Today (American TV program)

Today called The Today Show, is an American news and talk morning television show that airs on NBC. The program debuted on January 14, 1952, it was the first of its genre on American television and in the world, after 68 years of broadcasting it is the fifth-longest-running American television series. A weekday two-hour program from 7:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m. it expanded to Sundays in 1987 and Saturdays in 1992. The weekday broadcast expanded to three hours in 2000, to four hours in 2007. Today's dominance was unchallenged by the other networks until the late 1980s, when it was overtaken by ABC's Good Morning America. Today retook the Nielsen ratings lead the week of December 11, 1995, held onto that position for 852 consecutive weeks until the week of April 9, 2012, when Good Morning America topped it again. Today maintained its No. 2 status behind GMA from the summer of 2012 until it regained the lead in the aftermath of anchor Matt Lauer's departure in November 2017. In 2002, Today was ranked No. 17 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time.

The entertainment magazine Variety reported the 2016 advertising revenue during the first two hours of the show was $508.8 million. The show's first broadcast aired on January 14, 1952 as the brainchild of television executive Sylvester Weaver, vice president of NBC. Weaver was president of the company from 1953 to 1955, during which time Today's late-night companion The Tonight Show premiered. In pre-production, the show's proposed working title was Shine Revue; the show was first supervised by Jerome Alan Danzig. Today was the first program of its genre; the program blended national news headlines, interviews with newsmakers, lifestyle features, other light news and gimmicks, local news updates from the network's stations. It has spawned several other shows of a similar type, including ABC's Good Morning America, CBS' now-defunct The Early Show. In other countries, the format was copied – most notably in the United Kingdom with the BBC's Breakfast Time and TV-am's Good Morning Britain, in Canada with Canada AM on CTV.

When Today debuted, it was seen live only in the Eastern and Central time zones, broadcasting for three hours each morning but seen for only two hours in each time zone. Since 1958, Today has been tape-delayed for the five other U. S. time zones. To accommodate host Dave Garroway's declining health, the program ceased live broadcasts in the summer of 1958, opting instead to broadcast an edition taped the previous afternoon; the experiment, which drew criticism from many sides, ended when John Chancellor replaced Garroway in July 1961. Today was a two-hour program for many years, airing from 7:00 a.m. – 9:00 a.m. in all time zones except for Alaska and the U. S. Virgin Islands, until NBC expanded the program to three hours on October 2, 2000. A fourth hour was added on September 10, 2007. NBC stations in some markets, such as WYFF in Greenville, South Carolina, air the third and fourth hours of Today on tape delay. In August 2013, Today released a mobile app for tablets; the program airs live in the Eastern Time Zone and on tape delay beginning at 7:00 a.m. in each of the remaining time zones.

The remaining three feeds are updated with minor fixes and repairs, correspondents will tape updates that are edited into the delayed feeds. When breaking news stories warrant, Today will update the West Coast edition live; the live updates do not last longer than the 7:00 a.m. half-hour and once completed, will return to the taped East Coast feed. When the anchors welcome the viewers to the show, they will note the current time as being "Pacific Time" and continue to note it as such until the tape delay is started. In some instances, when an NBC News Special Report of breaking news occurs during the Today timeslot, the show's anchors will assume hosting responsibilities and the show will go live across all time zones until such time when the Special Report segment finishes. At that point, viewers outside the Eastern Time Zone will return to regularly-scheduled programming. During the first two hours of the program, local affiliates are offered a four-minute window at:26 and:56 minutes past the hour to insert a local newsbreak and local advertisements.

Certain NBC affiliates that produce an additional morning newscast for a sister station or digital subchannel may pre-tape the local inserts aired during the first one to two hours of Today to focus production responsibilities on their local broadcast. Starting in June 2014, Sirius XM Satellite Radio began simulcasting Today on a new channel called "Today Show Radio", Channel 108, with The Best of Today starting at 6 am and the Today Show's live broadcast from Studio 1A at Rockefeller Center in New York City starting at 7:00 a.m. with a tape delayed broadcast at beginning 7:00 a.m. Pacific time. On Mondays The Hoda Show with Hoda Kotb is broadcast exclusive on the Today Show Radio channel. On Tuesdays Off the Rails with Al Roker, Dylan Dreyer and Sheinelle Jones airs at 1:00 p.m.. On Wednesdays The Happy Hour with the producers of Kathie Lee and Hoda airs, on Thursdays Today Show Confidential wi

James Hay, Lord Hay

James Hay, Lord Hay and Lord Slains was a British Army officer killed during the Waterloo Campaign. James Hay was 17th Earl of Erroll and his wife Alicia Eliot. Hay, an ensign in the 1st Foot Guards, was killed at the Battle of Quatre Bras while serving as aide-de-camp to General Maitland. Had he lived, he would have succeeded his father as Earl of Erroll upon his death in 1819. In 1899 Murray's Magazine published some recollections by Georgiana, Dowager Lady De Ros about Duchess of Richmond's ball that took place on 15 June 1815, she recalled "I remember being quite provoked with poor Lord Hay, a dashing merry youth, full of military ardour, whom I knew well for his delight at the idea of going into action, of all the honours he was to gain. Circa 1890, Hay's remains were moved to the crypt under The British Waterloo Campaign Monument in The Brussels Cemetery at Evere. In the 1970 film Waterloo, Hay is portrayed by British actor Peter Davies. At the Duchess of Richmond's ball, he dances with her daughter Sarah and the two are in love.

The Duchess says to Wellington, "Don't let young Hay get killed", he is surprised to hear that they have been formally engaged. In the film, Hay serves alongside the Duchess' brother, the Duke of Gordon, chieftain of Clan Gordon. Wellington remarks to Hay that he is "a lucky fellow, to see such a sight in your first battle"; the fictional Hay's last words are "Think on England, think on England!" but these are to have been fabricated by the scriptwriters. He dies instantly, he is portrayed in Georgette Heyer's 1937 novel An Infamous Army, which deals with events of Waterloo through the eyes of fictional characters but describing real people and events. GeneralDewar, Peter Beauclerk. Dewar, Peter Beauclerk. Burke's landed gentry of Great Britain: together with members of the titled and non-titled contemporary establishment. Burke's Landed Gentry of Great Britain. 1. Burke's Peerage. ISBN 0-9711966-0-5. Georgiana, Dowager Lady De Ros. Personal Recollections of the Duke of Wellington, The Regency Library, Complimentary Issue July 2005.

Published in Murray's Magazine 1889 Part I. pp. 40,43. Siborne, William. History of the war in France and Belgium, in 1815: Containing minute details of the battles of Quatre-Bras, Ligny and Waterloo. Lea & Blanchard, 1845


Potassium-40 is a radioactive isotope of potassium which has a long half-life of 1.251×109 years. It makes up 0.012% of the total amount of potassium found in nature. Potassium-40 is a rare example of an isotope. In about 89.28% of events, it decays to calcium-40 with emission of a beta particle with a maximum energy of 1.31 MeV and an antineutrino. In about 10.72% of events, it decays to argon-40 by electron capture, with the emission of a neutrino and a 1.460 MeV gamma ray. The radioactive decay of this particular isotope explains the large abundance of argon in the Earth's atmosphere, as well as prevalence of 40Ar over other isotopes, it will decay to 40Ar by emitting a positron and a neutrino. Potassium-40 is important in potassium–argon dating. Argon is a gas. So, when a mineral forms – whether from molten rock, or from substances dissolved in water – it will be argon-free if there is some argon in the liquid. However, if the mineral contains any potassium decay of the 40K isotope present will create fresh argon-40 that will remain locked up in the mineral.

Since the rate at which this conversion occurs is known, it is possible to determine the elapsed time since the mineral formed by measuring the ratio of 40K and 40Ar atoms contained in it. The argon found in Earth's atmosphere is 99.6% 40Ar. It follows that most of the terrestrial argon derives from potassium-40 that decayed into argon-40, which escaped to the atmosphere; the radioactive decay of 40K in the Earth's mantle ranks third, after 232Th and 238U, as the source of radiogenic heat. The core likely contains radiogenic sources, although how much is uncertain, it has been proposed that significant core radioactivity may be caused by high levels of U, Th, K. Potassium-40 is the largest source of natural radioactivity in animals including humans. A 70 kg human body contains about 140 grams of potassium, hence about 0.000117 × 140 = 0.0164 grams of 40K. Background radiation Banana equivalent dose Isotopes of potassium Table of radioactive isotopes, K-40, The Lund/LBNL Nuclear Data Search Potassium-40 Section and Chemical Fact Sheets to Support Health Risk Analyses for Contaminated Areas