. Max Nicholson was Bernard Tucker the secretary.

Harry Witherby was an early vice-chairman. Much has been discovered about birds by watching and counting them, but such methods allow birds to be identified as individuals; this is essential if we are to learn about how long they live and when and where they move, questions that are vital for bird conservation. Placing a lightweight, uniquely numbered, metal ring around a bird's leg provides a reliable and harmless method of identifying birds as individuals; each ring has an address so that anyone finding a ringed bird can help by reporting where and when it was found and what happened to it. Some ringing projects use colour rings to allow individual birds to be identified without being caught. Birds have been ringed in Britain and Ireland for nearly 100 years, ringing still reveals new facts about migration routes and wintering areas. However, the primary focus of the BTO's Ringing Schemes is now the monitoring of bird populations, to provide information on how many young birds leave the nest and survive to become adults, as well as how many adults survive the stresses of breeding and severe weather.

Changes in survival rates and other aspects of birds' biology can indicate the causes of population changes. This information is so important; the Constant Effort Sites scheme provides information on population size, breeding success and survival of bird species living in scrub and wetland habitats. Ringers work at over 130 CES scheme sites each year; the Retrapping Adults for Survival project gathers survival data for a wide range of species those of current conservation concern. Ringing revealed that declines in the number of Sedge Warblers breeding in Britain and Ireland was linked to lower levels of rainfall in their African wintering quarters; this information should aid identification of the environmental factors responsible for the decline. In 1938 the BTO contributed funds to the new Edward Grey Institute of Field Ornithology. In 1947, the institute became part of a new department of Zoological Field Studies at Oxford University, the BTO again concentrated on a programme of volunteer-based surveys.

In December 1962, at the behest of Tony Norris, the BTO purchased Beech Grove, a large Victorian house in Tring, relocating there from Oxford, along with their Ringing Office, at the British Museum. In April 1991, the BTO moved to The Nunnery, Norfolk, a large property lying between the A134 and the River Little Ouse, donated to them. Parts of the medieval Benedictine Nunnery of St George can still be seen on this site; the BTO runs its only bird reserve, Nunnery Lakes Reserve, on this site. The reserve lies between the River Thet and the River Little Ouse, extending upstream from The Nunnery, along the banks of the Little Ouse, incorporates several flooded gravel pits. In the early 2000s, a new library was created there, dedicated to the memory of Chris Mead. Professor Jeremy Greenwood PhD, Director since 1988, retired in September 2007, the current Director is Dr Andy Clements; the BTO carries out research into the lives of birds, chiefly by conducting population and breeding surveys and by bird ringing carried out by a large number of volunteers.

Its Garden Birdwatch survey, for example, allows large numbers of non-expert birdwatchers to participate, by making a weekly count of the birds they see in their gardens. The BTO publishes a number of journals: Bird Study - a scientific journal, published since 1953. ISSN 0006-3657 BTO News - the newsletter for all members. ISSN 0005-3392 Bird Table - for participants in the Garden BirdWatch Project. ISSN 1460-6755 Ringing & Migration - Journal of the BTO Ringing Scheme. WeBS News - newsletter for participants in the Wetland Bird Survey. In September 1967, inspired by on-going work on the innovative Atlas of Breeding Birds of the West Midlands, produced by the West Midland Bird Club, in partnership with the Irish Wildbird Conservancy, work began on the first Atlas of Breeding Birds in Britain and Ireland. 3,862 10 km squares were surveyed and the atlas was published in 1976. The New Atlas updated and refined this huge survey, again with the help of IWC and the Scottish Ornithologists Club. A Winter Atlas and a Historical Atlas have been published.

The groundbreaking Migration Atlas presents the results of 100 years of bird ringing. As with all BTO studies, the vast majority of the fieldwork was undertaken by volunteers; the Bird Atlas 2007–11, published

Candelaria, Lempira

Candelaria is a municipality in the Honduran department of Lempira. Candelaria is one of the municipalities of the Lempira department, it is located 96 km away from Gracias city, passing by San Juan del Caite. In terms of time, about 3.5 hours of driving on an unpaved road, going up and down through mountains, one of them is "Congolón" where the hero Lempira fought the Spanish conquerors. This road is being repaired all year long by "Fondo Cafetero" and the Government. One must pay attention to all deviations there are several houses to ask for direction in any case, its origins go back to 3 August 1607, with the name of "San Francisco de Joconguera" and under statement No 5. It became a village in 1872 and on 20 February 1897 it was given the title of municipality under the administration of president Policarpo Bonilla as "Candelaria de Joconguera", it became a city on 22 February 1939, after Antiguo de la Rañírez led a revolution to liberate the Candelarian people. When arriving at Candelaria the Pine forests are no longer around, this makes the weather warmer, caused by the change in elevation above sea level.

It was settled in a despression surrounded by steep hills, some of them craggy. There are some small streams, its boundaries are: North: Gualcince municipality South: Virginia municipality East: Piraera municipality West: Mapulaca and Gualcince municipalities Surface Extents: 52 km² The elevation and soil do not allow for coffee plantations, but the processes of peeling and toasting of coffee grains are done. Corn and bean crops are important. Commerce activities are popular since the main road leads to the border with El Salvador, the US dollar can be used as currency as well; the centre of the city and the nearest villages have electricity. The water supply is obtained from some streams. There is one local organisation and its function is to improve the production of local products; the typical cross-breed of native Indians and Spanish settlers is seen in Candelaria, but are seen individuals with features of each race separately. Population: The figure was 6,141, in 2001; this was used to elaborate an estimate by the INE Honduras, so in 2008 the population might be 6,746.

Villages: 5 Settlements: 48 The City of Candelaria is quaint and may result in a nice place to visit, due to the colonial details of its houses and buildings. There are 2 hostels with good facilities; the visitor can find 3 places with internet access, one of them in the Mayor's office. There is coverage for mobile phones. There many groceries and supplies stores. Local Holidays: "Virgen de la Candelaria" on 1 February through 8th

Jimmy Bonneau

Jimmy Bonneau is a former hockey forward who last played for the Rapid City Rush of the ECHL. He was drafted 241st overall in the 2003 NHL Entry Draft by the Montreal Canadiens, he was hired as an associate coach for the San Jose Barracuda in the American Hockey League in 2018 and was named a co-head coach of the team during the 2019–20 season. Bonneau played major junior hockey starting with the Montreal Rocket in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League and the next two seasons with the same franchise after it moved to Prince Edward Island. During the 2005–06 season, he played for Long Beach Ice Dogs in ECHL. In the 2006–07 and 2007–08 seasons, he split time with the Hamilton Bulldogs of the American Hockey League and the Cincinnati Cyclones of the ECHL. After spending two seasons with various organizations, he signed an AHL contract on July 2, 2010, with Hamilton to bring him back to the Canadiens' organization. On September 27, 2011, Bonneau was signed as a free agent by the AHL's Worcester Sharks.

After four seasons with the Worcester Sharks, including their last season as a franchise in 2014–15, Bonneau was a free agent in the off-season signed a one-year deal in the ECHL with the Rapid City Rush on August 18, 2015. He announced his retirement on April 10, 2016. Jimmy Bonneau career statistics at Jimmy Bonneau career statistics at The Internet Hockey Database